生物多样性 ›› 2008, Vol. 16 ›› Issue (6): 601-606.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2008.08122

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人工巢箱对次级洞巢鸟类多样性及繁殖鸟类群落稳定性的作用

李臻, 杨丽媛, 刘文, 邓文洪*   

  1. (北京师范大学生命科学学院, 北京 100875)
  • 出版日期:2008-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 邓文洪

Effect of artificial nestboxes on the diversity of secondary cavity-nesting birds and the stability of breeding bird community

Zhen Li, Liyuan Yang, Wen Liu, Wenhong Deng*   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Online:2008-11-20
  • Contact: Wenhong Deng

人工巢箱在鸟类研究与保护中的使用越来越广泛, 但是人工巢箱对鸟类群落的影响并不清楚, 人工巢箱在鸟类群落保护过程中所扮演的角色仍然值得商榷。我们于2007年3–8月, 在北京门头沟区小龙门国家森林公园选择两块海拔及植被情况相似的样地, 一块悬挂50个人工巢箱, 另一块作为对照。我们调查了巢箱利用情况、巢箱内鸟类的繁殖情况及两样地的植被群落和鸟类群落。50个巢箱中有20个分别被褐头山雀(Parus songarus)、白眉姬鹟(Ficedula zanthopygia)、普通鳾(Sitta europaea)及大山雀(Parus major)占用。通过比较分析得知, 人工巢箱使实验样地白眉姬鹟的种群密度显著增加, 使实验样地次级洞巢鸟类群落的多样性指数(H’)和群落种间相遇率(PIE)显著高于对照样地, 而优势度指数(λ)显著低于对照样地。同时, 繁殖鸟类群落的相应指数也呈现出相同变化。这种变化更多地应该归因于人工巢箱的调节作用。通过这次研究, 我们认为人工巢箱影响了一部分次级洞巢鸟的分布模式, 并通过影响鸟类多度影响了次级洞巢鸟的多样性, 增加了一部分利用巢箱鸟类的种群密度, 进而使得实验样地繁殖鸟类多样性增加, 个体数量差异降低, 而群落均匀性增加。巢箱的悬挂对次生林鸟类群落保护产生了积极的影响。

Artificial nestboxes are widely used in ecological research and conservation practices. However, we know little about the effects of nestboxes on breeding bird communities and their actual conservation value to bird communities. We chose two sample plots with similar plant communities in Xiaolongmen National Forest Park, Beijing. Fifty artificial nest-boxes were hung in the experimental plot and the other plot as a control. From March to August in 2007, we monitored artificial nestbox use by secondary cavity-nesting birds, reproductive rates of birds in nestboxes, and breeding bird and plant communities in the two sample plots. Twenty of 50 boxes were used by secondary cavity-nesting birds, such as the songar tit (Parus songarus), yellow-rumped flycatcher (Ficedula zanthopygia), Eurasian nuthatch (Sitta europaea) and great tit (Parus major). We found that the density of yellow-rumped flycatcher was greater in experimental plot with nestboxes. Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H’) and PIE were higher in experimental plot while dominance index (λ) were lower. Indices of total breeding bird communities changed in the same way. Because secon-dary cavity-nesting bird and breeding bird communities are interrelated, these results may be attributed to the use of artificial nest-boxes. We conclude that nestboxes changed the distribution patterns of some secondary nesting birds and increased the population density and diversity of secondary nesting birds. So, in our study, artificial nest-boxes made good conservation sense for breeding bird communities.

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