Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (7): 765-773.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016204

Previous Article     Next Article

Red list assessment of lycophytes and ferns in China

Shiyong Dong1, *(), Zhengyu Zuo1, 2, Yuehong Yan3, Jianying Xiang4   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai 201602
    4 Yunnan Academy of Biodiversity, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224;
  • Received:2016-07-24 Accepted:2016-10-27 Online:2017-07-21
  • Dong Shiyong E-mail:dongshiyong@scib.ac.cn

To understand the extinction risk of lycophytes and ferns in China, we conducted an evaluation of the two groups according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (version 3.1) at the national level. During a period of 16 months, a group of three researchers evaluated each taxon by means of reading literature, checking herbarium specimens, and consulting colleagues working on lycophytes and ferns in China. A total of 30 colleagues share their knowledge, mainly regarding living status and distribution, on Chinese lycophytes and ferns. Here we present a preliminary red list of Chinese lycophytes and ferns which includes 2,244 taxa of the following categories: 43 Critically Endangered (CR, among which six have probably been already extinct) , 68 Endangered (EN), 71 Vulnerable (VU), 66 Near Threatened (NT), 1,124 Least Concern (LC), and 872 Data Deficient (DD). The taxa which have been taken into account include species, subspecies, and varieties only, with forms and hybrids excluded. Of the 182 threatened species (VU, EN, and CR), 79 are endemic (or nearly) to China. Conservation priorities are suggested for the 79 threatened and endemic species, especially the 24 critically endangered species which include Adiantum meishanianum, A. nelumboides, Angiopteris chingii, Asplenium cornutissimum, Bolbitis hainanensis, Huperzia quasipolytrichoides var. rectifolia, Isoëtes orientalis, I. taiwanensis, I. yunguiensis, Paesia taiwanensis, Parathelypteris subimmersa, Polystichum basipinnatum, P. cavernicola, P. minutissimum, P. oblanceolatum, P. speluncicola, Pronephrium longipetiolatum, Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus, Pteridrys lofouensis, Pteris angustipinna, Selliguea cruciformis, Tectaria ebenina, T. hekouensis, and Woodsia okamotoi. This red list is of a preliminary nature as a rather high proportion of taxa belong to DD (up to 872, ca. 39 % of total taxa in China). To gain a complete and precise red list, further evaluation work, especially taxonomic revisions based on field observations, is needed for the lycophytes and ferns in China. These include Angiopteris, Asplenium, Athyrium, Deparia, Dryopteris, Huperzia, Polystichum, Pteris, Selaginella, Polypodiaceae, and Thelypteridaceae which are still relatively poorly understood in terms of taxonomy and conservation.

Key words: biodiversity, conservation, lycophytes, ferns, IUCN Red List categories, IUCN Red List criteria, threatened species

Fig. 1

Red List of Chinese lycophytes and ferns: the composition (categories and number of taxa in each category) and their proportions"

Table 1

Six fern species evaluated to be probably extinct in China"

种 Species 分布和采集信息 Distribution and collection information
海南实蕨
Bolbitis hainanensis
中国特产(海南和云南), 海南仅有1份1933年的凭证标本, 具体采集地不详; 云南仅有1956年采自思茅的3号标本, 之后再未见有采集记录。Endemic to China (in Hainan and Yunnan). There is only one collection from Hainan in 1933 and three collections from Yunnan in 1956. It has not been collected since 1956.
针叶蕨
Monogramma trichoidea
分布于中国(海南和台湾)及亚洲热带地区, 附生于热带雨林林下石上。台湾只有1923年的采集凭证; 海南仅有1935年的1份采集记录, 最近数十年来, 海南热带低地森林开发严重, 估计该种在海南已经消失。Distributed in Hainan and Taiwan of China and other tropical regions of Asia, lithophytic in rain forest. There is only one voucher from Taiwan in 1923 and one from Hainan in 1935, respectively. It is likely extinct in Hainan due to the heavy deforestation in past several decades.
尾羽假毛蕨
Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus
海南特有, 但迄今只有1份1878年的模式标本。Endemic to Hainan. It is represented only by its type specimen collected in 1878.
罗浮牙蕨
Pteridrys lofouensis
中国特产(贵州和云南), 至今只有3份凭证标本, 其中1份为模式标本, 1910年以前采自贵州罗甸; 另2份标本分别于1954年采自云南屏边和1985年采自云南西畴。我们推测该种已经绝灭, 但没有针对该种开展过详细的调查, 尚不十分肯定。Endemic to China (in Guizhou and Yunnan), only three collections, with one (the type) from Luodian, Guizhou collected before 1910 and two from Yunnan (Pingbian in 1954 and Xichou in 1985). This species is likely extinct and we are not sure because of no special data available.
十字假瘤蕨
Selliguea cruciformis
分布于中国(广东)、越南北部和泰国北部。中国范围内, 历史上仅有1份1924年的模式标本, 采自广东北部龙头山, 此后再没有该种在中国的记录。Distributed in China (in Guangdong), northern Vietnam and northern Thailand. There is only one record from China, i.e., the type specimen from Longtoushan, northern Guangdong in 1924. Since then there is no any records of this species in China.
多变叉蕨
Tectaria variabilis
分布于中国(海南)和越南。中国的采集记录只有1935年的1份凭证标本, 此后再没有该种的采集记录。Distributed in China (in Hainan) and Vietnam. There is only one collection known in China which was gathered in 1935.

Table 2

A list of threatened and meanwhile endemic or nearly endemic lycophytes and ferns in China. CR, Critically Endangered; EN, Endangered; VU, Vulnerable. The asterisk (*) indicates species with distribution also in northern Vietnam."

分类群 Taxon 等级
Category
分类群 Taxon 等级
Category
石松类 Lycophytes
皱边石杉 Huperzia crispata VU 独山双盖蕨 Diplazium dushanense VU
直叶金发石杉 Huperzia quasipolytrichoides var. rectifolia CR 马鞍山双盖蕨 Diplazium maonense VU
东方水韭 Isoëtes orientalis CR 深裂双盖蕨 Diplazium metcalfii VU
中华水韭 Isoëtes sinensis EN 四棱双盖蕨 Diplazium quadrangulatum VU
台湾水韭 Isoëtes taiwanensis CR 网脉双盖蕨 Diplazium stenochlamys* VU
云贵水韭 Isoëtes yunguiensis CR 大平鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris bodinieri* EN
棣氏卷柏 Selaginella devolii EN 两广鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris liangkwangensis* EN
琉球卷柏 Selaginella lutchuensis EN 黄山鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris whangshangensis EN
蕨类 ferns 琼崖舌蕨 Elaphoglossum luzonicum var. mcclurei VU
台湾铁线蕨 Adiantum formosanum VU 心叶薄唇蕨 Leptochilus cantoniensis* VU
仙霞铁线蕨 Adiantum juxtapositum VU 碎叶鳞始蕨 Lindsaea chingii* EN
梅山铁线蕨 Adiantum meishanianum CR 中华藤蕨 Lomariopsis chinensis VU
荷叶铁线蕨 Adiantum nelumboides CR 台湾曲轴蕨 Paesia taiwanensis CR
台湾高山铁线蕨 Adiantum roborowskii var. taiwanianum VU 海南金星蕨 Parathelypteris subimmersa CR
黑柄粉背蕨 Aleuritopteris ebenipes VU 广东马尾杉 Phlegmariurus guangdongensis VU
中国蕨 Aleuritopteris grevilleoides VU 台湾马尾杉 Phlegmariurus taiwanensis VU
毛叶粉背蕨 Aleuritopteris squamosa EN 节毛耳蕨 Polystichum articulatipilosum EN
滇南桫椤 Alsophila austroyunnanensis VU 基羽鞭叶耳蕨 Polystichum basipinnatum CR
二回莲座蕨 Angiopteris bipinnata EN 洞生耳蕨 Polystichum cavernicola CR
秦氏莲座蕨 Angiopteris chingii CR 卵状边叶耳蕨 Polystichum conjunctum VU
相马氏莲座蕨 Angiopteris somae EN 广东耳蕨 Polystichum kwangtungense VU
四回毛枝蕨 Arachniodes sinomiqueliana EN 微小耳蕨 Polystichum minutissimum CR
壮乡铁角蕨 Asplenium cornutissimum CR 倒披针耳蕨 Polystichum oblanceolatum CR
黑边铁角蕨 Asplenium speluncae EN 岩穴耳蕨 Polystichum speluncicola CR
长叶蹄盖蕨 Athyrium elongatum VU 天坑耳蕨 Polystichum tiankengicola EN
海南蹄盖蕨 Athyrium hainanense EN 长柄新月蕨 Pronephrium longipetiolatum CR
小蹄盖蕨 Athyrium minimum EN 尾羽假毛蕨 Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus CR
启无蹄盖蕨 Athyrium wangii VU 罗浮牙蕨 Pteridrys lofouensis CR
海南实蕨 Bolbitis hainanensis CR 细叶凤尾蕨 Pteris angustipinna CR
高平蕨 Caobangia squamata* VU 十字假瘤蕨 Selliguea cruciformis* CR
边果蕨 Craspedosorus sinensis EN 大围山假瘤蕨 Selliguea daweishanensis VU
滇桂肋毛蕨 Ctenitis dianguiensis EN 圆顶假瘤蕨 Selliguea obtusa VU
焕镛钩毛蕨 Cyclogramma chunii EN 屏边溪边蕨 Stegnogramma dictyoclinoides* EN
秦氏贯众 Cyrtomium chingianum EN 天长罗曼蕨 Struthiopteris eburnea var. obtusa VU
惠水贯众 Cyrtomium grossum EN 黑柄叉蕨 Tectaria ebenina* CR
邢氏贯众 Cyrtomium shingianum EN 粗齿叉蕨 Tectaria grossedentata EN
新宁贯众 Cyrtomium sinningense EN 河口叉蕨 Tectaria hekouensis CR
台湾贯众 Cyrtomium taiwanianum EN 五裂叶叉蕨 Tectaria quinquefida* EN
光叶蕨 Cystopteris chinensis EN 海南符藤蕨 Teratophyllum hainanense* EN
海南对囊蕨 Deparia hainanensis EN 冈本氏岩蕨 Woodsia okamotoi CR
1 Chen JM, Liu X, Wang QF (2005) Genetic diversity in Isoëtes yunguiensis, a rare and endangered endemic fern in China. Journal of Wuhan University (Natural Science Edition), 51, 767-770. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈进明, 刘星, 王青锋 (2005) 中国珍稀特有濒危蕨类植物——云贵水韭的遗传多样性. 武汉大学学报 (理学版), 51, 767-770.]
2 Chinnock RJ (1998) Schizaeaceae. In: Flora of Australia, Vol. 48, Ferns, Gymnosperms and Allied Groups (ed. McCarthy PM), pp. 177-183. ABRS/CSIRO Australia, Melbourne.
3 Compilation Group of China’s Biodiversity: A Country Study(1998) China’s Biodiversity: A Country Study. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[《中国生物多样性国情研究报告》编写组(1998) 中国生物多样性国情研究报告. 中国环境科学出版社, 北京.]
4 Dong SY (2004) Classification, Phytogeography and Conservation of the Pteridophytes from Hainan Island. PhD dissertation, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[董仕勇 (2004) 海南岛蕨类植物的分类、区系地理与保育. 博士学位论文, 中国科学院植物研究所, 北京.]
5 Dong SY (2013) A revised checklist and assessment of pteridophytes, based on IUCN Red List Criteria. In: Biodiversity and Conservation of Hainan Yinggeling Nature Reserve (eds Jiang HS, Chan BPL, Zhou YD, Wang CD, Fang L, Lo YFP), pp. 51-67. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[董仕勇 (2013) 蕨类植物名录更新与濒危状况评估. 见: 海南鹦哥岭自然保护区生物多样性及其保育(江海声, 陈辈乐, 周亚东, 王春东, 方林, 罗益奎等编著), 51-67页. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
6 Dong SY, Chen ZC, Zhang XC (2003) Biodiversity and conservation of pteridophytes from Diaoluo Mountain, Hainan Island. Biodiversity Science, 11, 422-431. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[董仕勇, 陈珍传, 张宪春 (2003) 海南岛吊罗山蕨类植物的多样性及其保育. 生物多样性, 11, 422-431.]
7 Ebehara A, Fraser-Jenkins C, Parris BS, Zhang XC, Yang YH, Chiou WL, Chang HM, Lindsay S, Middleton D, Kato M, Praptosuwiryo TN, Amoroso VB, Barcelona JF, Ranil RHG, Park CH, Murakami N, Hoya A (2012) Rare and threatened pteridophytes of Asia 1. An enumeration of narrowly distributed taxa. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, Tokyo. Ser. B, Botany, 38, 93-119.
8 Fernando ES, Co LL, Lagunsad DA, Gruezo WSM, Barcelona JF, Madulid DA, Lapiz AB, Texon GI, Manila AC, Zamora PM (2008) Threatened plants of the Philippines: a preliminary assessment. The Asian International Journal of Life Sciences (Suppl. 3), 1-52.
9 Fu LK, Jin JM (1992) Chinese Plant Red Data Book (Vol. 1): Rare and Endangered Plants. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[傅立国, 金鉴明 (1992) 中国植物红皮书: 稀有濒危植物 (第一册). 科学出版社, 北京.]
10 IUCN (1993) Draft IUCN Red List Categories. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.
11 IUCN (2001) IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
12 IUCN (2003) Guidelines for Application of IUCN Criteria at Regional Levels, Version 3.0. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
13 IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee (2010) Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, Version 4.0.
14 Japanese Ministry of Environment (2007) Red List of Japan, Plant I (Vascular plants).
15 Johns RJ, Edwards PJ, Utteridge TMA, Hopkins HCF (2006) A Guide to the Alpine and Subalpine Flora of Mount Jaya. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, London.
16 Kramer KU, Green PS (1990) The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, Vol. 1. Springer-Verlag, Berlin.
17 Lindsay S, Middleton D (2012 onwards) Ferns of Thailand, Laos and Cambodia.
18 Moran RC (2008) Diversity, biogeography, and floristics. In: Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes (eds Ranker TA, Haufler CH), pp. 367-394. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
19 Pang XA, Liu X, Liu H, Wu C, Wang JY, Yang SX, Wang QF (2003) The geographic distribution and habitat of the Isoëtes plants in China. Biodiversity Science, 11, 288-294. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[庞新安, 刘星, 刘虹, 吴翠, 王晶苑, 杨书香, 王青锋 (2003) 中国三种水韭属植物的地理分布与生境特征. 生物多样性, 11, 288-294.]
20 Parris BS, Kiew R, Chung RCK, Saw LG, Soepadmo E (2010) Flora of Peninsular Malaysia. Series 1: Ferns and Lycophytes, Volume 1. Forest Research Institute Malaysia, Kepong, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
21 Pryer KM, Schneider H, Smith AR, Cranfill R, Wolf PG, Hunt JS, Sipes SD (2001) Horsetails and ferns are a monophyletic group and the closest living relatives to seed plants. Nature, 409, 618-622.
22 Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Wolf PG (2006) A classification for extant ferns. Taxon, 55, 705-731.
23 Song ZS, Xu RZ, Zhang QH (1989) Rare, Endangered, and Protected Plants in China. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[宋朝枢, 徐荣章, 张清华 (1989) 中国珍稀濒危保护植物. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
24 Tryon RM, Tryon AF (1982) Ferns and Allied Plants with Special Reference to Tropical America. Springer-Verlag, New York.
25 Wang JC, Chiou WL, Chang HM (2012) A Preliminary Red List of Taiwanese Vascular Plants. Endemic Species Research Institute & Taiwan Society of Plant Systematics, Nantou, Taiwan.
26 Wu SH, Ching RC (1991) Fern Families and Genera of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[吴兆洪, 秦仁昌 (1991) 中国蕨类植物科属志. 科学出版社, 北京.]
27 Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (2013) Flora of China, Vol. 2-3. Science Press, Beijing; Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
28 Yan YH, Zhang XC, Ma KP (2013) Pteridophytes in China: Diversity and Distribution. Science Press, Beijing.
[严岳鸿, 张宪春, 马克平 (2013) 中国蕨类植物多样性与地理分布. 科学出版社, 北京.]
29 Yan YH, Zhang XC, Zhou XL, Sun JQ (2016) Species Catalogue of China, Vol. 1. Plant: Pteridophytes. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[严岳鸿, 张宪春, 周喜乐, 孙久琼 (2016) 中国生物物种名录 (第一卷) 植物蕨类植物. 科学出版社, 北京.]
30 Yu LF, Gao J, He R, Du JJ, You JY, Deng DZ (2015) Discussion on investigations of the present status of Cystoathyrium chinensis resources in Tianquan and protection measures. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 36(3), 120-125. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[余凌帆, 高健, 何让, 杜俊杰, 尤继勇, 邓东周 (2015) 天全县光叶蕨资源现状调查与保护对策研讨. 四川林业科技, 36(3), 120-125.]
31 Yu YF (1999) A milestone of wild plants protection in China —The Catalogue of National Key Protected Wild Plants (Part I). Plants, (5), 3-11. (in Chinese)
[于永福 (1999) 中国野生植物保护工作的里程碑——《国家重点保护野生植物名录(第一批)》出台. 植物杂志, (5), 3-11.]
32 Zhang XC (2012) Lycophytes and Ferns of China. Peking University Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[张宪春 (2012) 中国石松类和蕨类植物. 北京大学出版社, 北京.]
33 Zhang LB, Taylor WC (2013) Isoëtaceae. In: Flora of China, Vol. 2-3
(eds Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY), pp. 35-36. Science Press, Beijing; Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
34 Zhang XC (2013) Ferns. In: Rare and Endangered Plants in China (ed. Yin H), pp. 6-41. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[张宪春 (2013) 蕨类植物. 见: 中国珍稀濒危植物图鉴(印红主编), 6-41页. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
35 Zhang XC, Mickel JT (2013) Schizaeaceae. In: Flora of China, Vol. 2-3
(eds Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY), p. 122. Science Press, Beijing; Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
[1] Junhua Zhu Zhou Wu Bingbin Feng Shuaishuai Deng Wenquan Zhen Yongyan Liao Xiaoyong Xie Kit Yue Kwan. (2020) Global conservation of Tachypleus tridentatus: Present status and recommendations . Biodiv Sci, 28(5): 0-0.
[2] Lintao Huang Hui Huang Lei Jiang. (2020) A revised taxonomy for Chinese hermatypic corals . Biodiv Sci, 28(4): 515-523.
[3] Yuanyuan Li,Chaonan Liu,Rong Wang,Shuixing Luo,Shouqian Nong,Jingwen Wang,Xiaoyong Chen. (2020) Applications of molecular markers in conserving endangered species . Biodiv Sci, 28(3): 367-375.
[4] Jinyuan Su,Yu Yan,Chong Li,Dan Li,Fang K. Du. (2020) Informing conservation strategies with genetic diversity in Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations: A review on gymnosperms . Biodiv Sci, 28(3): 376-384.
[5] Xiongwei Yang,Ankang Wu,Qixian Zou,Guangrong Li,Mingming Zhang,Canshi Hu,Haijun Su. (2020) Field monitoring of mammals and birds using infrared cameras in Mayanghe National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 219-225.
[6] Haiou Liu,Fengchun Zhang,Fuwei Zhao,Leshan Du,Dayuan Xue. (2020) Biodiversity sensitive issues from changes in the strategic objectives of the financial mechanism for the Convention on Biological Diversity . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 244-252.
[7] Kai Wang,Jinlong Ren,Hongman Chen,Zhitong Lyu,Xianguang Guo,Ke Jiang,Jinmin Chen,Jiatang Li,Peng Guo,Yingyong Wang,Jing Che. (2020) The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 189-218.
[8] Xiulian Chi, Ting Guo, Qinggang Wang, Zhixian Jing, Xiaobo Zhang, Xiaolin Li, Kai Sun, Tielin Wang, Guang Yang. (2020) Evaluation of in situ conservation effectiveness on medicinal vascular plants in national nature reserves in central China . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 135-143.
[9] Yisheng Ma,Qingqing Ma,Nianjun He,Dapeng Zhu,Kaihui Zhao,Hongcai Liu,Shuai Li,Liang Sun,Liubin Tang. (2020) Camera-trapping survey of mammals and birds in the Foping National Nature Reserve, China . Biodiv Sci, 28(2): 226-230.
[10] Yi Li,Dongmei Liu,Ke Wang,Haijun Wu,Lei Cai,Lei Cai,Junsheng Li,Yijian Yao. (2020) Red list assessment of macrofungi in China: Challenges and measures . Biodiv Sci, 28(1): 66-73.
[11] Yi Li,Zhiyao Tang,Yujing Yan,Ke Wang,Lei Cai,Jinsheng He,Song Gu,Yijian Yao. (2020) Incorporating species distribution model into the red list assessment and conservation of macrofungi: A case study with Ophiocordyceps sinensis . Biodiv Sci, 28(1): 99-106.
[12] Tiezheng Wei,Ke Wang,Xiaodan Yu,Yi Li,Haijun Wu,Hongmei Wu,Yonghui Wang,Xiaodan Wei,Binbin Li,Lan Jiang,Yijian Yao. (2020) Assessment of the threatened status of macro-basidiomycetes in China . Biodiv Sci, 28(1): 41-53.
[13] Wenying Zhuang,Yi Li,Huandi Zheng,Zhaoqing Zeng,Xincun Wang. (2020) Threat status of non-lichenized macro-ascomycetes in China and its threatening factors . Biodiv Sci, 28(1): 26-40.
[14] WANG Yu-Bing,SUN Yi-Han,DING Wei,ZHANG En-Tao,LI Wen-Huai,CHI Yong-Gang,ZHENG Shu-Xia. (2020) Effects and pathways of long-term nitrogen addition on plant diversity and primary productivity in a typical steppe . Chin J Plant Ecol, 44(1): 22-32.
[15] Shun Li,Liang Zou,Yinan Gong,Haitao Yang,Tianming Wang,Limin Feng,Jianping Ge. (2019) Advances in LiDAR technology in the field of animal ecology . Biodiv Sci, 27(9): 1021-1031.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed