生物多样性 ›› 2009, Vol. 17 ›› Issue (4): 340-352.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2009.09115

所属专题: 保护生物学: 现状和挑战

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

外来入侵植物对环境梯度和天敌逃逸的适应进化

冯玉龙1*, 廖志勇1, 2, 张茹1, 2, 郑玉龙1, 2, 李扬苹1, 类延宝1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院热带森林生态学重点实验室, 西双版纳热带植物园, 昆明 650223)
    2 (中国科学院研究生院, 北京 100049)
  • 收稿日期:2009-04-30 修回日期:2009-07-07 出版日期:2009-07-20

Adaptive evolution in response to environmental gradients and enemy release in invasive alien plant species

Yulong Feng1*, Zhiyong Liao1, 2, Ru Zhang1, 2, Yulong Zheng1, 2, Yangping Li1, Yanbao Lei1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
    2 Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2009-04-30 Revised:2009-07-07 Online:2009-07-20

进化假说认为, 在入侵地外来种能发生遗传变化, 以适应新的环境, 最终成功定殖和扩散。种内或种间杂交、遗传漂变、新环境带来的新的选择压力等是促使外来种发生进化的重要原因。在入侵地, 响应来自非生物和生物因素的选择压力是外来种发生适应进化的主要原因。本文主要介绍外来植物如何通过进化适应入侵地的纬度、海拔等非生物环境和天敌逃逸等生物环境。关于外来入侵植物对纬度和海拔等环境梯度的适应进化, 本文在强调表型进化研究应与分子标记研究相结合的基础上, 介绍了一些同质种植园实验和交互移植实验。关于外来入侵植物对天敌逃逸的适应进化, 本文主要介绍增强竞争能力的进化假说和修正的增强竞争能力的进化假说, 及其在理论上和验证方法上存在的问题。最后, 本文介绍了氮分配的进化假说, 该假说认为天敌逃逸可使外来入侵植物降低叶氮向防御的分配, 同时增加氮向光合的分配。

Evolution hypothesis predicts that alien species may experience genetic changes in introduced ranges, facilitating adaptation to new habitats and range expansion. Responses to the selection pressures incurred by the novel abiotic and biotic factors in introduced ranges are primary causes for alien species evolution, although other factors such as intra- and inter-specific hybridizations, genetic shifts can also cause evolution. In this paper, we mainly analyze how alien plant species evolutionarily adapt to environmental changes related to different latitudes and altitudes, and to enemy release in introduced ranges. With respect to evolutionary adaptation to abiotic environments, we introduce some important common garden experiments and reciprocal transplant experiments, emphasizing the necessity to integrate the studies on evolution of phenotypic traits with those on neutral molecular makers. With respect to evolutionary adaptation to enemy release, we mainly discuss evolution of increased competitive ability (EICA) hypothesis, the refinement of EICA hypothesis, and their weaknesses in theory and practices. Finally, we introduce the hypothesis of the evolution of nitrogen allocation, which predicts that invasive plants may decrease leaf nitrogen allocations to defenses but increase allocations to photosynthesis in response to enemy release in introduced ranges.

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