生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (1): 88-96.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.08197

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

高山生物多样性对气候变化响应的研究进展

刘洋, 张健*, 杨万勤   

  1. (四川农业大学林学园艺学院, 四川省林业生态工程省级重点实验室, 四川雅安 625014)
  • 收稿日期:2008-08-18 出版日期:2009-01-20 发布日期:2009-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 张健

Responses of alpine biodiversity to climate change

Yang Liu, Jian Zhang*, Wanqin Yang   

  1. Faculty of Forestry and Horticulture of Sichuan Agricultural University, Key Laboratory of Forestry Ecological Engi-neering of Sichuan Province, Ya’an 625014
  • Received:2008-08-18 Online:2009-01-20 Published:2009-01-20
  • Contact: Jian Zhang

摘要: 高山带是指自然气候森林边界即林线到雪线之间的无林区域。受低温限制的高山生物对气候变化具有高度的敏感性, 因此高山带被视为监测气候变化的理想试验场所。气候变暖加速了高山冰雪消融, 也加剧了高山生物多样性的波动, 因而高山生物多样性变化对于指示全球气候变化具有十分重要的意义。目前, 高山生物多样性对气候变暖响应的研究主要集中在高山物种组成和群落结构的变化、物种的分布格局和适宜生境的变化、林线交错带的位移、种间关系的变化等方面。气候变化与人为干扰等因素的叠加效应为预测未来生物多样性的变化增加了很多不确定性, 从长期来看, 气候变化效应相对于其他因素会显得越来越重要。未来的重点研究领域包括高山带生物多样性对极端气候变化的响应、全球气候变化背景下生物多样性与生态系统过程的关系、高山带地上/地下生物多样性的相互作用关系及其对气候变化的响应与适应、全球气候变化与人类活动干扰的叠加效应对高山生物多样性格局的影响等。

Abstract: The alpine belt is the temperature-driven treeless region between the timberline and the snowline. Alpine belts are ideal sites for monitoring climate change because species in mountain habitats are especially sensitive to climate change. Global warming is shifting the distribution of alpine biodiversity and is leading to glacial retreat, implying that alterations in alpine biodiversity are indicators of climate change. Therefore, more attention has been given to changes in species composition and ecosystem structure, species distribu-tion patterns and suitable habitats, timberline ecotone shifts, and interspecific relationships. In particular, the combined effects of climate change and human disturbance have increased uncertainty in predicting changes to alpine biodiversity in the context of the future climate change. At the same time, climate change effects on alpine biodiversity will likely be more important relative to other natural and social factors in the long term. We suggest that key research fields will include alpine biodiversity responses to extreme climate change, re-lationships between biodiversity and ecosystem processes, the interaction between above- and below-ground biodiversity in the context of climate change, and the combined effects of climate change and human distur-bance on alpine biodiversity patterns.