生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (6): 738-749.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.12113

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公众科学: 整合科学研究、生态保护和公众参与

张健1, *(), 陈圣宾2, 陈彬3, 杜彦君3, 黄晓磊4, 潘绪斌5, 张强6   

  1. 1 Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2H1
    2 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
    3 中国科学院植物研究所植被与环境变化国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
    4 中国科学院动物研究所动物进化与系统学院重点实验室, 北京 100101
    5 中国检验检疫科学研究院植物检疫研究所, 北京 100029
    6 广东省昆虫研究所, 广州 510260
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-09 接受日期:2013-09-03 出版日期:2013-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 张健 E-mail:zjian@ualberta.ca
  • 基金项目:
    环保公益性行业科研专项(201209027);“十二五”国家科技支撑计划课题(2012BAC01B08)

Citizen science: integrating scientific research, ecological conservation and public participation

Jian Zhang1, *(), Shengbin Chen2, Bin Chen3, Yanjun Du3, Xiaolei Huang4, Xubin Pan5, Qiang Zhang6   

  1. 1 Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2H1
    2 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    3 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    4 Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    5 Institute of Plant Quarantine, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100029
    6 Guangdong Entomological Institute, Guangzhou 510260
  • Received:2013-05-09 Accepted:2013-09-03 Online:2013-11-20
  • Contact: Zhang Jian E-mail:zjian@ualberta.ca

公众科学(citizen science)即公众参与式科学研究, 指包含了非职业科学家、科学爱好者和志愿者参与的科研活动, 其范围涵盖科学问题探索、新技术发展、数据收集与分析等。随着信息和网络时代的到来, 公众科学在生态保护和环境监测等领域中的作用也受到越来越多的重视。依据公众在科学研究过程中的贡献和参与程度, 公众科学项目可分为契约型、辅助型、合作型、共创型和学院型等不同类型与模式。在大量公众科学项目的基础上, 已经建立了多个公众科学平台, 提供此类项目的基本信息、方法和技术等。公众科学的成果已经在科学研究, 特别是生态学和环境保护等方面发挥了重要的作用。尽管中国的公众科学在鸟类和植物监测方面已经有了良好的开端, 并积累了大量经验, 但依然存在起步晚、参与度不高、数据质量控制薄弱、项目管理和信息整合能力差等不足。为发展中国公众科学, 需要多渠道争取经费支持, 进行广泛宣传, 发展相关组织、发展平台和技术, 积极寻找公众科学成果出口, 并加强国际合作; 同时充分利用每一个有志于科学研究的公民的力量, 积极推动中国在生态保护和环境监测等科学研究领域的良性发展。为此我们建立了中国公众科学网站平台(http://www.gongzhongkexue.org), 希望能作为一个连接公众、科学家、政府、非政府组织和志愿者团体等的桥梁和纽带。

关键词: 全民科学, 环境保护, 保护生物学, 生物多样性, 环境监测, 鸟类监测, 植物监测

Citizen science, also known as “public participation in scientific research”, is defined as scientific activities in which non-professional scientists participate as volunteers in data collection, analysis and dissemination within a scientific project. With the advent of the information age, citizen science projects, especially in ecological conservation and environmental monitoring, are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the world around us, and contributing to management and policy decisions. Citizen science projects can be classified into five types of models: contractual, contributory, collaborative, co-created and collegial projects. In China, public participation in science related activities has had a long history, but current contributions in citizen science are limited because of relatively low public participation, and the weaknesses in data quality control, data management and analysis. Recently, citizen science has been applied to bird watching and plant monitoring, with some positive and negative experiences. To better increase citizen science activities and enhance such contributions to academic research, improvements are urgently required in financial support, the development of project platforms, the application of new technology, and international collaboration. We believe that the enhancement of citizen science will greatly promote the development of ecological conservation, environmental monitoring and related research fields. To help with this we have established a platform for China citizen science projects (http://www.gongzhongkexue.org) to promote communication and cooperation among scientists, governments, other organizations and the public.

Key words: citizen science, environmental conservation, conservation biology, biodiversity, environmental monitoring, bird watching, plant monitoring

图1

在2002-2012年期间发表的关于公众科学的文章数量。根据ISI Web of Science数据库检索, 检索词为Topic= ("citizen science"), 检索时间范围为所有年份(检索日期: 2013年4月29日)。"

表1

公众科学项目的发展模式(Bonney et al., 2009a; Shirk et al., 2012)"

科学研究的步骤
Steps in scientific process
契约型
Contractual
辅助型
Contributory
合作型
Collaborative
共创型
Co-created
学院型
Collegial
选择或定义研究问题 Choose or define question(s) for study
收集信息和资源 Gather information and resources (√)
提出假说或解释 Develop explanations (hypotheses)
设计数据收集方法 Design data collection methodologies (√)
收集样品、记录数据 Collect samples and/or record data
分析样品 Analyze samples
分析数据 Analyze data (√)
解释数据、得出结论 Interpret data and draw conclusions (√) (√)
宣传研究结果或转换科研结果到实践
Disseminate conclusions/translate results into action
(√) (√) (√)
讨论研究结果、提出新的问题
Discuss results and ask new questions

表2

已有的部分公众科学项目资源网站"

网站 Websites 提供的资源 Resources
Citizen Science Central: www.citizenscience.org 项目开发、文献数据库、讨论组等相关的工具
Toolkit for project development, tips and tools, reference database, conference proceedings, searchable project list, discussion forum, news feed, professional network
SciStarter: www.scistarter.com 项目搜索工具、项目添加工具等
Project finder and add project tools, editor’s picks, member and site blogs
中国自然标本馆: www.cfh.ac.cn 生物多样性基础数据支持, 公众科学项目数据存储、物种鉴定、编目和分类管理、团队协作等功能支持
Tools for biodiversity data collection, species identification, and group cooperation
CitSci.org: www.citsci.org 制作数据输入表格的工具
Tools for creating customized data-entry forms so that volunteers can submit data
Data Observation Network for Earth: www.dataone.org 数据管理、数据标准化、数据分析和可视化的工具
Tools on data management and data standards that will enable the integration of data from diverse studies and taxa, data analysis and visualization tools
The Public Laboratory for Open Technology and Science: www.publiclaboratory.org 工具、方法、会议信息 Tools and methods, information on conferences
iSpot: http://www.ispot.org.uk 各种动植物类群监测网络平台 Species identification and monitoring

图2

美国23个公众科学项目的全部观测点的分布图(Wiggins et al., 2013; 本图的使用已得到Andrea Wiggins博士的许可)。不同颜色的圆点代表不同的公众科学项目。"

表3

传统科学、验证式公众科学和直接式公众科学的比较(Gardiner et al., 2012)"

类型
Type of science
定义
Definition
花费
Cost
数据质量
Data quality
信息传播
Information dissemination
传统科学项目
Traditional science
科学家执行研究活动
Scientists conduct all aspects of the research process
高 High 高 High 慢 Slow

验证式公众科学项目
Verified citizen science

科学家和公众共同执行研究活动
Scientists and citizens conduct the research process together

中等 Medium

中等 Medium

中等 Medium

直接式公众科学项目
Direct citizen science

完全由公众执行的研究活动
Citizens conduct all aspects of the research process

低 Low

低 Low

快 Fast

表4

传统科学、验证式公众科学、直接式公众科学项目的费用比较: 以收集一个瓢虫捕捉器为例(Gardiner et al., 2012)"

费用类型
Type of costs
费用(美元) Costs (US$)
传统科学
Traditional science
验证性公众科学
Verified citizen science
直接式公众科学
Direct citizen science
实验材料费用 Traps and fence cost 4.17 4.17 4.17
旅行费用 Travel to field site 85.46 0.00 0.00
参与者收集捕捉器的工资 Student payment for collecting trap samples 34.00 0.00 0.00
参与者收集数据的工资 Student payment for collecting data 0.00 4.25 0.00
科学家帮助参与者培训的工资 Researcher investment to train students 2.99 2.99 0.00
调查者邮寄数据给科学家的费用 Mailing cost 0.00 1.61 0.00
举行培训班的花费 Hosting volunteer training workshops 0.00 9.89 9.89
网站开发和维护 Website development and maintenance 0.00 17.38 17.38
每个捕捉器的总花费 Total cost per trap 126.62 40.29 31.44

图3

智能终端技术在公众科学项目中的应用。(a) iBats手机应用程序(https://sites.google.com/site/ibatsresources)允许用户通过手机直接链接到超声波监测设备, 自动发送带有地理位置信息的蝙蝠声音文件到iBats网站; (b) BudBurst手机应用程序(http://budburst.org/gomobile.php)主要用于报告植物物候的变化。"

图4

中国观鸟记录中心年度数据统计(2002-2012)。(A) 参与者人数; (B) 观鸟记录数; (C) 鸟类物种数; (D) 监测样点数(数据来源: http://birdtalker.net/birdtalker/report/statistics.asp)。"

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