Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (12): 1331-1338.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017207

• Original Papers: Animal Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Freshwater fish fauna and zoogeographical divisions in the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains of eastern China

Xiaojing Song1, 2, Wenqiao Tang1, 2, *(), Ya Zhang1, 2   

  1. 1 Shanghai Universities Key Laboratory of Marine Animal Taxonomy and Evolution, Shanghai 201306
    2 National Demonstration Center for Experimental Fisheries Science Education, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
  • Received:2017-07-20 Accepted:2017-12-19 Online:2017-12-10
  • Tang Wenqiao

The watershed of the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains comprises the Poyang Lake water system of the Yangtze River basin and independent coastal rivers of eastern China, including the Qiantang River, Oujiang River, Minjiang River, and Hanjiang River. It is a key area for the conservation of biodiversity in Chinese ecosystems. In this study, fish surveys were conducted in 111 upstream sections of five river basins draining the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains and over 13,000 specimens were collected. The fish fauna of this area, on the basis of our investigations and records from historical literature, included 282 species, of which 239 were freshwater fishes, belonging to 101 genera, 23 families, and 6 orders. The orders of Cypriniformes, Perciformes, and Siluriformes supported the majority of fish composition in this area, with 181, 29, and 22 species, respectively, accounting for 75.73%, 12.13%, and 9.21% of total freshwater fish found. There were 109 fish species that were the major component of fish composition of the river plains of East Asia and 51 species of warm water fish with Southeast Asian origin, accounting for 45.61% and 21.34% of the total freshwater fishes, respectively. There were many species shared among the five river basins, and the average faunal resemblance of any two rivers was more than 50%. For the four substantive rivers in the eastern region, from north to south, the proportion of endemic fishes in the river plains of East Asia gradually decreased, and the proportion of warm water fishes of Southeast Asian origin gradually increased. Clustering analysis of fish fauna demonstrates that Poyang Lake, Qiantang River, Oujiang River, and Minjiang River are clustered into one class, while Hanjiang River forms the other class. This analysis indicates that the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains do not form a strong barrier for freshwater fishes, and that the whole district of the Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains should be a component of the Oriental Region. In view of the differences between the north and the south, this paper argues that Hanjiang River in the southeast belongs to the South China Area of the South-east Asiatic Subregion, while Poyang Lake, Qiantang River, Oujiang River, and Minjiang River belong to the East China Area.

Key words: coastal areas of southeast China, freshwater fishes, species diversity, characteristics of fish fauna, zoogeographical divisions

Fig. 1

Patterns of river basins and collection localities in Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains"

Table 1

Common species number (below diagonal) and similarity (above diagonal) of freshwater fishes among water systems in Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains"

Poyang Lake
Qiantang River
Oujiang River
Minjiang River
Hanjiang River
鄱阳湖水系 Poyang Lake - 73.40% 64.20% 70.70% 55.72%
钱塘江水系 Qiantang River 105 - 81.54% 69.77% 52.67%
瓯江水系 Oujiang River 81 86 - 67.25% 54.39%
闽江水系 Minjiang River 103 83 72 - 65.64%
韩江水系 Hanjiang River 77 60 56 76 -

Table 2

Proportions of the fishes in river plains of East Asia and warm water fishes of Southeast Asian origin in river systems (%)"

Poyang Lake
Qiantang River
Oujiang River
Minjiang River
Hanjiang River
江河平原鱼类 Fishes in river plains of East Asia 50.82 51.28 48.96 42.98 38.74
南亚暖水性鱼类 Warm water fishes of Southeast Asian origin 19.13 9.40 11.46 19.83 21.62

Fig. 2

Cluster dendrogram of pure freshwater fish fauna of water systems in Wuyi-Xianxialing Mountains. PYH, Poyang Lake; QTJ, Qiantang River; OJ, Oujiang River; MJ, Minjiang River; HJ, Hanjiang River."

[1] Chen CD (1999) Biodiversity in the Wuyi Mountains and its importance in China. Chinese Biodiversity, 7, 320-326. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈昌笃 (1999) 论武夷山在中国生物多样性保护中的地位. 生物多样性, 7, 320-326.]
[2] Chen F, Zhao XF, Zhao JY, Li M (2012) Investigation of fish resources in the Oujiang River and its protection strategy. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 21, 934-941. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈锋, 赵先富, 赵进勇, 李敏 (2012) 瓯江鱼类资源调查及保护对策. 长江流域资源与环境, 21, 934-941.]
[3] Chen JX (1987) Fishes in Qinling Mountain Area. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[陈景星 (1987) 秦岭鱼类志. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[4] Chen YY, Cao WX, Zheng CY (1986) Ichthyofauna of the Zhujiang River with a discussion on zoogeographical divisions for freshwater fishes. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 10, 228-236. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈宜瑜, 曹文宣, 郑慈英 (1986) 珠江的鱼类区系及其动物地理区划的讨论. 水生生物学报, 10, 228-236.]
[5] Cheng JL (2010) Systematic Taxonomy of Chinese Species of the Bagrid Catfish Genus Pseudobagrus Bleeker, 1859. PhD dissertation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[程建丽 (2010) 中国拟鲿属鱼类系统分类学研究. 博士学位论文, 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉.]
[6] Clarke KR, Gorley RN (2006) PRIMER v6: User Manual/Tutorial, Plymouth Routine in Multivariate Ecological Research. Primer-E Ltd., Plymouth.
[7] Ding H, Yang YF, Xu HG (2015) Species composition and community structure of the typical evergreen broad-leaved forest in the Wuyi Mountains of southeastern China. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 35, 1142-1154. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[丁晖, 杨云方, 徐海根 (2015) 武夷山典型常绿阔叶林物种组成与群落结构. 生态学报, 35, 1142-1154.]
[8] Eschmeyer WN, Fricke R, van der Laan R (2017) Catalog of Fishes: Genera, Species, References. (accessed on 2017-10-28
[9] Fu CZ, Wu JH, Chen JK, Wu QH, Lei GC (2003) Freshwater fish biodiversity in the Yangtze River basin of China: patterns, threats and conservation. Biodiversity and Conservation, 12, 1649-1685.
[10] Guo S, Wu ZQ, Hu ML, Zhou HM, Li Q (2011) Preliminary survey of fish in Yangjifeng Nature Reserve, Jiangxi Province. Journal of Hydroecology, 32, 142-144. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[郭声, 吴志强, 胡茂林, 周辉明, 李晴 (2011) 江西阳际峰自然保护区的鱼类资源. 水生态学杂志, 32, 142-144.]
[11] Guo ZZ, Liu RL (1983) A survey report on fishes in Yujiang County of Xinjiang River, Jiangxi Province. Journal of Nanchang University (Natural Science), (2), 11-21. (in Chinese)
[郭治之, 刘瑞兰 (1983) 江西余江县 (信江) 鱼类调查报告. 南昌大学学报(理科版), (2), 11-21.]
[12] Hu ML, Wu ZQ, Li Q, Huang LL (2011) Preliminary research on fish species diversity of Ganjiangyuan Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 30, 467-470. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[胡茂林, 吴志强, 李晴, 黄亮亮 (2011) 江西赣江源自然保护区鱼类物种多样性初步研究. 四川动物, 30, 467-470.]
[13] Huang LL, Wu ZQ, Li JH (2013) Fish fauna, biogeography and conservation of freshwater fish in Poyang Lake Basin, China. Environmental Biology of Fishes, 96, 1229-1243.
[14] Hughes JM, Schmidt DJ, Finn DS (2009) Genes in streams: using DNA to understand the movement of freshwater fauna and their riverine habitat. BioScience, 59, 573-583.
[15] Li JP, Zheng CY (1998) Ichthyofauna of the Hanjiang River for freshwater fishes. Journal of Jinan University (Natural Science &Medicine Edition), 19, 100-104. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[李金平, 郑慈英 (1998) 韩江淡水鱼类区系. 暨南大学学报(自然科学与医学版), 19, 100-104.]
[16] Li SZ (1981) Studies on Zoogeographical Divisions for Fresh Water Fish of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[李思忠 (1981) 中国淡水鱼类的分布区划. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[17] Lian ZS (1988) Researches on fish fauna of Minjiang River. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 23(2), 40-45. (in Chinese)
[连珍水 (1988) 闽江鱼类区系的研究. 动物学杂志, 23(2), 40-45.]
[18] Liu BP, Quan QQ (1996) Course of Historical Geology, 3rd edn. Geological Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[刘本培, 全秋琦 (1996) 地史学教程(第三版). 地质出版社, 北京.]
[19] Mao JR (1959) Surveys of fish in Hangzhou of Qiantang River. Journal of Zhejiang University (Science Edition), (2), 25-43. (in Chinese)
[毛节荣 (1959) 杭州钱塘江鱼类的调查. 浙江大学学报(理学版), (2), 25-43.]
[20] Mao JR (1991) Fauna of Zhejiang (Fresh Water Fishes). Zhejiang Science and Technology Publishing House, Hangzhou. (in Chinese)
[毛节荣 (1991) 浙江动物志(淡水鱼类). 浙江科学技术出版社, 杭州.]
[21] Mori T (1936) Studies on the Geographical Distribution of Freshwater Fishes in Eastern Asia. Toppan Printing, Tokyo.
[22] Nelson JS, Grande TC, Wilson MVH (2016) Fishes of the World, 5th edn. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York.
[23] Pan JH (1991) The Freshwater Fishes of Guangdong Province. Guangdong Science and Technology Press, Guangzhou. (in Chinese)
[潘炯华 (1991) 广东淡水鱼类志. 广东科技出版社, 广州.]
[24] Tang WQ, Chen YY, Wu HL (2001) Fish species diversity of Wuling Mountains region and its zoogeographic analyses. Journal of Shanghai Ocean University, 10, 6-15. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[唐文乔, 陈宜瑜, 伍汉霖 (2001) 武陵山区鱼类物种多样性及其动物地理学分析. 上海海洋大学学报, 10, 6-15.]
[25] Wu YA, Zhang E, Sun ZW, Ren SJ (2013) Identity of the catfish Liobagrus styani (Teleostei: Amblycipitidae) from Hu¬bei Province, China. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters, 24, 73-84.
[26] Xie ZG, Xie CX, Zhang E (2003) Morphological variations among the Chinese species of Sinibrama (Pisces: Teleostei: Cyprinidae), with comments on their species validities. Zoo¬lo¬gical Research, 24, 321-330. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[谢仲桂, 谢从新, 张鹗 (2003) 我国华鳊属鱼类形态差异及其物种有效性的研究. 动物学研究, 24, 321-330.]
[27] Yang YC, Li BY, Yin ZS, Zhang QS (1982) The formation and evolution of landforms in the Xizang Plateau. Acta Ge¬ographica Sinica, 37, 76-87. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[杨逸畴, 李炳元, 尹泽生, 张青松 (1982) 西藏高原地貌的形成和演化. 地理学报, 37, 76-87.]
[28] You LY, Yang JC (2013) The Geomorphology of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[尤联元, 杨景春 (2013) 中国地貌. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[29] Yu D, Chen M, Tang QY, Li XJ, Liu HZ (2014) Geological events and Pliocene climate fluctuations explain the phylogeographical pattern of the cold water fish Rhynchocypris oxycephalus (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in China. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14, 225.
[30] Yuan LY (2009) Monophyly, Affinity and Taxonomic Revision of the Cyprinid Genus Acrossocheilus Oshima, 1919. PhD dissertation, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[袁乐洋 (2009) 光唇鱼属单系性、亲缘关系和分类整理. 博士学位论文, 中国科学院水生生物研究所, 武汉.]
[31] Yue PQ (2000) Fauna Sinica, Osteichthyes, Cypriniformes. III. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[乐佩琦 (2000) 中国动物志, 硬骨鱼纲, 鲤形目(下卷). 科学出版社, 北京.]
[32] Zhang E, Chen YY (1997) Fish fauna in northeastern Jiangxi Province with a discussion on the zoogeographical division of East China. Acta Hydrobiologica Sinica, 21, 254-261. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[张鹗, 陈宜瑜 (1997) 赣东北地区鱼类区系特征及我国东部地区动物地理区划. 水生生物学报, 21, 254-261.]
[33] Zhang E, Liu HZ, He CC (1996) Researches on fish fauna in northeastern Jiangxi Province. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 31(6), 3-12. (in Chinese)
[张鹗, 刘焕章, 何长才 (1996) 赣东北地区鱼类区系的研究. 动物学杂志, 31(6), 3-12.]
[34] Zhang LS (2012) Ancient Geography of China—the Formation of China’s Natural Environment. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[张兰生 (2012) 中国古地理—中国自然环境的形成. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[35] Zhao YH, Zhang CG (2001) Fish fauna and zoogeographical analysis of Shi Wan Da Shan Mountains, Guangxi, China. Biodiversity Science, 9, 336-344. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[赵亚辉, 张春光 (2001) 广西十万大山地区的鱼类区系及其动物地理学分析. 生物多样性, 9, 336-344.]
[36] Zheng ML, Jia GS (1988) A study on the fauna and geographical distribution of fresh-water fishes in Zhejiang Province, China. Journal of Zhejiang Ocean University (Natural Science), 7, 27-38. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[郑米良, 郏国生 (1988) 浙江省淡水鱼类区系组成及其区划地位的研究. 浙江海洋学院学报(自然科学版), 7, 27-38.]
[37] Zhou H, Zhang ZN (2003) Rationale of the multivariate statistical software PRIMER and its application in benthic community ecology. Periodical of Ocean University of China, 33(1), 58-64. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[周红, 张志南 (2003) 大型多元统计软件PRIMER的方法原理及其在底栖群落生态学中的应用. 中国海洋大学学报(自然科学版), 33(1), 58-64.]
[38] Zhu YD (1984) The Fishes of Fujian Province (Part I). Fujian Science and Technology Press, Fuzhou. (in Chinese)
[朱元鼎 (1984) 福建鱼类志(上卷). 福建科学技术出版社, 福州.]
[39] Zhu YD (1985) The Fishes of Fujian Province (Part II). Fujian Science and Technology Press, Fuzhou. (in Chinese)
[朱元鼎 (1985) 福建鱼类志(下卷). 福建科学技术出版社, 福州.]
[1] Dan Liu,Zhongling Guo,Xiaoyang Cui,Chunnan Fan. (2020) Comparison of five associations of Taxus cuspidata and their species diversity . Biodiv Sci, 28(3): 340-349.
[2] Zhenyuan Liu,Xingliang Meng,Zhengfei Li,Junqian Zhang,Jing Xu,Senlu Yin,Zhicai Xie. (2020) Diversity assessment and protection strategies for the mollusk community in the southern Dongting Lake . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 155-165.
[3] Minxia Liu,Quandi Li,Xiaoxuan Jiang,Sujuan Xia,Xiaoning Nan,Yaya Zhang,Bowen Li. (2020) Contribution of rare species to species diversity and species abundance distribution pattern in the Gannan subalpine meadow . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 107-116.
[4] Xia Li,Wanze Zhu,Shouqin Sun,Shumiao Shu,Zheliang Sheng,Jun Zhang,Ting Liu,Zhicai Zhang. (2020) Influence of habitat on the distribution pattern and diversity of plant community in dry and warm valleys of the middle reaches of the Dadu River, China . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 117-127.
[5] DING Wei,WANG Yu-Bing,XIANG Guan-Hai,CHI Yong-Gang,LU Shun-Bao,ZHENG Shu-Xia. (2020) Effects of Caragana microphylla encroachment on community structure and ecosystem function of a typical steppe . Chin J Plant Ecol, 44(1): 33-43.
[6] WANG Yu-Bing,SUN Yi-Han,DING Wei,ZHANG En-Tao,LI Wen-Huai,CHI Yong-Gang,ZHENG Shu-Xia. (2020) Effects and pathways of long-term nitrogen addition on plant diversity and primary productivity in a typical steppe . Chin J Plant Ecol, 44(1): 22-32.
[7] Yibo Tan,Wenhui Shen,Zi Fu,Wei Zheng,Zhiyang Ou,Zhangqiang Tan,Yuhua Peng,Shilong Pang,Qinfei He,Xiaorong Huang,Feng He. (2019) Effect of environmental factors on understory species diversity in Southwest Guangxi Excentrodendron tonkinense forests . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 970-983.
[8] FANG Wen-Jing,CAI Qiong,ZHU Jiang-Ling,JI Cheng-Jun,YUE Ming,GUO Wei-Hua,ZHANG Feng,GAO Xian-Ming,TANG Zhi-Yao,FANG Jing-Yun. (2019) Distribution, community structures and species diversity of larch forests in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 742-752.
[9] TANG Li-Li,YANG Tong,LIU Hong-Yan,KANG Mu-Yi,WANG Ren-Qing,ZHANG Feng,GAO Xian-Ming,YUE Ming,ZHANG Mei,ZHENG Pu-Fan,SHI Fu-Chen. (2019) Distribution and species diversity patterns of Vitex negundo var. heterophylla shrublands in North China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(9): 825-833.
[10] Zihong Chen,Yuanbing Wang,Yongdong Dai,Kai Chen,Ling Xu,Qingcheng He. (2019) Species diversity and seasonal fluctuation of entomogenous fungi of Ascomycota in Taibaoshan Forest Park in western Yunnan . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 993-1001.
[11] Tolgor Bau, Xueshan Wang, Peng Zhang. (2019) Floristic of agarics and boletus in the Greater and Lesser Khinggan Mountains . Biodiv Sci, 27(8): 867-873.
[12] Jiao Meng, Li Jing, Zhao Huifeng, Wu Chunsheng, Zhang Aibing. (2019) Species diversity and global distribution of Limacodidae (Lepidoptera) using online databases . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 778-786.
[13] Zhang Mingming,Yang Zhaohui,Wang Cheng,Wang Jiaojiao,Hu Canshi,Lei Xiaoping,Shi Lei,Su Haijun,Li Jiaqi. (2019) Camera-trapping survey on mammals and birds in Fanjingshan National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China . Biodiv Sci, 27(7): 813-818.
[14] WANG Pan, ZHU Wan-Wan, NIU Yu-Bin, FAN Jin, YU Hai-Long, LAI Jiang-Shan, HUANG Ju-Ying. (2019) Effects of nitrogen addition on plant community composition and microbial biomass ecological stoichiometry in a desert steppe in China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(5): 427-436.
[15] ZHANG Xin-Xin, WANG Xi, HU Ying, ZHOU Wei, CHEN Xiao-Yang, HU Xin-Sheng. (2019) Advances in the study of population genetic diversity at plant species’ margins . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(5): 383-395.
Full text