生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (6): 759-768.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020001

• 论坛 • 上一篇    

国家公园的属性结构及其对中国本土实践的启示

张机(),李鑫   

  1. 华南农业大学林学与风景园林学院, 广州 510642
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-02 接受日期:2020-06-16 出版日期:2020-06-20 发布日期:2020-08-19
  • 通讯作者: 张机
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41401136);国家自然科学基金(41871136)

The attribute structure of national parks and its enlightenment to China’s local practice

Ji Zhang(),Xin Li   

  1. School of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642
  • Received:2020-01-02 Accepted:2020-06-16 Online:2020-06-20 Published:2020-08-19
  • Contact: Ji Zhang

摘要:

虽然“国家公园”概念自19世纪后半叶诞生于美国以来在全球得到了广泛传播, 但学界在国家公园本质属性的认识上还未达成共识。基于人类对事物的认识需要依赖认识其各种属性的观点, 本文对世界各国国家公园的属性和特征进行了对比研究, 然后从本质属性和非本质属性的理论视角构建了国家公园的属性结构。国家公园的本质属性应包括: (1)以自然资源为主的资源类型; (2)具有国家代表性的资源价值; (3)中央或联邦政府管控的管理体制; (4)公益性主导的资源利用。而国家公园的土地权属、面积大小、生态系统、保护重点、旅游设施、原住居民等应列入其非本质属性的范畴。最后, 文章从国家公园的建立、治理和享用3方面探讨了国家公园属性结构对我国本土实践的指导性意义和启示作用。坚持本质属性与非本质属性相结合的属性结构既是对世界各国国家公园建设和管理经验的总结, 也是我国将来正式设立和建设国家公园必须考虑的基本原则。

关键词: 国家公园, 属性, 属性结构, 本土实践, 可持续发展

Abstract:

The concept of “national park” has been widely spread around the world since its creation in the United States in the second half of the 19th century. However, there is little consensus on the criteria needed and essential attributes that make up national parks. One of the primary ways humans identify types of things are by knowing and associating their various attributes. We present a comparative study of the attributes and characteristics of national parks around the world, and construct the attribute structure of national parks from the theoretical perspective of essential and non-essential attributes. The essential attributes of national parks should include: (1) natural resource-based; (2) national significance of natural resources; (3) management system of national government control; and (4) resource utilization led by public welfare. The land ownership, the area size, the ecosystem, the focus of conservation, the tourist facilities, as well as the indigenous residents of the national parks are considered non-essential attributes. Finally, this paper discusses the significance of this attribute structure to the establishment, governance and enjoyment of national parks in China. This attribute structure which combines essential and non-essential attributes provides both a summary of typologies of national parks globally and a foundation and decision-making tool that China must consider in the formal establishment and construction of national parks in the future.

Key words: national park, attribute, attribute structure, local practice, sustainable development