生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 109-115.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2014128

• 方法探讨 • 上一篇    下一篇

样线法在南方山地生态系统野生动物调查中的试点效果评价

田园1, 冯永军1, 张春兰1, 遇宝成2, 唐小平2, 胡慧建1*   

  1. 1广东省昆虫研究所暨华南濒危动物研究所, 广州 510260
    2国家林业局调查规划设计院, 北京 100714
  • 收稿日期:2014-06-17 修回日期:2014-12-19 出版日期:2015-01-20 发布日期:2015-05-04
  • 通讯作者: 胡慧建
  • 基金资助:

    国家林业公益性行业科研专项

Effectiveness of line transects during wild animal surveys in mountain forests of South China

Yuan Tian1, Yongjun Feng1, Chunlan Zhang1, Baocheng Yu2, Xiaoping Tang2, Huijian Hu1*   

  1. 1Guangdong Entomological Institute & South China Institute of Endangered Animals, Guangzhou 510260

    2Academy of Forest Inventory and Planning, State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100714
  • Received:2014-06-17 Revised:2014-12-19 Online:2015-01-20 Published:2015-05-04
  • Contact: Huijian Hu

摘要:

样线法是全国第二次陆生野生动物资源调查中的首选方法, 但已有文献表明该方法在南方山地森林中应用时存在诸多问题。为此, 我们于2010年4月19–24日在广东车八岭国家级自然保护区对样线法的实际调查效果进行试点, 在保护区中心区域划定5 km × 10 km的范围, 布设6条3 km长的理论样线。实际调查时, 使用GPS轨迹记录功能精确标记调查样线和时间。调查时有2条样线未能达到理论长度, 平均每条样线耗时5.3 ± 1.4 h, 调查速度小于600 m/h。该方法针对常规调查物种的发现概率偏低, 调查到的物种总数占保护区常规调查物种总数的比例(0.22)小于调查到的总物种数占保护区总物种数的比例(0.37); 在调查强度为0.75%时, 可对区域内物种进行有效抽样, 但在有效评估一个区域的具体物种数量上可能存在缺陷。为此, 我们对比了全国第一次陆生野生动物调查及试点工作的结果, 针对南方山地森林生态系统调查提出以下建议: (1)应用GPS轨迹记录功能进行实际样线的设置和记录; (2)调查速度从2–3 km/h适当降低至600 m/h左右; 样线长度控制在3–5 km, 确保1天内可完成2条样线调查; (3)在现有的财力和人力条件下, 样区内各类群调查强度略高于1%是较为适宜的; (4)采用多种辅助手段来提升常规调查物种的发现概率; (5)在地形复杂的位置可考虑使用样方或样点法辅助调查, 增加物种发现概率, 但不宜限制其调查强度。

关键词: 南方山地, 样线法, 森林生态系统, 陆生野生动物

Abstract:

Line transect method is the first choice of the second terrestrial wild animal resources investigation, but has a great deal of problems in mountain forest of South China. Thus, we conducted a pilot project at Chebaling National Nature Reserve to test the survey effects of line transect method on the wild vertebrates of mountainous forest ecosystems in South China during April 19th–24th, 2010. We set 6 line transects (theoretical line transects) in the nature reserve with 3 km length at an area of 5×10 km2, and recorded realistic line transects and calculated the sample tense and time with GPS tracks. There were two line transects did not reach 3 km during the investigation; the average time of each line-transect was 5.3±1.4 h, and the walking speed was less than 600 m/h; the detection probability of the general survey species was relatively low, and the proportion of recorded general survey species to all general survey species in the reserve (0.22) was less than that of recorded species to total species in the reserve (0.37). When the sample intensity reached 0.75%, the results can explain species diversity basically, but be limited to evaluate species richness in an area. Hence, we proposed: (1) It was feasible to set and record realistic line-transects with GPS track function; (2) the walking speed should be reduced from 2–3 km/h to 600 m/h, the length of each line transect should be 3–5 km, and 2 line transects can be scheduled in one day; (3) according to current finance and manpower, the sample tense of each species group should be slightly higher than 1.0% which was proper in the investigations areas; (4) more associated methods should be used to increase the detection probabilities of general survey species; (5) point count method and quadrat sampling method should be considered, but without the limit of sample tense at complex terrains.

Key words: mountainous regions in South China, line transect method, forest ecosystem, wild animal