生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (7): 735-742.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019119

• 生物多样性相关传统知识专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

土族生物资源利用相关的传统知识多样性

王国萍1, 2, 薛达元3, 闻苡3, 成功3, 闵庆文1, *()   

  1. 1 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-08 接受日期:2019-07-31 出版日期:2019-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 闵庆文 E-mail:minqw@igsnrr.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0506404);中央民族大学生态学一流学科建设项目(Yldxxk201819)

Diversity of traditional knowledge related to utilization of biological resources by Tu nationality in China

Wang Guoping1, 2, Xue Dayuan3, Wen Yi3, Cheng Gong3, Min Qingwen1, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resource Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 School of Life and Environmental Science, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2019-04-08 Accepted:2019-07-31 Online:2019-07-20
  • Contact: Min Qingwen E-mail:minqw@igsnrr.ac.cn

生物资源利用相关的传统知识是对生物资源进行识别和利用的传统知识系统。随着现代生物技术的发展, 这类传统知识显示出其在科学、经济、文化乃至粮食安全战略方面的价值。本研究根据《生物多样性相关传统知识分类、调查与编目技术规定(试行)》, 对我国青海省土族聚集区的土族生物资源利用相关的传统知识进行了系统调查与编目, 并借鉴生物多样性测度方法, 创建了传统知识多样性指数计算方法, 对土族生物资源利用相关传统知识多样性进行分析。结果如下: (1)编目现存的土族生物资源利用相关的传统知识词条共424条; (2)土族传统知识的α多样性指数DTK = 0.67, 表明其传统知识多样性较高; 土族传统知识的βwtk多样性指数在不同的县域差异较大, 表明其在县域之间存在差异, 在空间上分布不连续、不均匀。本研究利用生物多样性指数验证了传统知识的定量研究方法, 说明传统知识多样性指数不仅可用于定量研究表征区域传统知识的多样性, 揭示不同空间区域内的分布特征, 还可为未来构建传统知识的定量研究体系提供重要的参考依据。

关键词: 土族, 传统知识, 生物资源, 传统知识多样性指数

Traditional knowledge (TK) related to the utilization of biological resources is a knowledge system for identifying and utilizing biological resources. With the development of modern biotechnology, TK highlights its values of science, economy, culture and even food security. In accordance with the Technical Regulations on Classification, Investigation and Documentation of Traditional Knowledge Related to Biodiversity (Trial Version), this study conducted the systematic investigation and documentation of the TK related to the utilization of biological resources by Tu nationality in different ethnic agglomeration areas in Qinghai Province, and applied biodiversity index to TK diversity analysis. The results show that: (1) 424 items of TK of Tu nationality’s utilization of biological resources have been documented. (2) The α diversity index (DTK) of TK of Tu nationality is 0.67, which indicates that the diversity of TK of Tu nationality is high; but the β diversity index of TK varies in different counties, indicating that the TK of Tu nationality has unique spatial distribution in different areas with uneven and patchy characteristics. This study applied biodiversity index to TK diversity analysis and verified with the TK of Tu nationality as an example. It could be concluded that the diversity index of TK could not only objectively and practically quantify the diversity of TK but also provide the fundamental basis for establishing a quantitative research methodology of TK in the future.

Key words: Tu nationality, traditional knowledge, biological resources, diversity index of traditional knowledge

表1

土族传统知识调查点"

行政县
County
行政乡镇
Town
土族人口占比
Percentage of Tu population
调查村落
Study villages
互助土族自治县
Huzhu Tu Autonomous
County
五十镇 Wushi Town 57% 土观村、大庄村 Tuguan Village, Dazhuang Village
丹麻镇 Danma Town 36% 索卜滩村、哇麻村 Suobotan Village, Wama Village
民和回族土族自治县
Minhe Hui and Tu
Autonomous County
中川乡 Zhongchuan Town 74% 红崖村、草滩村 Hongya Village, Caotan Village
官亭镇 Guanting Town 89.1% 赵木川村、鲍家村 Zhaomuchuan Village, Baojia Village
大通回族土族自治县
Datong Hui and Tu
Autonomous County
逊让乡 Xunrang Town 72.9% 后拉村、白土牙合村 Houla Village, Baituyahe Village
宝库乡 Baoku Town 70.9% 巴彦村、俄博图村 Bayan Village, Ebotu Village

表2

土族生物资源利用相关的传统知识(TK)概况"

编目类别
Category
编目子类别
Subcategory
数量
Number
传统选育农业遗传
资源的相关知识
Traditional knowledge
of breeding agricultural
genetic resources
传统选育农作物遗传资源的相关知识 TKs related to breeding crop varieties 84
传统选育家养动物遗传资源的相关知识 TKs related to breeding domestic animal breeds 15
传统选育林木遗传资源的相关知识 TKs related to forest tree genetic resources conservation 46
传统选育观赏植物遗传资源的相关知识 TKs related to breeding ornamental genetic resources 10
传统选育野生植物遗传资源的相关知识 TKs related to wild plant genetic resources conservation 38
传统选育陆生野生动物遗传资源的相关知识 TKs related to conservation of terrestrial wildlife 8
传统选育微生物遗传资源的相关知识 TKs related to breeding microbial genetic resources 7
传统医药相关知识
Traditional medicinal and
its related knowledge
传统药用生物资源驯化、栽培和保育知识
TKs related to the domestication, cultivation and conservation of traditional medicinal biological resources
57
传统医药理论 Traditional medicine theories 8
传统疗法 Traditional therapy 6
传统药材加工炮制技术 Traditional processing technology of medicinal materials 6
传统方剂 Traditional prescriptions 25
传统养生和疾病预防知识 TKs of health preservation and disease prevention 1
与生物资源可持续
利用相关传统技术
Traditional technologies
of sustainable use of
biological resources
传统农业生产技术 Traditional agricultural production technologies 5
传统印纺工艺与技术 Traditional printing and dyeing and textile technologies 7
传统食品加工技术 Traditional food processing techniques 7
传统建筑工艺 Traditional architectural technologies 4
其他传统技术 Other traditional technologies 5
与生物资源利用
相关的传统文化
Traditional culture
related to utilization of
biological resources
宗教信仰与生态伦理 Religious belief and ecological ethics 12
传统节庆 Traditional festivals 17
习惯法 Customary law 6
传统文学艺术 Traditional literature 18
传统饮食文化 Traditional dietary cultures 5
其他传统文化 Other traditional cultures 2
传统生物地理标志
产品相关传统知识
Traditional biogeographic
indicators products and
related knowledge
食品类标志产品相关知识 Traditional food biogeographic indicators products and related knowledge 23
药品类标志产品相关知识 Traditional medicine biogeographic indicators products and related knowledge 1
工艺类标志产品相关知识 Traditional craftwork biogeographic indicators products and related knowledge 1

表3

土族聚集区传统选育的青稞品种及其用途"

品种名 Local cultivar names 用途及相关传统知识 Usage and related knowledge
白浪散 Hordeum vulgare ‘Bai Lang San’ 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用和饲用
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal and feeding
白六棱 Hordeum vulgare ‘Bai Lang San’ 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用、饲用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal, feeding and folkways
黑老鸦 Hordeum vulgare ‘Black Crows’ 酿酒、祭祀、药用、饲用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, medicinal, feeding and folkways
门源亮蓝 Hordeum vulgare ‘Men Yuan Liang Lan’ 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用、饲用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal, feeding and folkways
红胶泥 Hordeum vulgare ‘Hong Jiao Ni’ 酿酒、祭祀、药用、饲用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, medicinal, feeding and folkways
白长芒青稞 Hordeum vulgare ‘White Long Awn’ 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用和饲用
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal and feeding
紫六棱 Hordeum vulgare ‘Zi Liu Leng’ 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal and folkways
藏青稞 Hordeum vulgare var. trifurcatum (Schlecht.) Alef. Landw. 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal and folkways
六棱白大麦 Hordeum vulgare ‘Liuleng White Barley’ 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用、饲用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal, feeding and folkways
六棱黑大麦 Hordeum vulgare ‘Liuleng Black Barley’ 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal and folkways
四棱白大麦 Hordeum vulgare ‘Sileng White Barley’ 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用、饲用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal, feeding and folkways
四棱黑大麦 Hordeum vulgare ‘Sileng Black Barley’ 酿酒、祭祀、食用、药用和民俗活动
Vintage, sacrifice, edible, medicinal and folkways

表4

与生物资源保护与持续利用相关的土族传统文化子分类表"

种类 Type 数目 Number 代表性文化 Representative culture
宗教信仰与生态伦理类
Religious belief and
ecological ethics
12 “猫鬼神”崇拜、动物崇拜、植物崇拜、神山崇拜等
Cat ghost worship, animal worship, plant worship, holy mountain worship, etc
传统节庆类
Traditional festival
17 三川“纳顿”节、年都乎“於菟”、丹麻“花儿”会、鸡蛋会、梆梆会等
Sanchuan Nadun Festival, Wutu in Nianduhu, Danma Hua’er Fair, Egg Fair, Bangbang Fair, etc
习惯 Customary law 6 护青苗、长者调节、饮食禁忌等 Huqingmiao, Adjustment through elders, Dietary strictures, etc
传统文学艺术
Traditional literature and arts
18 库咕笳、安昭、《拉仁布与吉门索》、《霍尼》、欠木等
Kugujia, Anzhao dance, Larenbu and Jimensuo, Song of Huoni, Qianmu dance, etc
传统饮食文化
Traditional dietary culture
5 青稞酒文化、面食文化、肉食文化、茶文化、小吃文化等
Highland barley wine culture, pasta culture, meat culture, tea culture, snack culture, etc
其他传统文化
Other traditional culture
2 传统体育文化、服饰文化
Traditional sports culture and traditional costume culture
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