生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 683-688.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018347

• 生物编目 • 上一篇    下一篇

贵州习水国家级自然保护区红外相机鸟兽监测及活动节律分析

穆君1, 王娇娇2, 3, 张雷1, 李云波1, 李筑眉4, 粟海军2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 贵州习水国家级自然保护区管理局, 贵州习水 564600
    2 贵州大学林学院, 贵阳 550025
    3 贵州大学生物多样性与自然保护研究中心, 贵阳 550025
    4 贵州生物研究所, 贵阳 550009
  • 收稿日期:2018-12-31 接受日期:2019-04-24 出版日期:2019-06-20
  • 通讯作者: 粟海军 E-mail:hjsu@gzu.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    贵州省林业科研课题(黔林科合[2013]4号);习水自然保护区红外相机监测科技支撑校地合作项目;黔科合重大专项字[2016]3022-1号;国家自然科学基金(31860610);贵州省科技计划项目(黔科合支撑[2019]2842号)

Field monitoring using infrared cameras and activity rhythm analysis on mammals and birds in Xishui National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China

Mu Jun1, Wang Jiaojiao2, 3, Zhang Lei1, Li Yunbo1, Li Zhumei4, Su Haijun2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 Guizhou Xishui National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau, Xishui, Guizhou 564600
    2 College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    3 Research Center for Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    4 Guizhou Institute of Biology, Guiyang 550009
  • Received:2018-12-31 Accepted:2019-04-24 Online:2019-06-20
  • Contact: Su Haijun E-mail:hjsu@gzu.edu.cn

2015年7月至2017年11月, 我们利用红外相机对贵州习水国家级自然保护区的鸟类及兽类进行监测。结果表明: (1)共记录到鸟类5目20科56种、兽类5目12科28种, 其中国家I级重点保护动物有林麝(Moschus berezovskii), 国家II级重点保护动物有红腹角雉(Tragopan temminckii)、白鹇(Lophura nycthemera)、鹰雕(Nisaetus nipalensis)、中华鬣羚(Capricornis milneedwardsii)等13种。鹰雕为贵州省新记录, 白腹锦鸡(Chrysolophus amherstiae)、白眉鸫(Turdus obscurus)等10种为保护区新记录。(2)从中国动物地理区划来看, 保护区物种以东洋型(41.67%)为主, 南中国型(29.76%)次之; 东北型(2.38%)最少。(3)区内4种主要兽类中, 毛冠鹿(Elaphodus cephalophus)主要在傍晚活动; 赤腹松鼠(Callosciurus erythraeus)日活动节律呈季节性变化, 春秋季集中在午间活动, 夏季集中在早上活动, 冬季则呈现活动双峰, 分别是在8:00-10:00及16:00-18:00之间; 豪猪(Hystrix brachyura)主要在20:00-24:00之间活动; 藏酋猴(Macaca thibetana)秋冬季集中在14:00-16:00活动, 而春季则在早上10:00-12:00之间较活跃, 夏季也有2个活动高峰, 分别是在12:00-14:00及16:00-18:00。2种主要雉类的活动节律明显不同, 红腹锦鸡(Chrysolophus pictus)春夏季都较为集中在午间活动, 而秋季主要在6:00-8:00之间; 红腹角雉春夏两季活动高峰在早上, 秋冬季则是在14:00-16:00之间活动频繁。本监测结果有利于进一步了解和促进此区域的生物多样性及其保护。

关键词: 红外相机陷阱技术, 野生动物监测, 生物编目, 活动节律, 习水国家级自然保护区

In order to further enrich the regional bio-inventories of mammals and birds for the Wulingshan Priority Area for Biodiversity Conservation of China (WPABCC), we monitored mammals and birds using infrared cameras in Xishui National Nature Reserve (XNNR) in Guizhou Province from July 2015 to November 2017. From the camera data, a total of 56 avian species were classified into 5 orders and 20 families, and 28 mammal species were classified into 5 orders and 12 families. One species, Moschus berezovskii is listed as a first-level species on the China National Key List for Wildlife Protection, and 13 species including Tragopan temminckii, Lophura nycthemera, Nisaetus nipalensis, and Capricornis milneedwardsii, are listed as second-level. Nisaetus nipalensis was newly recorded in this area and 10 species including Chrysolophus amherstiae, and Turdus obscurus were recorded for the first time in XNNR. According to the zoogeographic regionalization of China, the Oriental Region Type was dominant (41.67%), Southern China Region Type followed (29.76%), and Northeastern Region Type was the lowest (2.38%). The activity rhythm analysis of four dominant mammals and two dominant avian species revealed that, in mammals, Elaphodus cephalophus was more active in the evening as expected, but became active earlier in winter. The daily activity rhythm of Callosciurus erythraeus varied with seasons becoming more active at noon in spring and autumn, and in the mornings in summer. In winter, it showed two activity peaks, from 8:00 to 10:00 and from 16:00 to 18:00. Hystrix brachyura always moved frequently between 20:00-24:00 in all seasons and Macaca thibetana was active from 14:00 to 16:00 in autumn and winter, and from 10:00 to 12:00 in spring, in summer, it also had two activity peaks, from 12:00 to 14:00 and from 16:00 to 18:00. In birds, Chrysolophus pictus was active at noon in spring and summer, but from 6:00 to 8:00 in autumn; comparatively, Tragopan temminckii was more active in the morning in spring and summer, and from 14:00 to 16:00 in autumn and winter. Our results would be helpful to further understand the biodiversity and improve its conservation in this area.

Key words: infrared camera-tapping technology, wildlife monitoring, biodiversity inventory, activity rhythm, Xishui National Nature Reserve

图1

习水国家级自然保护区位置图及红外相机位点图。A: 习水保护区在贵州省位置; B: 保护区在中国武陵山生物多样性保护优先区的位置; C: 保护区功能分区与红外相机监测布设位点。"

图2

习水国家级自然保护区红外相机监测物种累积曲线"

图3

习水国家级自然保护区主要物种日活动节律"

[1] Jia XD, Liu XH, Yang XZ, Wu PF, Songer M, Cai Q, He XB, Zhu Y ( 2014) Seasonal activity patterns of ungulates in Qinling Mountains based on camera-trap data. Biodiversity Science, 22, 737-745. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 贾晓东, 刘雪华, 杨兴中, 武鹏峰, Songer M, 蔡琼, 何祥博, 朱云 ( 2014) 利用红外相机技术分析秦岭有蹄类动物活动节律的季节性差异. 生物多样性, 22, 737-745.]
[2] Jiang ZG, Liu SY, Wu Y, Jiang XL, Zhou KY ( 2017) China’s mammal diversity (2nd edition). Biodiversity Science, 25, 886-895. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 蒋志刚, 刘少英, 吴毅, 蒋学龙, 周开亚 ( 2017) 中国哺乳动物多样性(第2版). 生物多样性, 25, 886-895.]
[3] Kong H ( 2001) Xishui National Nature Reserve in Guizhou. Chinese Journal of Wildlife, 22(5), 22-23. (in Chinese)
[ 孔红 ( 2001) 贵州习水国家级自然保护区. 野生动物学报, 22(5), 22-23.]
[4] Li S, Wang DJ, Bu HL, Liu XG, Jin T ( 2016) Camera-trapping survey on the mammal diversity of the Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 36, 282-291. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 李晟, 王大军, 卜红亮, 刘小庚, 靳彤 ( 2016) 四川省老河沟自然保护区兽类多样性红外相机调查. 兽类学报, 36, 282-291.]
[5] Li S, Wang DJ, Xiao ZS, Li XH, Wang TM, Feng LM, Wang Y ( 2014) Camera-trapping in wildlife research and conservation in China: Review and outlook. Biodiversity Science, 22, 685-695. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 李晟, 王大军, 肖治术, 李欣海, 王天明, 冯利民, 王云 ( 2014) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物研究与保护中的应用与前景. 生物多样性, 22, 685-695.]
[6] Liu XB, Wei W, Zheng XG, Zhao KH, He SW, Zhou WL ( 2017) Activity rhythms of golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and Satyr tragopan (Tragopan temminckii) revealed by infrared-triggered cameras. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 52, 194-202. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 刘小斌, 韦伟, 郑筱光, 赵凯辉, 何少文, 周文良 ( 2017) 红腹锦鸡和红腹角雉活动节律——基于红外相机监测数据. 动物学杂志, 52, 194-202.]
[7] Luo Y ( 2012) Study on Scientific Investigation of Xishui Reserve in Guizhou. Guizhou Science and Technology Publishing House, Guiyang. (in Chinese)
[ 罗扬 ( 2012) 贵州习水保护区科学考察研究. 贵州科技出版社, 贵阳.]
[8] Mu J, Wang JJ, Hu CS, Zhang MM, Li ZM, Zhang L, Li YB, Su HJ ( 2018) Hawk eagle Nisaetus nipalensis found in Xishui, Guizhou. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 53, 527, 553. (in Chinese)
[ 穆君, 王娇娇, 胡灿实, 张明明, 李筑眉, 张雷, 李云波, 粟海军 ( 2018) 贵州习水发现鹰雕. 动物学杂志, 53, 527, 553.]
[9] O’Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU ( 2011) Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer, Tokyo.
[10] Ran JC, Luo Y, Luo HZ, Liu WF, Wang LQ ( 2002) Preliminary report on the vertebrate fauna of Xishui National Nature Reserve in Guizhou. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 37, 45-50. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 冉景丞, 罗杨, 罗洪章, 刘维风, 王利强 ( 2002) 贵州习水国家级自然保护区脊椎动物区系初报. 动物学杂志, 37, 45-50.]
[11] Ran JC, Luo HZ, Luo Y, Liu WF, Wang LQ, Guo JY ( 2003) The pilot study in possible existance of Panthera tigris amoyensis in Xishui Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province. Guizhou Science, 21(3), 39-43. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 冉景丞, 罗洪章, 罗杨, 刘维风, 王利强, 郭俊源 ( 2003) 贵州习水自然保护区华南虎野生种群生存的可能性初步研究. 贵州科学, 21(3), 39-43.]
[12] Ran JH, Xu W, Cai HX, Lin ZH, Yuan YF ( 2005) A primary study on the biology of red-bellied squirrels. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 26(6), 8-10, 13. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 冉江洪, 徐玮, 蔡红霞, 林泽红, 袁亚夫 ( 2005) 赤腹松鼠生物学特性初步研究. 四川林业科技, 26(6), 8-10, 13.]
[13] Wu PF, Liu XH, Cai Q, He XB, Songer M, Zhu Y, Shao XM ( 2012) The application of infrared camera in mammal research in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, Shaanxi. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 32, 67-71. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 武鹏峰, 刘雪华, 蔡琼, 何祥博, Songer M, 朱云, 邵小明 ( 2012) 红外相机技术在陕西观音山自然保护区兽类监测研究中的应用. 兽类学报, 32, 67-71.]
[14] Xiao ZS, Li XH, Wang XZ, Zhou QH, Quan RC, Shen XL, Li S ( 2014) Developing camera-trapping protocols for wildlife monitoring in Chinese forests. Biodiversity Science, 22, 704-711. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 肖治术, 李欣海, 王学志, 周岐海, 权锐昌, 申小莉, 李晟 ( 2014) 探讨我国森林野生动物红外相机监测规范. 生物多样性, 22, 704-711.]
[15] Yu GQ, Kang ZJ, Liu MS, Chen ZF, Deng ZC ( 2018) Preliminary survey using infrared camera reveals fauna and avifauna diversity at Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan, China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 38, 104-112. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 于桂清, 康祖杰, 刘美斯, 陈振法, 邓忠次 ( 2018) 利用红外相机对湖南壶瓶山国家级自然保护区兽类和鸟类多样性的初步调查. 兽类学报, 38, 104-112.]
[16] Zhang RZ ( 2015) Zoogeography of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 张荣祖 ( 2015) 中国动物地理. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[17] Zheng GM ( 2017) A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 郑光美 ( 2017) 中国鸟类分类与分布名录. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[1] 王渊, 李晟, 刘务林, 朱雪林, 李炳章. 西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区金猫的色型类别与活动节律[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 638-647.
[2] 陈立军,束祖飞,肖治术. 应用红外相机数据研究动物活动节律——以广东车八岭保护区鸡形目鸟类为例[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 266-272.
[3] 房以好, 任国鹏, 高颖, 张淑霞, 王浩瀚, 李延鹏, 黄志旁, 崔亮伟, 肖文. 红外相机安放于地面和林冠层对野生动物监测结果的影响[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(7): 717-726.
[4] 胡茜茜, 郑维超, 李佳琦, 李晟, 杨晗, 陈星, 官天培. 四姑娘山国家级自然保护区鸟兽多样性初步调查[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(12): 1325-1331.
[5] 林开淼, 徐建国, 李文周, 黄雅琼, 陈斌, 郭进辉. 福建省戴云山野生哺乳动物和鸟类红外相机监测[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(12): 1332-1337.
[6] 施小刚, 胡强, 李佳琦, 唐卓, 杨建, 李文静, 申小莉, 李晟. 利用红外相机调查四川卧龙国家级自然保护区鸟兽多样性[J]. 生物多样性, 2017, 25(10): 1131-1136.
[7] 李峰, 蒋志刚. 狗獾夜间活动节律是受人类活动影响而形成的吗?基于青海湖地区的研究实例[J]. 生物多样性, 2014, 22(6): 758-763.
[8] 吴洪潘, 初红军, 王渊, 马建伟, 葛炎, 布兰. 卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区水源地蒙古野驴的活动节律: 基于红外相机监测数据[J]. 生物多样性, 2014, 22(6): 752-757.
[9] 肖治术, 李欣海, 王学志, 周岐海, 权锐昌, 申小莉, 李晟. 探讨我国森林野生动物红外相机监测规范[J]. 生物多样性, 2014, 22(6): 704-711.
[10] 张履冰, 崔绍朋, 黄元骏, 陈代强, 乔慧捷, 李春旺, 蒋志刚. 红外相机技术在我国野生动物监测中的应用: 问题与限制[J]. 生物多样性, 2014, 22(6): 696-703.
[11] 贾晓东, 刘雪华, 武鹏峰, 杨兴中, 蔡琼, 何祥博, 朱云. 利用红外相机技术分析秦岭有蹄类动物活动节律的季节性差异[J]. 生物多样性, 2014, 22(6): 737-745.
[12] 张晴柔, 蒋赏, 鞠瑞亭, 潘晓云. 上海市外来入侵物种[J]. 生物多样性, 2013, 21(6): 732-737.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed