Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 863-874.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016114

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Taxonomic and phylogenetic α and β diversities of major subtropical forest community types in Zhejiang Province

Yuexia Wang1, Yi Jin1, Chuping Wu1, 2, Dongming Wong3, Lixing Ye4, Deliang Chen5, Jianping Yu6, Jinliang Liu1, Lei Zhong1, Mingjian Yu1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058
    2 Zhejiang Forestry Academy, Hangzhou 310023
    3 Administration Bureau of Zhejiang Qingliangfeng National Nature Reserve, Lin’an, Zhejiang 311300
    4 Management Office of Fengyangshan, Fengyangshan-Baishanzu National Nature Reserve, Longquan, Zhejiang 323800
    5 Management Office of Baishanzu, Fengyangshan-Baishanzu National Nature Reserve, Qingyuan, Zhejiang 323800
    6 Administration Bureau of Zhejiang Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, Kaihua, Zhejiang 324300
  • Received:2016-04-29 Accepted:2016-08-10 Online:2016-09-02
  • Yu Mingjian E-mail:fishmj@zju.edu.cn

Knowledge of taxonomic and phylogenetic α and β diversities of different forest types is critical to improving our understanding of forests and their structure, which can guide forest management and biodiversity conservation. In this study, we investigated the taxonomic and phylogenetic α (Shannon-Wiener index and PSV (phylogenetic species variability) diversity, respectively) and β (Chao’s index and PCDp (phylogenetic community dissimilarity among nonshared species) diversity, respectively) diversities of four main forest types, including evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF), evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLF), deciduous broad-leaved forest (DBLF), and coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (CBLF) in Zhejiang Province. α diversity represents biodiversity within a single forest plot; β diversity is divided into two levels. One is the β diversity between forest plots within a single forest type (intra-forest type β diversity), and the other the β diversity between forest plots from different forest types (inter-forest type β diversity). We found that the taxonomic and phylogenetic α diversities differed among forest types. However, when the geographical and topographical variables were taken into account, these differences largely disappeared. We also found the intra- and inter-forest type β diversities greatly differed, and the overall intra-forest type β diversity was lower than inter-forest type β diversity, regardless of whether geographical and topographical variables were controlled. These results suggest the controlling factors of taxonomic and phylogenetic α and β diversities differ in the studied subtropical forest types. Geographical and topographical variables may play critical roles in influencing forest taxonomic and phylogenetic α diversities, whereas forest type is largely responsible for forest taxonomic and phylogenetic β diversities.

Key words: α diversity, β diversity, topography, longitude, latitude, nature reserve

Fig. 1

Geographic locations of the studied reserves. WYL, Wuyanling (119.641º-119.691º E, 27.667º-27.728º N); BSZ, Baishanzu (119.129º-119.322º E, 27.629º-27.842º N); FYS, Fengyangshan (119.100º-119.250º E, 27.767º-27.967 N); JLS, Jiulongshan (118.817º-118.917º E, 28.317º-28.400º N); GTS, Gutianshan (118.064º-118.187º E, 29.172º-29.295º N); TMS, Tianmushan (119.403º-119.453º E, 30.308º-30.360º N); QLF, Qingliangfeng (118.867º-119.183º E, 30.083º-30.283º N); LWS, Longwangshan (119.404º-119.438º E, 30.375º-30.417º N)."

Table 1

Summary of the variables used in this study"

变量类型
Variable type
描述
Description
分类变量
Categorical variable
类别
Category
森林类型
Forest type
常绿阔叶林 Evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF)
常绿落叶阔叶混交林 Evergreen deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLF)
落叶阔叶林 Deciduous broad-leaved forest (DBLF)
针阔叶混交林 Coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest (CBLF)
连续变量
Continuous variable (unit)
范围
Range
平均值
Mean
经度 Longitude (°) 118.06-119.67 119.63
纬度 Latitude (°) 27.54-30.40 28.95
海拔 Elevation (m) 363-1,54 974.08
坡度 Slope (°) 10.2-45 30.36
坡向 Aspect (°) 5.0-358.6 172.5

Fig. 2

Comparisons of taxonomic (A) and phylogenetic (B) α diversities among forest types. Different lower case letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05). PSV, Phylogenetic species variability. See Table 1 for the key to CBLF, DBLF, EBLF and EDBLF."

Table 2

Linear mixed effects model results for the differences in taxonomic and phylogenetic α diversities among forest types"

Shannon-Wiener指数
Shannon-Wiener index
PSV指数 PSV index
常绿阔叶林vs.常绿落叶阔叶混交林 EBLF vs. EDBLF -0.128 -0.019
常绿阔叶林vs.落叶阔叶林 EBLF vs. DBLF -0.042 -0.042*
常绿阔叶林vs.针阔叶混交林 EBLF vs. CBLF 0 -0.031
常绿落叶阔叶林vs.落叶阔叶林 EDBLF vs. DBLF -0.111 0.006
常绿落叶阔叶混交林vs.针阔叶混交林 EDBLF vs. CBLF 0.278 0.027
落叶阔叶林vs.针阔叶混交林 DBLF vs. CBLF 0.328 0.019

Fig. 3

Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) result of taxonomic (A) and phylogenetic (B) β diversities of the studied forests. ○, Evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBLF); △, Evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest (EDBLF); ×, Coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest (CBLF); +, Deciduous broad-leaved forest (DBLF)."

Fig. 4

Taxonomic (A) and phylogenetic (B) β diversities within forest types. Different lower case letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05). PCDp, Phylogenetic community dissimilarity among nonshared species. See Table 1 for the key to CBLF, DBLF, EBLF and EDBLF."

Fig. 5

Comparisons of the taxonomic (A) and phylogenetic (B) β diversities between forest types. Different lower case letter indicate significant difference (P < 0.05). “vs.” indicates the β diversity between forest types on its both sides. See Table 1 for the key to CBLF, DBLF, EBLF and EDBLF. PCDp, Phylogenetic community dissimilarity among nonshared species."

Fig. 6

Comparisons of the taxonomic (A) and phylogenetic (B) β diversities within and between forest types. When the spatial and environmental variables effects were controlled in linear mixed effects model, differences between the two paired groups were still significant (P < 0.05 in both cases). Boxes with different lower case letter indicate significant difference (P < 0.05). “Intra” represents β diversity between communities from the same forest type, “Inter” represents β diversity between communities from different forest types. PCDp, Phylogenetic community dissimilarity among nonshared species."

Table 3

Mixed effects model results for the differences in taxonomic and phylogenetic β diversities within forest types"

Chao’s指数 Chao’s index PCDp指数 PCDp index
常绿阔叶林vs.常绿落叶阔叶混交林 EBLF vs. EDBLF -0.073 0.006
常绿阔叶林vs.落叶阔叶林 EBLF vs. DBLF -0.256*** -0.018*
常绿阔叶林vs.针阔叶混交林 EBLF vs. CBLF -0.038 -0.129*
常绿落叶阔叶混交林vs.落叶阔叶林 EDBLF vs. DBLF -0.13* -0.067**
常绿落叶阔叶混交林vs.针阔叶混交林 EDBLF vs. CBLF 0.244** -0.044
落叶阔叶林vs.针阔叶混交林 DBLF vs. CBLF 0.315*** 0.02

Table 4

Linear mixed effects model results for the differences in taxonomic and phylogenetic β diversities between forest types"

Chao’s指数 Chao’s index PCDp指数 PCDp index
常绿阔叶林/常绿落叶阔叶混交林vs.常绿阔叶林/落叶阔叶林
EBLF / EDBLF vs. EBLF / DBLF
-0.135*** -0.09***
常绿阔叶林/常绿落叶阔叶混交林vs.常绿阔叶林/针阔叶混交林
EBLF / EDBLF vs. EBLF / CBLF
0.06 0.063**
常绿阔叶林/常绿落叶阔叶混交林vs.常绿落叶阔叶混交林/落叶阔叶林
EBLF / EDBLF vs. EDBLF / DBLF
0.146*** -0.021
常绿阔叶林/常绿落叶阔叶混交林vs.常绿落叶阔叶混交林/针阔叶混交林
EBLF / EDBLF vs. EDBLF / CBLF
-0.052 0.033
常绿阔叶林/常绿落叶阔叶混交林vs.落叶阔叶林/针阔叶混交林
EBLF / EDBLF vs. DBLF / CBLF
-0.154*** -0.012
常绿阔叶林/落叶阔叶林vs.常绿阔叶林/针阔叶混交林
EBLF / DBLF vs. EBLF / CBLF
0.052* 0.115***
常绿阔叶林/落叶阔叶林vs.常绿落叶阔叶混交林/落叶阔叶林
EBLF / DBLF vs. EDBLF / DBLF
-0.021* 0.059***
常绿阔叶林/落叶阔叶林vs.常绿落叶阔叶混交林/针阔叶混交林
EBLF / DBLF vs. EDBLF / CBLF
0.055* 0.114***
常绿阔叶林/落叶阔叶林vs.落叶阔叶林/针阔叶混交林
EBLF / DBLF vs. DBLF / CBLF
0.019 0.01
常绿阔叶林/针阔叶混交林vs.常绿落叶阔叶混交林/落叶阔叶林
EBLF / CBLF vs. EDBLF / DBLF
-0.141*** -0.056*
常绿阔叶林/针阔叶混交林vs.常绿落叶阔叶混交林/针阔叶混交林
EBLF / CBLF vs. EDBLF / CBLF
-0.063** -0.01
常绿阔叶林/针阔叶混交林vs.落叶阔叶林/针阔叶混交林
EBLF / CBLF vs. DBLF / CBLF
-0.192*** -0.132***
常绿落叶阔叶混交林/落叶阔叶林vs.常绿落叶阔叶混交林/针阔叶混交林
EDBLF / DBLF vs. EDBLF / CBLF
0.064* 0.067**
常绿落叶阔叶混交林/落叶阔叶林vs.落叶阔叶林/针阔叶混交林
EDBLF / DBLF vs. DBLF / CBLF
0.064* -0.005
常绿落叶阔叶混交林/针阔叶混交林vs.落叶阔叶林/针阔叶混交林
EDBLF / CBLF vs. DBLF / CBLF
-0.079** -0.112***
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