生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (11): 1251-1259.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019177

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

幕阜山脉石松类和蕨类植物多样性及生物地理学特征

姬红利, 詹选怀(), 张丽, 彭焱松, 周赛霞, 胡菀   

  1. 中国科学院庐山植物园江西省植物迁地保护与利用重点实验室, 江西九江 332900
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-27 接受日期:2019-09-10 出版日期:2019-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 詹选怀 E-mail:zxh64@vip.sina.com
  • 基金项目:
    中国科学院战略生物资源计划(KFJ-BRP-017-32);国家科技基础性工作专项重点项目(2013FY111500-2-3);中国科学院重点部署项目(KFJ-3W-N01-143)

Diversity and biogeographical characteristics of lycophytes and ferns in Mufu Mountains, China

Hongli Ji, Xuanhuai Zhan(), Li Zhang, Yansong Peng, Saixia Zhou, Wan Hu   

  1. Key Laboratory of Plant Ex-situ Conservation and Utilization, Jiangxi Province, Lushan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Jiujiang, Jiangxi 332900
  • Received:2019-05-27 Accepted:2019-09-10 Online:2019-11-20
  • Contact: Zhan Xuanhuai E-mail:zxh64@vip.sina.com

通过资料收集及野外调查, 得出幕阜山脉地区共有石松类和蕨类植物26科72属261种, 具有一定的东西过渡性, 为鳞毛蕨-铁角蕨植物区系, 最大属为鳞毛蕨属(Dryopteris) (29种)。其中, 庐山的物种丰富度较高(224种), 以铁角蕨属(Asplenium)为主; 幕阜山的物种密度较大(2.09种/km 2), 以卷柏属(Selaginella)为主; 九宫山以瓦韦属(Lepisorus)为主; 三者共通种有95种, 新特有现象较丰富。该区属种分化限制明显, 表现在单种科、属及寡种科、属占总科数的60%及总属数的80%。从区系成分看, 该区科、属以热带成分为主, 科和属的热带性成分与温带性成分比值(R/T值)分别为2.6和2.3。与同纬度带山地石松类和蕨类植物属的R/T值比较, 中亚热带与北亚热带交界带的蕨类植物属的R/T值在2.18-2.36之间; 种的R/T值为0.2, 为热带成分的5倍, 表现出明显的温带性质, 是罗霄山脉植物区系温带成分的重要组成部分。该区石松类和蕨类植物区系与华东、华南植物区系联系比较紧密, 表现出华东与华南两区系成分的交汇。

关键词: 幕阜山脉, 蕨类植物多样性, 亚热带山地, 生物地理, R/T值

Field investigation and herbarium specimen information revealed that 261 species of lycophytes and ferns, belonging to 72 genera and 26 families were found in Mountain Mufu. It was characterized by Dryopteris-Asplenium flora with strong transiting distribution from east to west. The species richness was the highest (224 species) in Mount Lushan and the species density (2.09 species/km 2) was the highest in Mount Mufu. Besides Dryopteris included 29 species, Asplenium, Lepisorus and Selaginella were more abundant in Mount Lushan, Mount Jiugong and Mount Mufu, respectively. It shared only 95 common species among these three mountains, and the phenomena of neo-endemic genera and species was obvious. There were high restrictions on differentiation of genera and species in this area, which showed that monotypic family/genus and depauperate family/genus account for more than 60% of the total families and 80% of the total genera. The ratios of tropical elements to temperate elements (R/T) were 2.6 and 2.3 at the family and the generic level with tropical elements. Compared with the mountains in the same latitude zone, the R/T value at generic level in the junction zone of mid-subtropics and north subtropics was between 2.18-2.36. The R/T value was 0.2 at specific level with obvious temperate elements, which was an important component of the temperate flora of Luoxiao Mountains. The flora of lycophytes and ferns in this area was closely related to the flora of East and South China, showing the intersection of the two floristic components.

Key words: Mufu Mountains, diversity of pteridophytes, subtropical mountain, biogeography, R/T value

图1

研究区域地理位置。 a: 湖南幕阜山; b: 湖北九宫山; c: 江西庐山; A: 幕阜山脉; B: 九岭山脉; C: 武功山脉; D: 万洋山脉; E: 诸广山脉。"

表1

幕阜山脉石松类与蕨类植物区系科和属的分级统计"

等级
Grade
科数
No. of family (%)
所含属数
No.of genera in the family (%)
所含种数
No.of species in the family (%)
等级
Grade
属数
No. of genus (%)
所含种数
No. of species in the genus (%)
大科( ≥ 20种)
Large family ( ≥ 20 species)
5 (19.2) 39 (54.2) 179 (68.6) 大属( ≥ 20种)
Large genus ( ≥ 20 species)
1 (1.4) 29 (11.1)
较大科(10-19种)
Secondary family (10-19 species)
3 (11.5) 7 (9.7) 41 (15.7) 较大属(10-19种)
Secondary genus (10-19 species)
6 (8.3) 73 (28.0)
中等科(5-9种)
Medium family (5-9 species)
2 (7.7) 5 (6.9) 11 (4.2) 中等属(5-9种)
Medium genus (5-9 species)
8 (11.1) 49 (18.8)
寡种科(2-4种)
Depauperate family (2-4 species)
8 (30.8) 13 (18.1) 22 (8.4) 寡种属(2-4种)
Depauperate genus (2-4 species)
31 (43.1) 84 (32.2)
单种科(1种)
Monotypic family (1 species)
8 (30.8) 8 (11.1) 8 (3.1) 单种属(1种)
Monotypic genus (1 species)
26 (36.1) 26 (9.9)
合计 Total 26 (100) 72 (100) 261 (100) 合计 Total 72 (100) 261 (100)

表2

幕阜山脉石松类与蕨类植物分布区类型统计"

分布区类型
Areal type
科 Family 属 Genus 种 Species
数量 Number % 数量 Number % 数量 Number %
1. 世界分布 Cosmopolitan 8 - 19 - 6 -
热带分布 Tropical Distribution
2. 泛热带分布 Pantropic 9 50.0 19 35.8 4 1.6
3. 旧大陆热带分布 Old World Tropics 1 5.6 6 11.3 3 1.2
4. 热带亚洲和热带美洲分布 Trop. Asia & Trop. Amer. Disjuncted 1 5.6 1 1.9 2 0.8
5. 热带亚洲至热带大洋洲分布 Trop. Asia to Trop. Australasia 0 0 2 3.8 13 5.1
6. 热带亚洲至热带非洲分布 Trop. Asia to Trop. Africa 1 5.6 6 11.3 2 0.8
7. 热带亚洲分布 Trop. Asia 1 5.6 3 5.7 18 7.1
热带成分小计 Subtotal 13 72.2 37 69.8 42 16.5
温带分布 Temperate Distribution
8. 北温带分布 North temperate 4 22.2 5 9.4 4 1.6
9. 东亚和北美洲间断分布 E. Asia & N. Amer. Disjuncted 0 0 0 0 0 0
10. 旧大陆温带分布 Old World Temperate 0 0 0 0 1 0.4
11. 温带亚洲分布 Temperate Asia 0 0 2 3.8 32 12.5
12. 东亚分布 East Asia (1) (5.6) (9) (17.0) (136) (53.3)
12-1. 东亚广布(H-S-J) 1 5.6 6 11.3 46 18.0
12-2. 中国-喜马拉雅(S-H) 0 0 1 1.9 18 7.1
12-3. 中国-日本(S-J) 0 0 2 3.8 72 28.2
13. 中国特有分布 Endemic to China 0 0 0 0 40 15.7
温带成分小计 Subtotal 5 27.8 16 30.2 213 83.5
总计 Total 26 100 72 100 261 100

图2

幕阜山脉石松类与蕨类植物中国特有种分布聚类图。 I-IX表示不同地理分布格局。(I)华东南部-华中南部-华南分布; (II)华东-华北分布; (III)西南-华中分布; (IV)秦淮以南广布; (V)沿长江流域分布; (VI)西南-西北-华北分布; (VII)南北广布; (VIII)西南-西北分布; (IX)长江以北分布。"

表3

幕阜山脉与毗邻山脉石松类和蕨类植物相似性比较"

庐山
Mount
Lushan
九宫山 Mount Jiugong 幕阜山 Mount Mufu
科相似性 Similarity at family level
庐山 Mount Lushan 1.00
九宫山 Mount Jiugong 0.94 1.00
幕阜山 Mount Mufu 0.87 0.80 1.00
属相似性 Similarity at genus level
庐山 Mount Lushan 1.00
九宫山 Mount Jiugong 0.96 1.00
幕阜山 Mount Mufu 0.80 0.82 1.00
种相似性 Similarity at species level
庐山 Mount Lushan 1.00
九宫山 Mount Jiugong 0.72 1.00
幕阜山 Mount Mufu 0.68 0.65 1.00
特有种相似性 Similarity at endemism level
庐山 Mount Lushan 1.00
九宫山 Mount Jiugong 0.53 1.00
幕阜山 Mount Mufu 0.59 0.39 1.00
种相似性 Similarity at species level
幕阜山脉
Mufu Mountains
东侧: 怀玉山脉 East: Huaiyu Mountains 0.42
西侧: 武陵山脉 West: Wuling Mountains 0.26
南侧: 武功山脉 South: Wugong Mountains 0.60
北侧: 大别山脉 North: Dabie Mountains 0.40

表4

幕阜山脉与毗邻山脉石松类和蕨类植物热带性与温带性属、种比值"

山脉 Mountain 经纬度 Location 热带性属/温带性属
R/T value of genus
热带性种/温带性种
R/T value of species
大别山脉 Dabie Mountains 31.42°-32.50° N; 114.92°-115.92° E 1.70 0.12
幕阜山脉 Mufu Mountains 28.88°-29.68° N; 113.78°-116.13° E 2.31 0.20
武功山脉 Wugong Mountains 26.78°-28.20° N; 113.35°-114.62° E 2.61 0.29
诸广山脉 Zhuguang Mountains 25.70°-25.85° N; 112.50°-113.07° E 3.47 0.35
南岭山脉 Nanling Mountains 24.62°-24.95° N; 113.90°-113.98° E 3.86 0.81
峨眉山 Mount Emei 29.27°-29.73° N; 103.17°-103.62° E 2.34 -
武陵山 Mount Wuling 28.47°-30.08° N; 107.03°-111.58° E 2.19 -
幕阜山 Mount Mufu 28.88°-29.10° N; 113.78°-113.90° E 2.31 -
九宫山 Mount Jiugong 29.32°-29.45° N; 114.38°-114.72° E 2.19 -
庐山 Mount Lushan 29.43°-29.68° N; 115.87°-116.13° E 2.25 -
齐云山 Mount Qiyun 29.78°-29.83° N; 117.95°-118.12° E 2.36 -
黄山 Mount Huang 29.22°-30.37° N; 118.02°-118.98° E 2.18 -
三清山 Mount Sanqing 28.88°-28.92° N; 118.05°-118.07° E 2.33 -
天目山 Mount Tianmu 29.87°-30.92° N; 119.40°-119.45° E 2.20 -
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