生物多样性 ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 253-263.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14021

所属专题: 生物多样性信息学专题(II)

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海洋生物多样性信息资源

邵广昭(), 李瀚, 林永昌, 赖昆祺   

  1. 中研院生物多样性研究中心, 台北 11529
  • 收稿日期:2014-01-22 接受日期:2014-04-20 出版日期:2014-05-20

A review of marine biodiversity information resources

Kwangtsao Shao(), Han Lee, Yungchang Lin, Kunchi Lai   

  1. Biodiversity Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529
  • Received:2014-01-22 Accepted:2014-04-20 Online:2014-05-20

海洋生物多样性甚高, 但却饱受人为的破坏及干扰。目前全球最大的含点位数据的在线开放性数据库是海洋生物地理信息系统(OBIS), 共约12万种3,700万笔资料; 另一个较大的数据库世界海洋生物物种登录(WoRMS)已收集全球22万种海洋生物之物种分类信息。除此之外, 以海洋生物为主的单一类群的数据库只有鱼库(FishBase)、藻库(AlgaeBase)及世界六放珊瑚(Hexacorallians of the World)3个。跨类群及跨陆海域的全球性物种数据库则甚多, 如网络生命大百科(EOL)、全球生物物种名录(CoL)、整合分类信息系统(ITIS)、维基物种(Wikispecies)、ETI生物信息(ETI Bioinformatics)、生命条形码(BOL)、基因库(GenBank)、生物多样性历史文献图书馆(BHL)、海洋生物库(SeaLifeBase); 海洋物种鉴定入口网(Marine Species Identification Portal)、FAO渔业及水产养殖概要(FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Fact Sheets)等可查询以分类或物种解说为主的数据库。全球生物多样性信息网络(GBIF)、发现生命(Discover Life)、水生物图库(AquaMaps)等则是以生态分布数据为主, 且可作地理分布图并提供下载功能, 甚至于可以改变水温、盐度等环境因子的参数值, 利用既定的模式作参数改变后之物种分布预测。谷歌地球(Google Earth)及国家地理(National Geographic)网站中的海洋子网页, 以及珊瑚礁库(ReefBase)等官方机构或非政府组织之网站, 则大多以海洋保育的教育倡导为主, 所提供的信息及素材可谓包罗万象, 令人目不暇给。更令用户感到方便的是上述许多网站或数据库彼此间均已可交互链接及查询。另外, 属于搜索引擎的谷歌图片(Google Images)与谷歌学术(Google Scholar)透过海洋生物数据库所提供的直接链接, 在充实物种生态图片与学术论文上亦发挥极大帮助, 让用户获得丰富多样的信息。为了保育之目的, 生物多样性数据库除了整合与公开分享外, 还应鼓励并推荐大家来使用。本文乃举Rainer Froese在巴黎演讲之内容为例, 介绍如何使用海洋生物多样性之数据来预测气候变迁对鱼类分布的影响。最后就中国大陆与台湾目前海洋生物多样性数据库的现况、两岸的合作及如何与国际接轨作介绍。

关键词: 海洋生物, 生物多样性信息学, 数据库整合, 分类信息, 生态分布

Although biodiversity of marine remains high, it increasingly suffers from human interference and destruction. The world’s largest open, online, georeferenced database is the Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS); it has information on a total of 120,000 species with 37 million records. The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) has collected taxonomic information on 220,000 global marine species. Besides these two large databases, three single-taxa databases were established for marine organisms—FishBase, AlgaeBase, and Hexacorallians of the World. Many databases on organisms are cross-taxa and include both terrestrial and marine species, such as Encyclopedia of Life (EOL), CoL (Species 2000) , Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS), Wikispecies, ETI Bioinformatics, Barcode of Life (BOL), GenBank, Biodiversity Heritage Library (BHL), SeaLifeBase, Marine Species Identification Portal, and FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Fact Sheets. Above databases were mainly established to focus on taxonomy and species descriptions. The Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), Discover Life, AquaMaps, etc. can provide integrated ecological distribution data, user customized maps, and data for download. By changing the values of environmental factors such as water temperature and salinity in an established distribution model, the distribution of a species can be predicted with different parameters. Websites of other organizations, such as Google Earth Ocean, National Geographic, and NGOs such as ReefBase, aim to raise public awareness on ocean conservation with rich and diversified content. Google Images and Google Scholar are very useful in cooperating with keywords provided by marine biodiversity websites to complement the lack of images or references. Most of the above websites are linked to each other, and thus users can access and query data conveniently. To be useful for conservation, biodiversity databases need both to promote public usage in addition to the integration and sharing of data. In this article, we build on a speech by Rainer Froese in Paris to demonstrate how to use marine biodiversity data to conduct research on the impact of climate change on fish distribution. Finally, we also briefly introduce the status of marine biodiversity databases in Mainland China and Taiwan, including the Cross-Strait collaboration, as well as recommendations for how to link to global databases.

Key words: marine organism, biodiversity informatics, database integration, taxonomic information, ecological distribution

表1

目前在国际上与海洋生物多样性相关的主要信息库或网站之内容与功能比较表"

类别
Category
分类系统
Classification
system
物种描述
Species
description
栖地信息
Habitat
info.
分布信息
Distributional
info.
GIS工具
GIS tool
预测工具
Prediction
tool
图片
Image
文献
Literature
搜索引擎 Search engine
1 Google Scholar +
2 Google Images +
3 Google Earth + +
生物类群 Taxa
1 FishBase + + + + * + + +
2 AlgaeBase + + + + +
3 Hexacorallians of the World + + + + + + +
国际组织 International organization
1 CITES + + + +
2 ISSG-GISD + + + + + +
3 ITIS + + ** +
4 CoL + + +
5 BOLD Systems + + Few
6 IUCN-Marine Species
Identification Portal
+ + + + OBIS + +
7 GenBank +
8 EOL + + + + + + +
9 GBIF + *** *** + + + +
10 ETI Bioinformatics
(World Biodiversity Database)
+ + + + + +
11 Pan-European Species directories
Infrastructure
+ Links + + Links +
12 FAO (Fact Sheets) + + + + + +
国际计划 International project
1 OBIS + +
2 WoRMS + + + + + +
3 BHL + +
4 SeaLifeBase + + + * + +
5 AquaMaps @ @ @ + +
6 Discover Life + + + + + +
7 Wikispecieis + + # # + +
海洋保育 Marine conservation
1 Marine Conservation Institute +
2 National Geographic: THE OCEAN + +
3 Protect Planet Ocean + + +
4 ReefBase Links + + +
5 Sea Around Us Project Links Links + +
6 Mission Blue + +

图1

在AquaMaps中绘出中华白海豚(Sousa chinensis)之地理分布"

图2

由AquaMaps所汇总出的全球海洋生物物种丰度之地理分布图(A)及在气候变迁下大西洋鳕2050年之分布预测(B)。深红色表示高丰度区域。"

图3

海峡两岸生物多样性信息合作并与国际接轨(虚线表示未签约, 实线表示已正式签约)"

图4

以新的信息技术整合传统系统分类学乃未来的趋势, 示例新种描述的文章在数字出版时, 不同性质的数据会自动存入各大数据库中(Lyubomir提供, 2012)"

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