生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 88-96.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018203

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于保护地役权的自然保护地适应性管理方法探讨: 以钱江源国家公园体制试点区为例

王宇飞1,苏红巧1,赵鑫蕊1,苏杨1,罗敏2,*()   

  1. 1 国务院发展研究中心, 管理世界杂志社, 北京 100026
    2 环境保护杂志社, 北京 100062
  • 收稿日期:2018-07-30 接受日期:2018-10-10 出版日期:2019-01-20 发布日期:2019-02-21
  • 通讯作者: 罗敏
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(17ZDA058)和国务院发展研究中心力拓基金

Conservation easement-inspired adaptive management methods for natural protected areas: A case study on Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot

Wang Yufei1,Su Hongqiao1,Zhao Xinrui1,Su Yang1,Luo Min2,*()   

  1. 1 Management World Magazine, Development Research Center of the State Council, Beijing 100026
    2 Environmental Protection Magazine, Beijing 100062
  • Received:2018-07-30 Accepted:2018-10-10 Online:2019-01-20 Published:2019-02-21
  • Contact: Luo Min

摘要:

我国的自然保护地普遍存在着科学管控难、统一管理难和资金供给难等问题, 即便是国家公园体制试点区也不例外。本文以钱江源国家公园体制试点区为例, 设计了基于细化保护需求的保护地役权制度, 以探索一种能解决上述问题并能体现生态补偿的适应性管理方法, 包括: 细化主要保护对象的管理需求, 结合土地利用类型, 确定实施保护地役权的空间范围; 辨析保护需求和原住民生产、生活之间的关系, 形成正负行为的准则并以行为清单的形式体现; 从生态系统监测指标改善情况、正负行为遵守情况和社区能力建设三个维度制定地役权制度的评价方法; 据此形成地役权合同, 明确供役地人和需役地人的权责利, 形成考虑保护绩效的生态补偿方案。这种方法可以解决自然保护地因为权属不一致造成的生态系统和景观破碎化问题, 缓解社区发展和生态保护之间的矛盾, 在我国南方集体林地占比较高的自然保护地具有适用性。

关键词: 生态补偿, 适应性管理, 保护地役权, 自然保护地, 国家公园

Abstract:

It is difficult to carry out highly effective management in the natural protected areas of China due to complicated land ownership and lack of scientific research, especially in the National Park pilots. This paper proposes a conservation easement policy based on focused conservation needs by integrating an innovative adaptive management method and an ecological compensation plan, using the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot as an example. First, the major conservation needs of the ecosystem elements are refined by determining the spatial scope of the easement implementation according to the land type. Secondly, the relationship between conservation need and the livelihood of local residents is clarified to form the classified conservation list. The evaluation method for easement is designed in three dimensions: improvement of monitoring indicators of the ecosystem, compliance with positive and negative actions and community capacity cultivation. Finally, the easement contract is formed by outlining the clear rights and responsibilities of the easement donor and donee. A scientific and flexible plan for ecological compensation is also carried out. This method can effectively solve the problem of land resource fragmentation at both on the ecosystem and landscape scale, which is normally caused by inconsistent ownership, as well as the conflict between community development and ecological conservation. Finally, this plan can be applied to the natural protected areas in southern China where the collective forest coverage is relatively high.

Key words: ecological compensation, adaptive management, conservation easement, natural protected areas, national park