生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (11): 1223-1235.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018080

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

典型红树林生态系统藻类多样性及其在生态过程中的作用

高宇1,2,3, 林光辉1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1 清华大学地球系统科学系地球系统数值模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100084
    2 全球变化与中国绿色发展协同创新中心, 北京 100875
    3 清华大学深圳研究生院海洋科学与技术学部, 广东深圳 518055
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-19 接受日期:2018-05-18 出版日期:2018-11-20 发布日期:2019-01-08
  • 通讯作者: 林光辉
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    科技部基础资源调查专项(2017FY100703)、全球变化重大研究计划项目(2013CB956600)、国家海洋局公益性行业科研专项(201305021)和深圳市基础研究项目(JCYJ201505291649187360)

Algal diversity and their importance in ecological processes in typical mangrove ecosystems

Yu Gao1,2,3, Guanghui Lin1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
    2 Joint Center for Global Change Studies, Beijing 100875
    3 Division of Marine Sciences & Technology, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055;
  • Received:2018-03-19 Accepted:2018-05-18 Online:2018-11-20 Published:2019-01-08
  • Contact: Lin Guanghui
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

藻类是红树林生态系统重要的生物类群, 根据生态习性可分为浮游植物、底栖微藻和大型藻类三个生态类群, 它们在红树林生态系统生物多样性、初级生产、元素循环等方面起着重要作用。但在红树林生态系统中, 关注重点多集中在红树植物和动物, 对其中的藻类重视不够, 且多数研究集中在近20年以及亚洲的红树林区。事实上, 红树林生态系统藻类非常丰富, 其多样性研究有助于深入揭示红树林生态系统的结构与功能。本文介绍了红树林生态系统藻类的组成类群及其重要性, 重点对红树林区浮游植物、底栖硅藻和大型海藻的种类组成、地理分布及其与初级生产力、水质污染、元素循环、碳库形成等生态过程中的作用的研究动态和进展等进行了总结。根据已有研究, 红树林区浮游植物和底栖硅藻的种类数一般为几十到上百种, 其中硅藻在种类和数量上都占绝对优势, 它们是重要的初级生产者、饵料生物和水质污染指示生物; 红树林区底栖大型藻类主要由红藻、绿藻、褐藻、蓝藻组成, 绿藻的种类较多, 红藻在数量上占优势; 藻类是红树林湿地碳库的重要贡献者, 在红树林湿地生态系统碳汇和碳循环中起重要作用。红树林生态系统是个高度动态和异质的系统, 今后应加强红树林藻类多样性的长周期、大尺度变化及不同生境藻类的综合研究, 关注大陆径流和潮汐对藻类多样性和蓝碳的影响, 借助沉积物藻类记录, 探明红树林区藻类的长周期变化, 反演气候变化和人类活动对红树林生态系统的影响过程和机制。

关键词: 浮游植物, 底栖藻类, 红树林区, 种类组成, 地理分布

Abstract:

Algae are important flora in mangrove ecosystems. Algae can be divided into three ecological groups, namely phytoplankton, benthic microalgae, and macroalgae in mangrove ecosystems, which play important roles in organic carbon production and nutrient cycle. Despite the importance of algae for ecosystem function, studies of mangrove ecosystems have focused on higher plants and animals, with few studies of algae. Due to their abundance in mangrove ecosystems, studies of algae can broaden our understanding about the structure and function of mangrove ecosystems. In this review, we first briefly introduce algal groups and their ecological importance in mangrove ecosystems. Then, we emphasize species composition and geographical distribution of phytoplankton, benthic diatoms and macroalgae, and their importance in key ecological processes such as primary production, water pollution, element cycle, and carbon stock dynamics in mangrove ecosystem. The researches have showed that the species number of phytoplankton and benthic diatoms in mangroves varied from dozens to hundreds, and diatoms are dominant both in species composition and abundance, which are important primary producer, animal food, and pollution indicator. Macroalgae are mainly composed of red algae, green algae, brown algae and blue-green algae. Green algae are dominant in species richness whereas red algae are abundant in quantity. Algae contribute significantly to the carbon pool by sequestering and cycling carbon. We propose that future studies should focus on algal diversity and its role in ecological processes in mangrove ecosystems. Furthermore, we suggest that studies of algae should be part of comprehensive investigations on long-term ecosystem dynamics. The influence of continental runoff and tidal patterns on algal diversity and blue carbon dynamics in mangrove areas also deserve more attention, on account of being directly related to nutrient replenishment and dynamics. Since algal diversity in mangrove sediment is influenced by physico-chemical and biological condition of the system, it could be used as an indicator of climate change and effects of anthropogenic activity on mangrove ecosystems.

Key words: phytoplankton, benthic algae, mangrove forest, species composition, geographical distribution