生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 738-749.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.12113

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公众科学: 整合科学研究、生态保护和公众参与

张健1,*(), 陈圣宾2, 陈彬3, 杜彦君3, 黄晓磊4, 潘绪斌5, 张强6   

  1. 1 Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2H1
    2 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
    3 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    4 中国科学院动物研究所动物进化与系统学院重点实验室, 北京 100101
    5 中国检验检疫科学研究院植物检疫研究所, 北京 100029
    6 广东省昆虫研究所, 广州 510260
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-09 接受日期:2013-09-03 出版日期:2013-11-20 发布日期:2013-12-02
  • 通讯作者: 张健
  • 基金资助:
    环保公益性行业科研专项(201209027);“十二五”国家科技支撑计划课题(2012BAC01B08)

Citizen science: integrating scientific research, ecological conservation and public participation

Jian Zhang1,*(), Shengbin Chen2, Bin Chen3, Yanjun Du3, Xiaolei Huang4, Xubin Pan5, Qiang Zhang6   

  1. 1 Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2H1
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    3 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    4 Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    5 Institute of Plant Quarantine, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100029
    6 Guangdong Entomological Institute, Guangzhou 510260
  • Received:2013-05-09 Accepted:2013-09-03 Online:2013-11-20 Published:2013-12-02
  • Contact: Zhang Jian

摘要:

公众科学(citizen science)即公众参与式科学研究, 指包含了非职业科学家、科学爱好者和志愿者参与的科研活动, 其范围涵盖科学问题探索、新技术发展、数据收集与分析等。随着信息和网络时代的到来, 公众科学在生态保护和环境监测等领域中的作用也受到越来越多的重视。依据公众在科学研究过程中的贡献和参与程度, 公众科学项目可分为契约型、辅助型、合作型、共创型和学院型等不同类型与模式。在大量公众科学项目的基础上, 已经建立了多个公众科学平台, 提供此类项目的基本信息、方法和技术等。公众科学的成果已经在科学研究, 特别是生态学和环境保护等方面发挥了重要的作用。尽管中国的公众科学在鸟类和植物监测方面已经有了良好的开端, 并积累了大量经验, 但依然存在起步晚、参与度不高、数据质量控制薄弱、项目管理和信息整合能力差等不足。为发展中国公众科学, 需要多渠道争取经费支持, 进行广泛宣传, 发展相关组织、发展平台和技术, 积极寻找公众科学成果出口, 并加强国际合作; 同时充分利用每一个有志于科学研究的公民的力量, 积极推动中国在生态保护和环境监测等科学研究领域的良性发展。为此我们建立了中国公众科学网站平台(http://www.gongzhongkexue.org), 希望能作为一个连接公众、科学家、政府、非政府组织和志愿者团体等的桥梁和纽带。

关键词: 全民科学, 环境保护, 保护生物学, 生物多样性, 环境监测, 鸟类监测, 植物监测

Abstract:

Citizen science, also known as “public participation in scientific research”, is defined as scientific activities in which non-professional scientists participate as volunteers in data collection, analysis and dissemination within a scientific project. With the advent of the information age, citizen science projects, especially in ecological conservation and environmental monitoring, are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the world around us, and contributing to management and policy decisions. Citizen science projects can be classified into five types of models: contractual, contributory, collaborative, co-created and collegial projects. In China, public participation in science related activities has had a long history, but current contributions in citizen science are limited because of relatively low public participation, and the weaknesses in data quality control, data management and analysis. Recently, citizen science has been applied to bird watching and plant monitoring, with some positive and negative experiences. To better increase citizen science activities and enhance such contributions to academic research, improvements are urgently required in financial support, the development of project platforms, the application of new technology, and international collaboration. We believe that the enhancement of citizen science will greatly promote the development of ecological conservation, environmental monitoring and related research fields. To help with this we have established a platform for China citizen science projects (http://www.gongzhongkexue.org) to promote communication and cooperation among scientists, governments, other organizations and the public.

Key words: citizen science, environmental conservation, conservation biology, biodiversity, environmental monitoring, bird watching, plant monitoring