生物多样性 ›› 2010, Vol. 18 ›› Issue (6): 547-558.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.2010.547

所属专题: 外来物种入侵:机制、影响与防控

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

洲际入侵植物生态位稳定性研究进展

朱丽; 马克平*   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2010-09-02 出版日期:2010-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 马克平

On the niche stasis of intercontinental invasive plants

Li Zhu; Keping Ma*   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2010-09-02 Online:2010-11-20
  • Contact: Keping Ma

人类活动引起的大规模洲际物种交换与生物入侵, 改变了当地生态系统结构与功能, 使生物多样性受到日益严重的威胁。本文通过综合分析主要国家和地区入侵植物的地理起源, 发现洲际入侵主要包括东亚—北美、东亚—南美、欧洲—南非、欧洲—北美、欧洲—东亚、北美—大洋洲等, 这些洲际入侵造成的后果往往比陆内入侵更为严重。利用物种分布模型(SDMs)预测入侵物种潜在分布范围是有效管理和提早预防生物入侵的重要依据, 但这些模型的一个关键假定是: 入侵物种的生态位在空间和时间上是保守的、稳定的。然而, 对于远离原产地种群并能快速适应新生境的洲际入侵植物来说, 生态位可能发生显著的变化。入侵种能否在入侵地保持原有的生态位, 取决于制约其生态分布的限制因素和生态过程在不同地区间是否发生变化。本文中作者总结了洲际入侵与陆内入侵的生态与进化过程的异同点, 认为这些限制物种原产地分布的因素如扩散限制、种间互作、适应性进化、生态可塑性和种群遗传特性等均可能导致入侵物种生态位的改变。建议下一步的研究应该重视: (1)对生态位属性进行多尺度的研究, 包括时间、空间、环境或系统发育等几个方面; (2)对比生态位稳定与发生偏移的物种特性, 确定什么样的入侵物种更容易改变原有的生态位; (3)进行生态位时间动态格局研究, 探讨生态位变化的倾向、历史速率和偏移程度, 以便判定生态位变化趋势。这些研究结果将会进一步提高物种分布模型的预测能力, 有助于更为准确地揭示气候变化和物种入侵对生物多样性的影响。

Biological invasions represent a growing threat to biodiversity. The movement of organisms among continents by humans has caused profound changes in structure and function of the ecosystem to which they have been introduced. By testing the differences in the relative contributions of the various origins of the invasive plants to each region, we found intercontinental invasions were more prevalent than intracontinental invasions, primarily including the exchange of species among Eastern Asia–North America, Eastern Asia–South America, Europe–South Africa, Europe–North America, Europe–Eastern Asia, and North America–Oceania. They have posed a higher threat than intracontinental invasions. Thus, preventing future invasions is the most cost-effective form of management. Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to estimate risks of biological invasions. Niche stasis, the tendency of a species niche to remain unchanged across space and time, is often assumed when applying these models to predict and explain biogeographical patterns. Yet, both niche change and conservatism have occurred for intercontinental invasive exotic plants, which were severely disconnected from their source populations and often adapt rapidly to conditions in the new range. To further understand the niche characteristics of invasive species, it is therefore necessary to consider which factors limit range expansion in the native region. After comparing the similarities and differences of invasive species expansion across continents to within continents, we propose that the probabilities of niche shifts occurring depended primarily on the ecological and evolutionary processes limiting the species in its native range such as dispersal limit, species interaction, adapted evolution, ecological plasticity and population characteristics. Most limited factors of species niche properties are more consistent with there being a niche shift than niche stasis in the new range. Therefore, we suggest the following areas for future research: (1) multi-scales studies on niche attributes across spatial, temporal, environmental and phylogenetic investigations; (2) comparative studies that identify both the groups of species that are characterized by environmental niche stasis or shifts, and the traits that the species are more prone to niche change; and (3) niche dynamics over time to estimate the propensity, historical rate, and magnitude of niche shift. Such understanding will improve our confidence in SDM-based predictions of the impacts of climate change and species invasions on species distributions and biodiversity.

No related articles found!
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed