生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (12): 1345-1352.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016230

• 数据论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

植物标本标签设计的原则及R程序包herblabel

张金龙*, 朱慧玲, 刘金刚, Gunter A. Fischer   

  1. 嘉道理农场暨植物园植物保育部, 香港
  • 收稿日期:2016-08-23 修回日期:2016-12-12 出版日期:2016-12-20 发布日期:2017-01-10
  • 通讯作者: 张金龙

Principles behind designing herbarium specimen labels and the R package ‘herblabel’

Jinlong Zhang*, Huiling Zhu, Jingang Liu, Gunter A. Fischer   

  1. Flora Conservation Department, Kadoorie Farm and Botanic Garden, Hong Kong
  • Received:2016-08-23 Revised:2016-12-12 Online:2016-12-20 Published:2017-01-10
  • Contact: Jinlong Zhang

摘要:

植物标本是分类学、生态学和分子生物学最重要的凭证之一。标本的采集和鉴定信息需清晰、准确、美观地展示和保存于标本标签中, 不能有歧义以及拼写错误。在标签的制作过程中, 数据输入的方式要简单、直接, 标签文件生成过程中最好能自动分析错误, 且在打印之前要便于修改和调整。本文探讨了打印植物标本标签的若干原则以及注意事项, 并介绍了用R语言编写的herblabel程序包生成植物标本标签以及鉴定标签的过程。herblabel程序包基于Darwin Core和CVH5.0数据交换标准, 可快速批量生成几种样式的RTF标签, 且标签简洁、美观, 易于编辑。herblabel程序包具有检查地点完整程度, 学名拼写和接受状态, 科、属在APG等新系统下的对应关系等功能, 可有效减少数据录入过程中产生的错误。此外, 本程序包在打印标签时使用的是基于Darwin Core标准保存的标本数据库, 不仅方便统计和管理, 也可以直接用于全球生物多样性信息网络(GBIF)数据共享或者数字植物标本馆的建设。该程序包可显著提高植物标本馆标本制作、管理和信息录入的工作效率, 减轻工作人员的负担, 并在植物生物多样性编目中发挥重要作用。

关键词: 标本馆, 植物标本, 标签, R语言程序包, 拼写, APG III, Darwin Core

Abstract

Voucher specimens are essential for plant taxonomy, ecology, and plant molecular biology. Collection and identification information should be clearly, accurately and formally printed on herbarium labels, without confusion or spelling mistakes. During the preparation of the labels, data entry should be straight-forward and easy to manage. Ideally, the herbarium label printing software should conduct a thorough evaluation to avoid potential errors, and should issue warnings accordingly. By taking these principles into account, we developed the herblabel R package for generating herbarium labels based on Darwin Core and CVH5.0 data exchange standards. During the implementation of herblabel, the spelling and status of scientific names and the family-genera relationship are compared with the embedded databases to determine potential mistakes or incongruence against APG or other new classification systems. As the template is based on Darwin Core exchange standards, the database could not only be used to generate summaries and reports but also could be shared via GBIF or virtual herbaria. This package will increase efficiency and reduce workload for herbarium specimen preparation, management, and data entry, and should play an important role in cataloging plant diversity.

Key words: herbarium, specimens, label, R package, spelling, APG III, Darwin Core