Biodiversity Science ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (3): 383-397.doi: 10.17520/biods.2014252

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Cryptic biodiversity of coccoid green algae and progress in the phylogenic studies

Huiyin Song1, 2, Qi Zhang1, Yuxin Hu1, 2, Guoxiang Liu1, *, Zhengyu Hu1   

  1. 1 Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2014-12-03 Accepted:2015-03-19 Online:2015-06-12
  • Liu Guoxiang

Coccoid green algae primarily refers to algae that are solitary living organisms spherical or ellipsoid in shape. It is widely distributed around the world living in freshwater, seawater and subaerial habitats. The similarity in shape of these organisms hides a huge cryptic biodiversity. Coccoid green algae phylogeny belongs primarily to four orders and some incertae sedis taxa of two classes. This paper reports the changes in taxonomic study methods of coccoid green algae and the resulting cryptic biodiversity that has been discovered. A total of 15 new genera (now totaling 40 genera for coccoid green algae) and 12 new combinations were discovered from collected specimens. This paper focuses on the discovery and renaming of coccoid green algae in Trebouxiophyceae and Chlorophyceae after 1998. We present the diagnostic features, phylogenic changes and reasons for the discoveries and remaining. The changes in the genera of Chlorella and Scenedesmus are presented in details. We also discuss the application of DNA-based methods in taxonomic identification of coccoid green algae and how differences in phylogenetic position have become the main basis for taxonomic identifaction. Finally, we address the problems in phylogenic studies of coccoid green algae by which taxonomic location based on the morphological features have not yet been validated by phylogenetic methods. In the future, algae taxonomists should combine phylogenetic methods with morphological methods to explore the cryptic biodiversity of coccoid green algae.

Key words: coccoid green algae, phylogeny, Trebouxiophyceae, Chlorophyceae, biodiversity, taxonomy

Table 1

Checklist of the coccoid green algae in the present study"

绿藻门 Chlorophyta
共球藻纲 Trebouxiophyceae
渡边球藻分支 The Watanabea clade
椭圆球藻属 Chloroidium Nadson
沙漠球藻属 Desertella Fucikova et al.
异小球藻属 Heterochlorella Neustupa et al.
胶树小球藻属 Heveochlorella Zhang et al.
卡莉娜球藻属 Kalinella Neustupa Elias et al.
假椭圆球藻属 Parachloroidium Neustupa et Skaloud
鲜绿球藻属 Viridiella Albertano et al.
渡边球藻属 Watanabea Hanagata et al.
共球藻目 Trebouxiales
星绿藻属 Asterochloris Tschermak-Woess
共球藻属 Trebouxia Puymaly
小球藻目 Chlorellales
小球藻分支 Chlorella-clade
集星藻属 Actinastrum Lagerheim
小球藻属 Chlorella Beyerinck
对囊藻属 Didymogenes Schmidle
黑氏球藻属 Hegewaldia Proschold
亨氏球藻属 Hindakia Bock et al.
海尼球藻属 Heynigia Bock et al.
迈耶球藻属 Meyerella Fawley et al.
微芒藻属 Micractinium Fresinius
类小球藻分支 Parachlorella-clade
胶网藻属 Dictyosphaerium Nageli
霉球藻属 Mucidosphaerium Bock et al.
类小球藻属 Parachlorella Krienitz et al.
浮小球藻属 Planktochlorella Skaloud et Nemcova
共球藻纲内形成独立支系的属 Incertae sedis in Trebouxiophyceae
绿微藻属 Chloroparva Somogyi et al.
绿梨藻属 Chloropyrula Gaysina et al.
胶球藻属 Coccomyxa Schmidle
独绿藻属 Eremochloris Fucikova et al..
微小球藻属 Leptochlorella Neustupa et al.
干球藻属 Xerochlorella Fucikova et al.
丛林球藻属 Xylochloris Neustupa et al.
绿藻纲 Chlorophyceae
环藻目 Sphaeropleales
栅藻属 Scenedesmus Meyen
链带藻属 Desmodesmus (Chodat) An et al.
尖带藻属 Acutodesmus (Hegewald) Tsarenko
乔带藻属 Chodatodesmus Hegewald et al.
疣带藻属 Verrucodesmus Hegewald
木带藻属 Hylodesmus Elias et al.
扇带藻属 Pectinodesmus Hegewald et al.
考马斯藻属 Comasiella Hegewald et al.
片球藻属 Bracteacoccus Tereg
色绿藻属 Chromochloris Kol & Chodat
麦可藻属 Mychonastes Simpson & Van Valkenburg
衣藻目 Chlamydomonadales
拟博罗德藻属 Borodinellopsis Dykstra
绿球藻属 Chlorococcum Meneghini
绿藻纲中形成独立支系的属 Incertae sedis in Chlorophyceae
耶氏球藻属 Jenufa Nemcova et al.

Appendix 1

Phylogeny of the coccoid green algae"

绿藻门Chlorophyta
绿藻纲 Chlorophyceae 共球藻纲 Trebouxiophyceae
衣藻目/团藻目 Chlamydomonadales* 共球藻目 Trebouxiales*
环藻目 Sphaeropleales* 渡边球藻分支 Watanabea clade*
鞘藻目 Oedogoniales 溪菜目 Prasiolales
楯毛藻目 Chaetopeltidales 小球藻目Chlorellales*
胶毛藻目 Chaetophorales 绿囊球藻/葡萄藻分支Choricystis/Botryococcus clade*
分类位置未确定的类群Incertae sedis* 分类位置未确定的类群Incertae sedis*

Appendix 2

The coccoid green algae genus proposed between 1998 and 2014 and their taxonic basis"

属名 分类依据 主要分类方法
Chloroidium Nadson, 1906 (Darienko等(2010)重新提出) 新证据(从小球藻属独立) 基于形态、生殖、生态生理和SSU、ITS系统发育研究
Parachloroidium Neustupa, 2013 新标本 基于SSU、ITS和rbcL序列的系统发育研究
Kalinella Neustupa et al., 2009 新标本 基于SSU和rbcL序列系统发育研究结合形态观察
Heterochlorella Neustupa et al., 2009 新证据(从小球藻属独立) 基于SSU系统发育研究
Heveochlorella Zhang et al., 2008 新证据(从小球藻属独立) 基于SSU和16S rDNA序列系统发育研究结合形态观察
Watanabea Hanagata et al., 1998 新标本 基于形态特征
Desertella Fucikova et al., 2014 新标本 基于SSU 和rbcL序列系统发育研究
Meyerella Fawley et al., 2005 新标本 基于SSU、ITS和rbcL序列的系统发育研究
Hegewaldia Proschold et al., 2010 新证据(从微芒藻属独立) 基于SSU和ITS rDNA的系统发育研究
Hindakia Bock et al., 2010 新证据(从胶网藻属独立) 基于SSU 和ITS rDNA的系统发育研究
Heynigia Bock et al., 2010 新标本 基于SSU 和ITS rDNA的系统发育研究
Parachlorella Krieniz et al., 2004 新证据(从小球藻属独立) 基于SSU 和ITS rDNA系统发育研究二级结构研究
Mucidosphaerium Bock et al., 2011 新证据(从胶网藻属独立) 基于SSU系统发育、ITS rDNA二级结构和形态分析
Planktochlorella Skaloud, 2014 新标本 基于SSU 系统发育和ITS2二级结构研究
Xylochloris Neustupa et al., 2011 新标本 基于SSU系统发育研究
Chloroparva Somogyi et al., 2011 新标本 基于SSU系统发育研究
Chloropyrula Gaysina et al., 2013 新标本 基于SSU系统发育研究
Leptochlorella Neustupa et al., 2013 新标本 基于SSU 和rbcL序列系统发育研究
Eremochloris Fucikova et al., 2014 新标本 基于SSU 和rbcL序列系统发育研究
Xerochlorella Fucikova et al., 2014 新标本 基于SSU 和rbcL序列系统发育研究
Desmodesmus (Chodat) An et al., 1999 新证据(从栅藻属独立) 基于ITS2系统发育研究
Pectinodesmus Hegewald et al., 2010 新证据(从栅藻属独立) 基于ITS2系统发育研究
Comasiella Hegewald et al., 2010 新证据(从栅藻属独立) 基于ITS2系统发育研究
Chodatodesmus Hegewald et al., 2013 新证据(从栅藻属独立) 基于ITS2系统发育研究
Verrucodesmus Hegewald, 2013 新证据(从栅藻属独立) 基于ITS2系统发育研究
Hylodesmus Elias et al., 2009 新标本 基于SSU系统发育研究和 ITS2序列
Jenufa Nemcova et al., 2011 新标本 基于SSU系统发育研究
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