Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 440-452.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015361

Special Issue: Plant Diversity in the Dry Valleys of Southwest China

• Original Papers • Previous Article     Next Article

A comparison of the altitudinal patterns in plant species diversity within the dry valleys of the Three Parallel Rivers region, northwestern Yunnan

Yang Yang1, Jie Han1, Ye Liu3, Ciren Zhongyong2, Songlin Shi4, Cili Sina2, Yue Xu1, Lingxiao Ying1, Wanjun Zhang1, Zehao Shen1, *()   

  1. 1 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871.
    2 Yunnan Baima Snow Mountain National Nature Reserve, Deqin, Yunnan 674500.
    3 School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055.
    4 State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085
  • Received:2015-12-18 Accepted:2016-04-11 Online:2016-05-11
  • Shen Zehao

In the typical dry valleys of the Three Parallel Rivers region, northwest Yunnan Province, we investigated vegetation using six sampling transects, each comprised of ten standard plots, along altitudinal gradients on the eastern and the western aspects of Nu River, Langcang River, and Jinsha River. With these data, we compared the elevation-related distribution of plant species richness and species turnover rates along the six transects, and explained the patterns using geography and vegetation variables. The dry-warm vegetation zone was dominated by shrubs and herbs and located below the altitude of 3,000 m a.s.l. At higher elevations, shrub and herbs were replaced with a forest zone. The spatial distribution of plant species richness increased with elevation and latitude, especially for herb and shrub species, and was also related to river, vegetation zones, and longitude. The species richness of shrubs also increased significantly across the region, from west to east. Species richness of herbs and shrubs in the Nu River were higher than those in the Lancang River and the Jinsha River, whereas the difference of species richness among three rivers was not significant for trees. Herb species richness in the forest zone was less than that in the shrub and herb zones. Species turnover rate of different zones presented inconsistent altitudinal gradient patterns, but all peak values appeared in the ecotones between shrub communities, in the lower altitudes of the transect, and forest communities, in the higher altitudes. The forest-shrub ecotone is located at an altitude range of 1,900-2,100 m in the Nu River valley, at an altitude range of 2,300-2,400 m in the Lancang River valley and at an altitude range of 2,700-2,900 m in the Jinsha River valley. The mean species turnover rates between shrub & herb section and forest section within each transect were less than the mean turnover rates of the same vegetation section between different transects within the same basin, and also less than the mean turnover rates for same vegetation section in all six transects. Spatial isolation could explain 34.2% of the variation in species turnover rate among the 12 vegetation sections of the six altitudinal transects, while vegetation differences explained less than 0.5% of the variation. These results show the primary role of environment difference in determining the species richness between vegetation types, whereas geographical isolation between the rivers as a dominant factor in the assembly (e.g. species composition) of plant communities.

Key words: Three Parallel Rivers, dry valleys, species richness, altitudinal patterns, community structure

Fig. 1

The geomorphology, rivers and the locations of altitudinal transects of vegetation survey in the study area. N1, Pianma; N2, Gongshan; L1, Lanping; L2, Weixi; L3, Deqin; J1, Benzilan."

Table 1

The features of six transects of vegetation survey in the Three Parallel River Region"

海拔范围 Elevation range (m) 样方数
No. of plots
灌丛 Shrubs 森林 Forest
怒江 Nu River N1 片马 Pianma 西坡 West 900-2,100 2,200-3,100 39
N2 贡山 Gongshan 西坡 West 1,100-1,900 2,000-2,900 27
澜沧江 Lancang River L1 兰坪 Lanping 东坡 East 1,700-2,400 2,500-3,100 32
L2 维西 Weixi 东坡 East 2,000-2,300 2,400-2,800 28
L3 德钦 Deqin 东坡 East 2,000-2,600 2,700-3,200 34
金沙江 Jinsha River J1 奔子栏 Benzilan 西坡 West 2,000-2,700 2,800-3,200 32

Fig. 2

Elevational gradients of species richness of all plants and different growth-forms for the six vegetation transects in the three watersheds. N1, Nu River Pianma; N2, Nu River Gongshan; L1, Lancang River Lanping; L2, Lancang River Weixi; L3, Lancang River Deqin; J1, Jinsha River Benzilan."

Table 2

The coefficients and corresponding statistic significance of the generalized linear models for species richness patterns of the plant communities transects. ? refers to categorical variable, the corresponding coefficient equals to the intercept difference between the referring level and the default level, which is the Jinsha River when considering the variable “river”, and the Shrub & Herb section when considering the variable “vegetation type”."

Environmental factors
Herb species
Shrub species
Tree species
Total species
纬度 Latitude 0.233*** 0.332*** 0.404*** 0.286***
经度 Longitude -0.561 1.417** 0.775 0.227
海拔 Elevation 3.11E-4*** 4.01E-4** 4.54E-4 3.71E-4***
坡向 余弦 Aspect cos -0.124*** 0.033 0.021 -0.078**
坡向 正弦 Aspect sin -0.019 0.204*** 0.562*** 0.084**
坡度 Slope -2.851E-3# 4.501E-3# -4.989E-5 -0.550E-3
澜沧江 Lancang River? 0.308 -0.685** -2.046*** -0.201
怒江 Nu River? 1.783*** 1.190*** 0.622 1.554***
森林段 Forest section? -0.221* 0.061 1.074*** -0.062
Adj.-R2 0.671 0.341 0.407 0.713

Fig. 3

The species turnover rate (Simpson index) of plant community along the elevational transects of vegetation"

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