生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (9): 1031-1038.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016115

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麋鹿夜间卧息地选择的季节变化

李弛1, 杨道德1, , A;*(), 张玉铭2, 宋玉成1, 3, 李鹏飞2, 蒋志刚4, , A;*()   

  1. 1 .中南林业科技大学野生动植物保护研究所, 长沙 410004
    2 .湖北石首麋鹿国家级自然保护区管理处, 湖北石首 434400
    3.湖南东洞庭湖国家级自然保护区管理局, 湖南岳阳 414000
    4 .国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
  • 出版日期:2016-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨道德,蒋志刚 E-mail:csfuyydd@126.com;jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    湖南省自然科学基金(2015JJ2195)和国家自然科学基金(31071946, 31402021)

Seasonal variation in nocturnal bed-site selection by Milu (Elaphurus davidianus) in Hubei Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve, China

Chi Li1, Daode Yang1, *(), Yuming Zhang2, Yucheng Song1, 3, Pengfei Li2, Zhigang Jiang4, *()   

  1. 1 Institute of Wildlife Conservation, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004
    2 Administration Bureau of Hubei Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve, Shishou, Hubei 434400
    3 Administration Bureau of Hunan East Dongting Lake National Nature Reserve, Yueyang, Hunan 414000 ; Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Online:2016-09-20
  • Contact: Yang Daode,Jiang Zhigang E-mail:csfuyydd@126.com;jiangzg@ioz.ac.cn

卧息地选择是野生动物对生态环境的行为适应。为了探讨麋鹿(Elaphurus davidianus)夜间卧息地选择的季节变化, 2013年11月至2014年12月, 采用跟踪调查法与直接观察法, 对湖北石首麋鹿国家级自然保护区围栏内麋鹿184个夜间卧息样方和184个对照样方的生态因子信息进行了观测记录。结果表明: 麋鹿春、秋、冬3个季节夜间卧息时均选择隐蔽度较高、草本盖度较高、食物丰富度较高、距隐蔽物(芦苇或树林)较近的林地生境(P < 0.05), 并且春、秋季夜间选择在距道路距离与距居民点距离上的差异不显著(P > 0.05); 夏季夜间选择在草本盖度较低、食物丰富度较低、隐蔽度较低、距隐蔽物较近、距道路与居民点距离较远、距水源较近的滩涂生境卧息(P < 0.05); 冬季夜间选择在风速较小、距道路与居民点较近的生境卧息。判别分析表明: 草本盖度、食物丰富度、距道路距离、隐蔽度、风速、距水源距离以及距隐蔽物距离这7个因子组成的判别函数可区分不同季节麋鹿的夜间卧息地, 且麋鹿在不同季节的夜间卧息地特征存在部分重叠, 这可能与不同季节间食物、水、温度与人为干扰等因子的差异性有关。建议该保护区扩大饲料基地面积、保留麋鹿卧息隐蔽环境、减少人为干扰、控制长江故道水位。

关键词: 麋鹿, 夜间卧息地, 生境选择, 行为适应, 物种重引入, 湖北石首麋鹿国家级自然保护区

Bed-site selection is the behavioral adaptation of wild animals to their ecological environment. In this study, we explored the seasonal variation of nocturnal bed-site characteristics by Milu (Elaphurus davidianus, Père David’s deer). We used direct and track observation methods to assess nocturnal bed-site selection over different seasons (November 2013 to December 2014) by Milu in Hubei Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve, China. We recorded the ecological characteristics of 184 nocturnal bed-site plots and 184 control plots. Results showed that Milu preferred bed-sites with greater woodland cover, a greater proportion of vegetation, abundant food resources, and proximity to shelter (reeds or woods) during spring, autumn and winter (P < 0.05). Moreover, differences in distance to roads and to human settlements in bed-sites selection were not significantly different (P > 0.05) during spring and autumn. In summer, the Milu population preferred bedding on bare ground characterized by a low hiding cover, higher herbage coverage, lower food abundance, close proximity to hide and water, and an increased distance to road and human settlement (P < 0.05). This is in contrast to winter, as the Milu population preferred bed-sites with lower wind speeds that were closer to roads and human settlements (P < 0.05). Stepwise discriminant analysis indicated that seasonal nocturnal bed-site selection by the Milu population could be discriminated with three canonical discriminant functions. A Fisher discriminant function composed of herbage coverage, food abundance, hiding cover, wind speed, and distance to hide and water could discriminate the seasonal nocturnal bed-site of the Milu population. The characteristics of bed-sites selected by Milu in different seasons had some similarities and differences, most likely as a result of food, water, temperature, and anthropogenic interference. On the basis of our findings, we suggest to expand supplementary feed base, to retain vegetation that provide adequate cover for Milu, to reduce anthropogenic interference and to regulate water levels in the oxbow around the nature reserve for the conservation of Milu in this area.

Key words: Elaphurus davidianus, nocturnal bed-sites, habitat selection, behavioral adaptation, species re-introduction, Hubei Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve

表1

不同季节麋鹿对生境类型的偏好选择"

生境类型
Habitat type
季节
Season
期望利用比例
Expected proportion used
(Pw)
实际利用比率
Actual proportion used
(Pi)
Pi 的Bonferroni 95%置信区间
Bonferroni 95% confidence
interval for Pi
草地 Grassland 春季 Spring 0.073 0.073 -0.015 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.161 (o)
夏季 Summer 0.353 0.088 -0.034 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.210 (-)
秋季 Autumn 0.797 0.576 0.411 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.742 (-)
冬季 Winter 0.286 0.400 0.118 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.682 (o)
林地 Woodland 春季 Spring 0.200 0.364 0.201 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.527 (+)
夏季 Summer 0.441 0.235 0.053 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.418 (-)
秋季 Autumn 0.051 0.288 0.136 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.440 (+)
冬季 Winter 0.000 0.350 0.075 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.625 (+)
芦苇地 Reed land 春季 Spring 0.091 0.218 0.078 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.358 (o)
夏季 Summer 0.147 0.147 -0.006 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.300 (o)
秋季 Autumn 0.034 0.136 0.021 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.250 (o)
冬季 Winter 0.095 0.300 0.036 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.564 (o)
滩涂地 Mudflat 春季 Spring 0.636 0.345 0.184 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.507 (-)
夏季 Summer 0.059 0.529 0.314 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.744 (+)
秋季 Autumn 0.102 0.000 0.000 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.000 (-)
冬季 Winter - - -
伐迹地 Clear-cutting reed sites 春季 Spring - - -
夏季 Summer - - -
秋季 Autumn 0.034 0.000 0.000 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.000 (-)
冬季 Winter 0.619 0.000 0.000 ≤ Pi ≤ 0.000 (-)

图1

不同季节麋鹿夜间卧息地判别分类图"

表3

不同季节麋鹿夜间卧息地数值型生态因子的逐步判别分析结果"

变量 Variable 判别函数系数 Discriminant function coefficient Wilks’ Lambda F P
函数1 Function 1 函数2 Function 2 函数3 Function 3
隐蔽度 Hiding cover -0.803 0.257 0.701 0.651 29.246 <0.05
草本盖度 Herbage coverage -1.285 0.719 -0.312 0.434 28.103 <0.05
食物丰富度 Food abundance 0.641 -0.189 0.957 0.322 26.002 <0.05
距道路距离 Distance to road 0.819 -0.348 0.357 0.259 23.683 <0.05
距隐蔽物距离 Distance to hide 0.382 -0.066 0.064 0.197 23.663 <0.05
距水源距离 Distance to water 0.588 0.439 0.464 0.155 23.319 <0.05
风速 Wind speed 0.359 0.757 -0.277 0.144 20.853 <0.05
Wilks’ Lambda 0.144 0.361 0.645 - - -
F, df, P 313.027, 21 <0.05 164.739, 12 <0.05 70.782, 5 <0.05 - - -
特征值 Eigenvalue 1.505 0.789 0.550 - - -
贡献率 Explained variance (%) 52.90 27.80 19.30 - - -
累计贡献率 Cumulative variance (%) 52.90 80.70 100.0 - - -
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