生物多样性 ›› 2012, Vol. 20 ›› Issue (1): 41-50.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2012.10168

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

马鞍列岛岩礁生境鱼类群落生态学. I.种类组成和多样性

汪振华, 章守宇(), 陈清满, 许强, 王凯   

  1. 上海海洋大学海洋科学学院, 上海 201306
  • 收稿日期:2011-09-22 接受日期:2012-01-16 出版日期:2012-01-20 发布日期:2012-02-14
  • 通讯作者: 章守宇
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: syzhang@shou.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点基础研究发展计划(2011CB111608);国家自然科学基金(41176110)

Fish community ecology in rocky reef habitat of Ma’an Archipelago. I. Species composition and diversity

Zhenhua Wang, Shouyu Zhang(), Qingman Chen, Qiang Xu, Kai Wang   

  1. College of Marine Sciences, Shanghai Ocean University, Shanghai 201306
  • Received:2011-09-22 Accepted:2012-01-16 Online:2012-01-20 Published:2012-02-14
  • Contact: Shouyu Zhang

摘要:

为了解潮下带岩礁生境的鱼类区系特征, 于2009年对马鞍列岛岩礁生境进行了12个月的多网目组合刺网采样, 从分类学和生态型组成等方面, 结合多样性和相对重要性指数, 对该生境的鱼类组成和多样性特征进行了分析。全年共采集鱼类87种, 隶属2纲14目50科73属。其中鲈形目鱼类51种, 占58.6%; 趋礁性鱼类49种, 占56.3%; 放流鱼类7种, 占8%。所有鱼类个体中, 幼鱼的总比例为67.4%。暖水种、暖温种和冷温种分别为50、36和1种; 底层、近底层和中上层鱼类各为19、46和22种, 其中褐菖鲉(Sebastiscus marmoratus)、黄姑鱼(Nibea albiflora)和赤鼻棱鳀(Thryssa kammalensis)分别为各水层的绝对优势种; 定居种、季节性洄游种和偶见种各为32、55和11种。岩礁生境鱼类多样性呈现明显的季节变化特征, 2月份最低, 9月份最高。研究结果表明, 马鞍列岛岩礁生境是以趋礁鱼类为特征群体、暖水性和暖温性鱼类共同主导、各个类型的幼鱼在夏秋季集群出现、同时也分布了一定量放流种的高鱼类多样性栖息地, 它为各种鱼类提供了优良的摄食、避敌和繁殖场所, 是近岸海洋生态系统中相当重要的生境。然而相比过去, 该生境的鱼类多样性已经大大降低, 因此需对其保护工作予以更多关注。

关键词: 岩礁生境, 鱼类群落, 放流种, 生态类型, 马鞍列岛

Abstract

Monthly investigations on fish assemblages were carried out in rocky reef habitat (RRH) in the Ma’an Archipelago using multi-mesh trammel nets in 2009, in order to find out the role of RRH in supporting local fish diversity. Fish taxonomic composition and ecological guild groups were used to examine species composition in detail. Indices such as Margalef’s species richness index, Whilm’s species diversity index, Pielou’s species evenness index as well as Pinkas’sIRI were used to analyze the status of fish diversity in RRH. A total of 87 fishes, belonging to 2 classes, 14 orders, 50 families and 73 genera, were collected. Fifty-one fishes from the family Perciformes (accounting 58.6% of the total species), 49 reef fishes (56.3% of the total species) and 7 stocked fishes (8% of the total species) were captured. Sixty-seven percent of total individuals were juveniles. There were 50 warm water fishes, 36 warm temperature fishes and 1 cold temperature fishes. Nineteen species lived on the reef surface, 46 lived in near-ground waters and 22 pelagic fishes frequently appeared in surface waters.Sebastiscus marmoratuswas the most dominant ground fish, Nibea albiflora was the most dominant species in near-ground waters and Thryssa kammalensis dominated the surface waters during summer and autumn. We considered 32 fishes to be local species, 55 were seasonal species and another 11 were casual species. Significant seasonal variation was detected; the lowest and highest diversity levels were found, respectively, in February and September. Our studies suggests that rocky reef habitat in Ma’an Archipelago was mostly used by reef fishes and warm water species. Juvenile fishes congregated in large numbers in these habitats during spring and summer. RRH also serves as habitat for fishes released from stock enhancement programs. We conclude that RRH are important coastal habitats because they offer feeding, spawning and nursing grounds for many fishes, especially juveniles of economically-important species. However, fish diversity has dropped in comparison to its original status in RRH habitats. We suggest that more attention should be paid to the management and conservation of rocky reef habitat.

Key words: rocky reef habitat, fish community, released species, ecological guilds, Ma’an Archipelago