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Table of Content
    Volume 23 Issue 1
    20 January 2015

    Salvia which consists of 952 species is the largest genus of the family Lamiaceae. Wei et al. studied the species diversity and distribution pattern of Salvia in the world, especially the species in China (for details see pages 3–10 in this issue). The photos showed the flower diversity of Chinese Salvia plants. (Photographed by Yanbo Huang and Yukun Wei)

    Biodiversity monitoring in China: from CForBio to Sino BON
    Keping Ma
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  1-2.  doi:10.17520/biods.2015025
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    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    Species diversity and distribution of Salvia (Lamiaceae)
    Yukun Wei, Qi Wang, Yanbo Huang
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  3-10.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014070
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    To understand patterns of species diversity distribution and speciation mechanisms for Salvia (Lamiaceae) plants, we queried species names and specimen collection information from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), The Plant List, Chinese Virtual Herbarium (CVH), Specimen Resources Sharing Platform for Education, Specimen Resources Sharing Platform of Chinese Nature Reserves as well as collection information for Salvia spp. specimens preserved in 32 Chinese herbaria. Based on these collection data, we analyzed the distributional patterns and plotted distribution maps at the country and geographic regional level (e.g. the Hengduan Mountains, Qinling Mountains, Wuling Mountains, Nanling Mountains, Dabie Mountains, and Tianmu-Huangshan Mountains), respectively. Additionally, the records from Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China were obtained at the county level. In total our sample consisted of 57,674 global distributional records and 11,596 Chinese records, and 952 accepted names of Salvia were confirmed. Globally, Central and South America (510 species) support the largest number of species, followed by West Asia (270 species), Europe (117 species), East Asia (97 species) and North America (94 species). At the national level, Mexico supports the largest number of species (322), followed by Russia (109), Turkey (88), the United States (85) and China (82). Within China, Yunnan and Sichuan provinces support a substantially larger number of species than other provinces, accounting for 63% of the total number of Salvia species in China. The three counties within Yunnan and Sichuan provinces that contain the largest number of species are Yulong (23), Shangri-la (20), Dali (13), and Muli (17), Baoxing (13) and Mabian (13). The Hengduan Mountains, with 52.8% of all Salvia species in China, contain more Salvia species than any other region in China; 23 species are endemic to this area with narrow distributions. Native Chinese Salvia species were divided into four abundance ranks based on the number of county-level records: S. plebeia ranked the highest (395 distribution counties), followed by S. japonica (199 counties), S. miltiorrhiza (192 counties), S. cavaleriei (173 counties), S. chinensis (153 counties), and S. roborowskii (100 counties). Our results indicate that Salvia is mainly distributed in temperate and subtropical high-altitude countries of the northern hemisphere; China is the center of diversity in East Asia, containing representative and narrow-range endemic species. Within China, the Hengduan Mountains have the highest species diversity and percentage of endemic species.

    Distribution and assessment of rare and endangered plants in Ganshiling Nature Reserve, Hainan
    Rongjing Zhang, Zhe Zhao, Wenba Su, Fuwu Xing
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  11-17.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014165
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    Ganshiling Nature Reserve, located on southern Hainan Island, contains a unique natural flora and preserves Hopea exalata—a species endemic to Hainan—within its large distribution area. In order to identify rare and endangered plants and learn their distribution and status in the reserve, we carried out extensive fieldwork during 2010-2012. A total of 106 species belonging to 92 genera and 49 families were recorded. Among them, 43 species were included in the List of Wild Plants Under State Protection (The First Batch and The Second Batch), 19 species in the China Plant Red Data Book, 29 species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, 61 species in the China Species Red List, 34 species in the Appendices of CITES, and 76 species in the List of Wild Plants Under Hainan Provincial Protection. The percentage of rare and endangered plants was slightly lower than those of three neighboring national nature reserves, i.e. Wuzhishan, Yinggeling and Jianfengling. According to our assessment, the rare and endangered species in Ganshiling Mountain were divided into very rare species (3 species), rare species (15 species), occasional species (63 species) and common species (25 species). Among them, 13 species are endemic to China and 22 species are endemic to Hainan (including 2 species endemic to Ganshiling Mountain). Finally, we propose that 46 species should either receive upgraded protection level or be included in the protection list.

    Phenotypic plasticity of Alternanthera philoxeroides in response to shading: introduced vs. native populations
    Ziyan Zhang, Zhijie Zhang, Xiaoyun Pan
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  18-22.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014065
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    It is still debated whether invasive plants have superior functional traits or the ability to display increased phenotypic plasticity in the introduced area. We conducted common garden experiments using five native populations and five invasive populations of Alternanthera philoxeroides to look for differences in phenotypic plasticity in response to shading of functional traits between introduced and native populations. We found both native and introduced plants showed significant phenotypic plasticity in response to shading, including reduction of biomass, root / shoot ratio (RSR) and branch biomass fraction (BBF), and increasing in specific stem length (SSL) and specific leaf area (SLA). The introduced populations (from the USA) showed higher plasticity in response to shading than the native Argentina population in traits such as RSR, BBF and SSL. Introduced plants also show significant reductions in RSR (-20.8%), BBF (-54.6%), SSL (-18.5%) and SLA (-8.8%). Our results suggest that A. philoxeroides has evolved a lower plastic response to shading in its introduced range, which might contribute to the establishment of dense populations with high persistence and resistance to colonization by sympatric native species.

    Species composition and seasonal variation of netz-phytoplankton in the eastern marginal China seas
    Qianqian Zhou, Changping Chen, Junrong Liang, Yahui Gao
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  23-32.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014103
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    The abundance and seasonal variation of phytoplankton were studied in the eastern marginal China seas (25.00°-39.00° N, 118.00°-129.00° E). Based on surveys in June and July 2006, January and February 2007, November 2007 and April and May 2009, we analyzed the species composition, community structure, and cell density of netz-phytoplankton (mesh size 77 μm). A total of 257 phytoplankton species were identified, belonging to 70 genera and 4 classes. Bacillariolhyta was the dominant functional group, followed by Pyrrophyta. The dominant species were Skeletonema spp., Thalassiosira subtilis, T. scrotiformis, Thalassionema frauenfeldii, T. nitzschioides, Paralia sulcata, Chaetoceros lorenzianus, C. curvisetus, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens and Noctiluca scintillans. The cell density of the phytoplankton ranged from 0.02×10 4 cells/m 3 in the Yellow Sea in winter to 31,350.21×10 4 cells/m 3 in the Yangtze River in spring. Overall phytoplankton cell density showed the following seasonal trend: spring > summer > autumn > winter.

    Original Papers: Animal Diversity
    Regulation of free-ranging Milu population in Shishou, Hubei, China: a density-dependent decrease in birth rate
    Yucheng Song, Pengfei Li, Daode Yang, Huajun Wen, Yuming Zhang, Zhigang Jiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  33-40.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014200
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    To understand density-dependent processes in a reintroduced free-ranging Milu deer population, we monitored the Milu population in the Hubei Shishou Milu National Nature Reserve (SMNNR) from 1993 to 2013. We collected data on vital rates, including the mortality, survival and birth rate in the population (SMNNRP) using direct divisional counting. We used these data to explore how and if density-dependence regulates the SMNNRP. Our results showed: (1) Based on the annual rate of change of population size, the SMNNRP’s development can be divided into five stages, that is, the stable growth stage (1993-1997), the rapid growth stage (1998-2006), the slow growth stage (2007-2009), the rapidly declining stage (2010) and the population restoration stage (2011-2013). (2) From 1993 to 1997, the population growth rate was 16.60±3.10 (%), and the mortality rate was 4.34±0.93 (%). From 1998 to 2006, the population growth rate was increased to 28.98±3.62 (%), and the mortality rate was 4.35±2.31 (%). From 2007-2009, the population growth rate decreased to 7.36±1.64 (%), and the mortality rate increased to 6.32±2.85 (%). In 2010, an infectious disease caused a significant decrease in population size. From 2011 to 2013, the population growth rate increased to 10.95±4.04 (%), while mortality rate decreased to 5.7±2.03 (%). (3) In SMNNRP, population density was negatively related with population growth rate (r=-0.612, P=0.005<0.01), but was not positively related with the mortality rate (r=0.425, P=0.062>0.05). (4) Throughout all stages, SMNNRP adult and fawn survival rates were relatively stable, except in 2010. In 2010, a disease outbreak caused a spike in deaths, and the survival rates of adults and fawns were 65.05% and 0 respectively. Before and after the disease in 2010, adult survival was 95.40±1.56 (%) and 96.67±0.92 (%) respectively, and fawn survival was 95.79±1.80 (%) and 94.04±2.20 (%) respectively. Survival rates before 2010 did not differ from those after 2010 for either life stage (adult: t=-0.503, df=8, P=0.628>0.05; fawn: t=0.558, df=8, P=0.592>0.05). (5) Neither adult nor fawn survival rates were related to population density in SMNNRP (adult: r= -0.493, P= 0.124>0.05; fawn: r= -0.411, P=0.209>0.05). But there was a negative relationship between the population density and the birth rate (r=-0.902, P=0.000<0.01). Our results implied that density dependence had affected SMNNRP through decreasing birth rates since 2003. The factors regulating this population were classified into density-dependent and environment factors, including flood, disease and human interference. Our study provides information that is useful for the protection and management of free-ranging Milu populations.

    Biodiversity of macrofauna in the southern waters of Miaodao Archipelago, China
    Naicheng Li, Xiaoshou Liu, Zhaodong Xu, Rui Zhao, Honghua Shi
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  41-49.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014100
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    The objectives of this study were to reveal fluctuations in the macrofaunal biodiversity and to provide a scientific basis for sustainable exploration of biological resources in the southern waters of the Miaodao Archipelago. Accordingly, in November 2012, February 2013, May 2013 and August 2013, four cruises were carried out in this area to investigate patterns in macrofaunal biodiversity. Shannon-Wiener diversity index, species evenness and richness indices were compared to investigate biodiversity patterns. Meanwhile, species composition and dominant species of macrofauna were also estimated. A total of 164 species of macrofauna were identified, including 82 species of polychaetes, 38 species of crustaceans, 30 species of mollusks, 9 species of echinoderms, and 5 species from other phyla. The species number of each station ranged from 6 to 42. Numbers of species in summer and winter were higher than in spring. No seasonal differences in Shannon-Wiener diversity were detected. Pielou’s evenness index was highest in summer and spring. The species richness index was slightly lower in spring and in summer. It was revealed that the number of species and the abundance had great effects on macrobenthic species diversity, while some environmental factors correlated closely with biodiversity. Sediment levels of organic matter and chlorophyll were the main factors affecting biodiversity of macrofauna, through their influence on number of species and evenness. According to abundance-biomass comparison curves (ABC curves), macrobenthic communities at Station C13 (between Miao Island and Beichangshan Island), Stations C17 and C28 (close to Miao Island) were affected by moderate disturbance. Disturbance was not detected at the other stations in the study area.

    DNA barcoding of hydromedusae in northern Beibu Gulf for species identification
    Dangni Zhang, Lianming Zheng, Jinru He, Wenjing Zhang, Yuanshao Lin, Yang Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  50-60.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014089
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    Being a major component of coastal zooplankton assemblages, hydromedusae play a key role in material recycling and energy flow of marine ecosystems. Species identification is challenging for this group due to their phonetic simplicity. DNA barcoding provides an efficient method for species identification. In the present study, 92 COI and 116 16S sequences from 28 hydromedusae species were amplified. A neighbor- joining phylogenetic tree was constructed based on Kimura 2-parameter genetic distance and further studied using Klee-diagram vector analysis. Intra-specific K2P genetic distance averaged 0.008±0.005 (0-0.033) for COI, and 0.006±0.010 (0-0.047) for 16S; inter-specific K2P genetic distance averaged 0.298±0.128 (0.092- 0.597), and 0.394±0.195 (0.068-0.898) for COI and 16S, respectively. An obvious “barcoding gap” was detected for all species in both markers and all individuals of a species clustered together in both the COI and 16S trees. Further confirmatory evidence was also provided through indicator vector analysis. Hence, both COI and 16S appear to be accurate and efficient markers for hydromedusae identification in northern Beibu Gulf.

    Original Papers: Microbial Diversity
    Genetic diversity of culturable endophytic bacteria in the roots of wild and greenhouse Cymbidium faberi
    Panpan Wang, Yongxiu Wu, Tongtong Song, Chunling Ma, Wen Zhao, Ying Wang, Lei Sun
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  61-67.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014189
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    Cymbidium faberi is a representative species of Cymbidium with high ornamental and economic value. Investigating the diversity of C. faberi’s endophytic bacteria not only enriches endophytic bacterial resources, but also provides basic data on orchid-microbe interactions. We investigated the genetic diversity of culturable endophytic bacteria in the roots of wild C. faberi from Tianmu Mountain, Zhejiang Province and C. faberi grown in a greenhouse for one year. Culture-dependent methods were used to isolate endophytic bacteria from the roots of C. faberi. The diversity of these bacteria was investigated using 16S rRNA gene partial sequence analysis. A total of 97 strains were isolated from the interior of wild C. faberi roots. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the 97 isolates were affiliated with 13 genera of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes. The dominant group was Gammaproteobacteria (86.60%), and the dominant genus was Lelliottia (26.80%). A total of 52 endophytic strains were isolated from the roots of C. faberi grown in the greenhouse. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the 52 isolates were grouped into 9 genera of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria. The dominant group was Betaproteobacteria (48.08%), and the dominant genus was Herbaspirillum (34.62%). The strain ehR17 was identified as a potential novel species. For C. faberi, the diversity of culturable endophytic bacteria was higher from the wild Tianmu Mountain population than from plants grown in the greenhouse for one year. Community structure of endophytic bacteria was closely related to plant growth environment.

    Influence of long-term fertilization on the community structure and diversity of soybean rhizobia in black soil
    Dawei Guan, Li Li, Xin Jiang, Mingchao Ma, Fengming Cao, Baoku Zhou, Jun Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  68-78.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014148
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    The objectives of this study were to explore the effects of long-term fertilization on the community structure and diversity of soybean rhizobia in black soil. BOX-PCR, IGS-PCR-RFLP and 16S rDNA gene sequencing methods were used to analyze the genetic diversity of the 254 soybean rhizobia isolated from 7 treatments at Heilongjiang Long-term Fertilization Experiment Station. The 7 treatments were as follows: no fertilization (CK), organic manure (OM), chemical nitrogen (N1), double chemical nitrogen (N2), chemical nitrogen-phosphorus (N1P1), double chemical nitrogen-phosphorus (N2P2), chemical nitrogen plus organic manure (N1+OM). Soil properties were measured and analyzed to test for relationships with the community and diversity of soybean rhizobia. All of the tested rhizobia belonged to Bradyrhizobium, of which the majority were closely related to B. japonicum and the others closely to B. liaoningense. BOX-PCR fingerprints showed that the tested rhizobia could be divided into 15 groups at 70% similarity level. These groups clustered into 3 communities that correspond to no chemical fertilizer treatments (CK, OM), chemical nitrogen fertilizer treatments (N1, N2, N1+OM), and chemical nitrogen-phosphorus treatments (N1P1, N2P2), respectively. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that pH, available N, and available P of the soil were significantly correlated with the community of rhizobia (P=0.002, 0.004, 0.002, respectively). Soybean rhizobia diversity indices varied significantly among fertilization treatments. Shannon-Wiener and species richness index were highest in N2P2 and Simpson index was highest in the OM treatment. The species richness, Shannon-Wiener and Simpson index in N1 and N2 were significantly lower than those in other treatments. The results of path analysis showed that the pH and available P had the greatest direct positive effects on the 3 indices, and that available N indirectly affected the 3 indices through pH. In conclusion, long-term chemical fertilization results in changes to community structure of soybean rhizobia in black soil, and application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer by itself reduces the diversity of soybean rhizobia, while application of nitrogen- phosphorus has the opposite effect.

    Original Papers: Ecosystem Diversity
    Effects of tending on the functional traits and functional diversity of woody plants in a secondary tropical lowland rain forest
    Xinghui Lu, Runguo Zang, Yi Ding, Jihong Huang, Xiusen Yang, Yadong Zhou
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  79-88.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014174
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    Secondary forests occupy a large and growing proportion of tropical forest coverage. Combined with the rapid decrease in primary forests, this expansion leads to increasing importance of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation and maintenance of regional ecological resources. However, in many instances the function and productivity of secondary forests are relatively low compared with old growth forests. Therefore, it may prove important to enhance the recovery rate and related ecosystem services of these forests through forest tending practices. Here, we explored the effects of tending measures on the functional traits and functional diversity of woody plants in a secondary tropical lowland rain forest in Bawangling forest region on Hainan Island. We conducted a tending practice in 60 plots (50 m × 50 m) in 2012. We logged trees which hindered the growth of the target species in 30 plots and the others were control. Then we analyzed the impact of tending on community functional traits and functional diversity with ANOVA. Our results showed that specific leaf area, leaf dry matter content, leaf nitrogen content and leaf potassium content significantly decreased at the community level with tending, but woody density and the maximum potential height significantly increased. Leaf chlorophyll content, leaf phosphorus content did not change significantly after tending. Functional richness decreased significantly, and functional evenness and functional divergence significantly increased, while functional dispersion did not change significantly after tending. Our results point to the various ways in which tending can change the trajectory of a secondary forest as it succeeds towards an old growth forest. .

    Long-term diatom biodiversity responses to productivity in lakes of Fuxian and Dianchi
    Xiaolin Chen, Guangjie Chen, Huibin Lu, Xiaodong Liu, Hucai Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  89-100.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014213
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    To date, productivity-diversity relationships (PDR) in terrestrial ecosystems have predominantly been examined across large spatial scales, while freshwater ecosystem studies typically focus on short-term field surveys. Here sediment records are used to examine the long-term patterns of PDR from two large lakes, Fuxian and Dianchi, which are currently oligo-mesotrophic and hyper-eutrophic, respectively. Changes in lake productivity and community structure were reconstructed based on sedimentary pigment concentrations (i.e. Chl-a) and diatom assemblages. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of diatom community data showed that primary productivity was the most significant environmental gradient driving diatom community changes in both lakes. Lake productivity was positively correlated to diatom alpha- and beta-diversity indices in Lake Fuxian but negative in Lake Dianchi. The relationship between the magnitude of productivity change and diatom beta-diversity was significantly negative in Lake Dianchi while no trend was found in Lake Fuxian. There was a significantly negative relationship between diatom species richness and community productivity in Lake Dianchi, suggesting the influence of increased species richness in enhancing community productivity was overridden by human disturbances. Disturbance associated changes in limnological properties not only caused the loss of biodiversity, but also directly promoted diatom production through intensive nutrient enrichment.

    Research Bulletins
    Preference of Laelia coenosa for native and introduced populations of invasive Spartina alterniflora
    Ma Ding, Ju Ruiting, Li Bo
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  101-108.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014156
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    Exotic plants may modify their resistance to herbivory in response to new phytophagous insects in their introduced ranges. Studying the variation in such resistance may help us understand the in-depth mechanisms of plant invasions. Spartina alterniflora is one of the most serious invasive plants in China’s coastal salt marshes. Investigating how S. alterniflora responds to the phytophagous insects in the introduced ranges may partially explain the mechanism of its invasion success. We conducted choice tests under controlled conditions to compare the preferences of Laelia coenosa (native to China) for native (US) and introduced (China) S. alterniflora populations. In relation to smell, caterpillars of L. coenosa did not show any preference for native or introduced populations, but the relative choice index for taste of native populations was significantly higher than that of introduced populations. This feeding preference of the caterpillars for populations of the plant from its native range suggests that S. alterniflora has altered its defense against the native phytophagous insects in their introduced range, thereby reducing insect herbivore attacks.

    Effectiveness of line transects during wild animal surveys in mountain forests of South China
    Yuan Tian, Yongjun Feng, Chunlan Zhang, Baocheng Yu, Xiaoping Tang, Huijian Hu
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  109-115.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014128
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    Line transect method is the first choice of the second terrestrial wild animal resources investigation, but has a great deal of problems in mountain forest of South China. Thus, we conducted a pilot project at Chebaling National Nature Reserve to test the survey effects of line transect method on the wild vertebrates of mountainous forest ecosystems in South China during April 19th-24th, 2010. We set 6 line transects (theoretical line transects) in the nature reserve with 3 km length at an area of 5×10 km 2, and recorded realistic line transects and calculated the sample tense and time with GPS tracks. There were two line transects did not reach 3 km during the investigation; the average time of each line-transect was 5.3±1.4 h, and the walking speed was less than 600 m/h; the detection probability of the general survey species was relatively low, and the proportion of recorded general survey species to all general survey species in the reserve (0.22) was less than that of recorded species to total species in the reserve (0.37). When the sample intensity reached 0.75%, the results can explain species diversity basically, but be limited to evaluate species richness in an area. Hence, we proposed: (1) It was feasible to set and record realistic line-transects with GPS track function; (2) the walking speed should be reduced from 2-3 km/h to 600 m/h, the length of each line transect should be 3-5 km, and 2 line transects can be scheduled in one day; (3) according to current finance and manpower, the sample tense of each species group should be slightly higher than 1.0% which was proper in the investigations areas; (4) more associated methods should be used to increase the detection probabilities of general survey species; (5) point count method and quadrat sampling method should be considered, but without the limit of sample tense at complex terrains.

    Historical retrospect on “Introduction from the Sea” in CITES
    Enyuan Fan, Xiangguo Fan, Ying Liu, Zhengguang Zhu, Xiaomei Wang, Yingchun Xing, Baoxiang Liu, Sai He
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  116-125.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014221
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    “The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora” (CITES) has been committed to the marine species resource management based on the strategy in recent years. As a Convention focusing on biodiversity conservation, working and cooperating with fishery management organization, implementing the “Introduction from the Sea” management and “Non-detrimental Findings” making are proved to be the three important components in the realization of the management objectives, where the feasibility of the implementation of “Introduction from the Sea”, which is required by the convention itself, can be regarded as the most important issue. Based on the document information and summary recording of the meetings organized by CITES and related fishery management organization, the paper retrospect the controversy arising in the meeting discussion, summarize the process of the consensus reached, and forecast the prospect of the CITES management on marine species. It is concluded that CITES will be more and more involved in marine fishery management with the advance of “Introduction from the Sea” management, which will bring significant impact on fishery in high sea. It is suggested that China highly concern about the development of the fishery management of CITES, actively join the designing of the CITES technical rules and procedure and keep improving the ability in marine species conservation and fishery management.

    Conservation of biodiversity and cultural diversity are two sides of a coin: Xishuangbanna Dai’s ecological culture as an example
    Zaifu Xu
    Biodiv Sci. 2015, 23 (1):  126-130.  doi:10.17520/biods.2014121
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    Though the global community, including China, has adopted multiple actions for biodiversity conservation, the goal of holding the current trend of rapid biodiversity loss before 2010 (the International Year of Biodiversity) promised by the leaders at the UN’s 2002 Johannesburg “World Summit on Sustainable Development” has remained unfulfilled. One limitation in reaching this goal may be the ignorance of the important roles that cultural diversity, especially indigenous or ethnic ecological culture diversity, can play in biodiversity conservation. This paper approaches the important roles played by ethnic ecological culture in biodiversity conservation and its sustainable uses using the Xishuangbanna Dai’s ecological culture of the southern Yunnan tropical rainforest as an example. This situation is like the two sides of a coin in that they supplement each other; one side cannot be present without the other.

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