生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (2): 217-224.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015049

所属专题: 中国生物物种编目进展

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中国高等植物多样性

王利松*(), 贾渝, 张宪春, 覃海宁   

  1. 中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2015-03-06 接受日期:2015-03-14 出版日期:2015-03-20 发布日期:2015-04-09
  • 通讯作者: 王利松

Overview of higher plant diversity in China

Lisong Wang*(), Yu Jia, Xianchun Zhang, Haining Qin   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Systematics and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2015-03-06 Accepted:2015-03-14 Online:2015-03-20 Published:2015-04-09
  • Contact: Wang Lisong

摘要:

据最新资料统计, 中国有野生高等植物454科3,818属35,112种。其中, 苔藓植物151科602属3,045种; 蕨类植物38科176属2,124种; 裸子植物8科37属227种; 被子植物257科3,003属29,716种。根据世界高等植物多样性相关研究数据, 中国的苔藓、蕨类、裸子植物和被子植物物种多样性分别占世界的18.8%、17.7%、22.2%和11.1%。中国高等植物特有属共212属, 其中苔藓7属、蕨类2属、裸子植物7属、被子植物196属; 特有种共17,439种, 其中苔藓524种、蕨类840种、裸子植物115种、被子植物15,960种; 特有种比例分别为17.2%、39.6%、50.7%和53.7%。因此, 中国高等植物中国特有种的比例为49.7%, 维管植物为52.8%, 种子植物为53.7%。物种多样性最高的前10个科依次为: 菊科(227属/2,315种)、禾本科(215/1,787)、豆科(141/1,631)、兰科(205/1,556)、唇形科(103/975)、毛茛科(38/957)、蔷薇科(53/954)、莎草科(32/871)、杜鹃花科(22/841)和茜草科(94/696)。特有属最多的前12个科依次为: 苦苣苔科(26属)、菊科(18)、兰科(14)、唇形科(11)、伞形科(9)、十字花科(9)、夹竹桃科(6)、禾本科(6)、野牡丹科(5)、紫草科(4)、茜草科(4)和毛茛科(4)。物种多样性最高的前10个属依次为: 杜鹃花属(Rhododendron) (588种)、薹草属(Carex) (537)、黄芪属(Astragalus) (420)、马先蒿属(Pedicularis) (363)、紫堇属(Corydalis) (357)、报春花属(Primula) (310)、风毛菊属(Saussurea) (293)、柳属(Salix) (279)、凤仙花属(Impatiens) (274)和龙胆属(Gentiana) (255)。特有种最多的前10个属依次为: 杜鹃花属(433种)、马先蒿属(283)、薹草属(273)、紫堇属(258)、黄芪属(237)、凤仙花属(234)、报春花属(222)、小檗属(Berberis) (209)、楼梯草属(Elatostema) (207)和风毛菊属(196)。物种数目超过5,000种的省区依次为: 云南(15,900种)、四川(10,374)、西藏(7,629)、广西(7,399)、贵州(6,405)、广东(5,498)和台湾(5,290)。在17个世界生物多样性大国中, 按物种多样性排序, 中国略低于巴西, 位列第四; 按照物种特有比例排序, 中国略高于菲律宾, 位列第七。

关键词: 高等植物, 植物志, 分类学, 物种名录, 中国

Abstract:

According to an overview of higher plant diversity in China, China has 35,112 native species of higher plants belonging to 3,818 genera and 454 families. Among them, there are 3,045 bryophyte species in 602 genera and 151 families, 2,124 pteridophyte species in 176 genera and 38 families, 227 gymnosperm species in 37 genera and 8 families, and 29,716 angiosperm species in 3,003 genera and 257 families. Comparisons with recent estimates of global species diversity suggests that the species diversity of Chinese bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms account for 18.8%, 17.7%, 22.2% and 11.1%, respectively of the global totals. A total of 212 genera are endemic to China with 7 bryophytes, 2 pteridophytes, 7 gymnosperms, and 196 angiosperms. A total of 17,439 species are endemic to China including 524 bryophytes, 840 pteridophytes, 115 gymnosperms, and 15,960 angiosperms. The percentages of endemic species (POES) for each group in the country are 17.2%, 39.6%, 50.7%, and 53.7%, respectively. This translates to a POES of 49.7% for higher plants (including bryophytes, pteridophytes and seed plants), a POES of 52.8% for vascular plants (including pteridophytes and seed plants), and a POES of 53.7% for seeds plants (including gymnosperms and angiosperms). The top 10 families with highest species diversity are Asteraceae (227 genera/2,315 species), Poaceae (215/1,787), Fabaceae (141/1,631), Orchidaceae (205/1,556), Lamiaceae (103/975), Ranunculaceae (38/957), Rosaceae (53/954), Cyperaceae (32/871), Ericaceae (22/841), and Rubiaceae (94/696). The top 12 families with highest endemic genera are Gesneriaceae (26 genera), Asteraceae (18), Orchidaceae (14), Lamiaceae (11), Apiaceae (9), Brassicaceae (9), Apocynaceae (6), Poaceae (6), Melastomataceae (5), Boraginaceae (4), Rubiaceae (4), and Ranunculaceae (4). The top 10 genera with highest species diversity are Rhododendron (588 species), Carex (537), Astragalus (420), Pedicularis (363), Corydalis (357), Primula (310), Saussurea (293), Salix (279), Impatiens (274), and Gentiana (255). The top 10 genera with highest endemic species are: Rhododendron (433 species), Pedicularis (283), Carex (273), Corydalis (258), Astragalus (237), Impatiens (234), Primula (222), Berberis (209), Elatostema (207), and Saussurea (196). Diversity bearing with more than 5,000 species among the seven Chinese provinces is as follows: Yunnan (15,900 species), Sichuan (10,374), Tibet (7,629), Guangxi (7,399), Guizhou (6,405), Guangdong (5,498) and Taiwan (5,290). Among the 17 mega-diversity countries China is ranked the fourth when ordered by total species diversity and, seventh when ordered by POES.

Key words: higher plant, flora, descriptive taxonomy, checklist, China