生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (3): 286-299.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.14039

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

高山植物繁殖策略的研究进展

彭德力1, 张志强2, 牛洋2, 杨扬2, 宋波2, 孙航2, 李志敏1*   

  1. 1云南师范大学生命科学学院, 昆明 650092
    2中国科学院生物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650204
  • 收稿日期:2012-01-30 修回日期:2012-04-25 出版日期:2012-05-20 发布日期:2012-05-09
  • 通讯作者: 李志敏
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金项目;云南省自然科学基金项目

Advances in the studies of reproductive strategies of alpine plants

Deli Peng1, Zhiqiang Zhang2, Yang Niu2, Yang Yang2, Bo Song2, Hang Sun2, Zhimin Li1*   

  1. 1School of Life Science, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092

    2Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204
  • Received:2012-01-30 Revised:2012-04-25 Online:2012-05-20 Published:2012-05-09
  • Contact: Zhimin Li

摘要: 高山地区通常被认为是陆地上最为极端的生境之一, 但却拥有许多形态特化的植物和较高的物种多样性。高山植物如何在严酷的环境中实现成功繁殖, 这一问题倍受研究者们的关注。本文综合了国内外高山植物在资源分配、花形态对非生物环境因子的响应、动物传粉及其适应机制、果实和种子及克隆繁殖等繁殖策略方面的文献。为应对低温多雨雪的恶劣环境, 一些高山植物采取花向日性、花冠闭合及花序保温结构等繁殖策略。高山植物的传粉者类群也发生了改变, 主要为蜂类和蝇类。熊蜂(Bombus spp.)传粉的高效性, 减少了高山环境对植物传粉造成的不利影响。当传粉者不可得时, 植物不仅通过延迟自交和自助自交等机制来提供繁殖保障, 还借助克隆繁殖及其他传粉机制(风媒或风虫媒)来维持种群的繁衍。依赖动物传粉的高山植物, 可以采取增加繁殖构件的资源分配、加大“广告”投入以及较大的花展示或较长的花寿命来提高传粉者的拜访几率, 以及借助泛化的花结构和选择合适的开花时间等策略来提高繁殖成功率。此外, 大部分高山植物产生干果且具有持久的种子库, 有利于种子的传播以及种子寻找萌发及幼苗生长的最佳外界环境。在今后的研究中, 可着重探讨以下几个问题: (1)非生物环境因子对花形态的选择; (2)季节变化与繁殖策略; (3)群落水平上植物与传粉者的关系; (4)高山生态系统对全球变暖的响应。

Abstract: The alpine regions are regarded as one of the most extreme land environments due mainly to of harsh environmental conditions. However, these regions have very distinctive and diverse alpine plants, and the reproductive strategies of these species are an area of concern for many researchers. In this paper, we summarize previous research on reproductive strategies of alpine plants, including resource allocation, the responses of the flower morphology to abiotic factors, animal pollination and the adaptive mechanism of alpine plants, fruits and seeds, and clonal reproduction. For example, some special floral structures adapt to low temperature and inadequate water in the alpine belt by flower heliotropism, floral closure, pubescence and semi-translucent bracts. Additionally, harsh and stochastic climate conditions lead to a paucity of pollinators. Selfing mechanisms such as delayed selfing, autonomous selfing, and clonal reproduction and abiotic pollination (anemophily) adaptions to the lack of pollinators. As for insect pollinated plants, resource allocations of reproduction structure have increased, with enlarged “advertisement” investments. These advertisements can increase pollination rates through bigger floral displays or elongation of flower longevity. Additionally, plant species possessing a generalized floral structure and the ability to flower in different seasons can also improve the probability of reproduction success. Furthermore, dry fruits and a persistent seed bank aid in alpine plant seed dispersal and germination. Combined with our previous research, we highlight four subjects for future study: (1) selection on the flower morphology of alpine plants by abiotic factors; (2) seasonal variation and reproductive strategy; (3) the interaction of pollinators and plants at the community level; and (4) response of alpine ecosystems to global warming.