生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (11): 1530-1538.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021234

• 研究报告:生物安全与自然保护 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于DPSEEA模型构建生物安全评价体系:以深圳市为例

董媛媛()   

  1. 中国人民公安大学法学院, 北京 100038
  • 收稿日期:2021-06-08 接受日期:2021-09-02 出版日期:2021-11-20 发布日期:2021-11-05
  • 通讯作者: 董媛媛
  • 作者简介:E-mail: 2487086218@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国人民公安大学拔尖人才培养专项资助研究生科研创新项目(2021yjsky002)

Constructing a biosafety evaluation system based on DPSEEA model: A case study of Shenzhen

Yuanyuan Dong()   

  1. School of Law, People’s Public Security University of China, Beijing 100038
  • Received:2021-06-08 Accepted:2021-09-02 Online:2021-11-20 Published:2021-11-05
  • Contact: Yuanyuan Dong

摘要:

由于生物安全内涵外延和基本要素的模糊性、评价指标及评价方法的多元性等因素的限制, 我国至今尚未形成全面有效的生物安全评价指标体系。为构建生物安全评价体系, 研判生物安全现状, 本文首先运用规范分析法剖析《生物安全法》中有关“生物安全”定义的特点及不足, 从国家安全角度认为生物安全是指国家有效防范和应对危险生物因子及相关因素的威胁, 维护和保障自身安全与利益的能力和状态。明晰了生物安全的外延, 即只有对国家安全利益、民众健康、生态环境保护产生威胁的生物风险, 才是生物安全所规制的对象。其次, 生物安全基本要素包括自然生物安全和社会经济生物安全。自然生物安全主要指民众健康和生态环境保护方面, 包括生物个体安全和生物多样性安全。社会经济生物安全的关注点在国家安全利益, 即社会稳定和国家经济利益, 包括生物技术安全、生物实验室安全。第三, 以生物安全基本要素为管理对象的尺度, 将国家安全利益、民众健康和生态环境保护作为评价主体, 以生物法治为理念, 运用模型构建法, 将定性指标和定量指标相结合, 基于驱动力‒压力‒状态‒接触‒影响‒行动模型(driving force-pressure-state-exposure-effect-action, DPSEEA)构建了一套具有生物法治特色的生物安全评价指标体系, 包括生物安全法律法规体系健全水平、生物安全所涉违法犯罪行为的打击力度、生物安全各部门机构协调机制的建立和完善程度、符合规定标准的生物实验室数量和百分比、生物安全人才数量及密度、对生物产业和基本卫生部门的官方援助及其他途径投资总额、疫苗覆盖的目标人群比例、生物安全的宣传教育普及率8项评价指标在内共32项生物安全评价指标。最后, 基于实地调研及数据统计分析, 以2019年和2020年深圳生物安全工作为例对评价体系进行验证。结果显示, 深圳生物安全工作在农业生物安全、动植物防疫、防范外来物种入侵方面成果显著; 但仍在法律法规体系、生物安全人才培养和资金投入、生物安全普及率方面存在不足。针对上述问题提出完善生物安全法律法规体系并注重法律协调衔接、“一个健康”实现多元协同生物治理、加强人才培养和资金投入、加强生物安全宣传教育等建议。

关键词: 生物安全, DPSEEA, 生物要素, 生物法治, 评价指标体系

Abstract

Aims Because of the connotation and extension of biosafety, the fuzziness of basic elements, the diversity of evaluation indexes and evaluation methods, China has not yet formed a comprehensive and effective biosafety evaluation index system. The purpose of this paper is to construct the biological safety evaluation system and to study the current situation of biological safety.
Methods Firstly, we analyze the characteristics and shortcomings of the concept of “biosafety” in Biosafety Act by using normative analysis method. From the point of view of national security, biosafety refers to the ability and state of the country to effectively prevent and deal with the threat of dangerous biological factors and related factors, and to maintain and safeguard its own security and interests. Clearly the extension of biosafety, that is, only the interests of national security, public health, ecological and environmental protection threats to biological risk, is the object of biosafety regulation. Secondly, the basic elements of biosafety include natural biosafety and socio-economic biosafety. Natural biological safety mainly refers to people’s health and ecological environment protection, including individual biological safety and biodiversity safety. Socio-economic biosafety focuses on national security interests, that is, social stability and national economic interests, including biotechnology safety, biological laboratory safety. Thirdly, taking the basic elements of biosafety as the Yardstick of management, taking national security interests, public health and ecological environment protection as the evaluation subject, taking the concept of biological rule of law as the idea, using the model construction method, based on the DPSEEA (driving force-pressure-state-exposure-effect-action) model, a biosafety evaluation index system with the characteristics of biological rule of law is constructed by combining qualitative index and quantitative index.
Result A set of biological safety evaluation index system with the characteristics of biological rule by law is constructed, including the level of biosafety laws and regulations system, the degree of cracking down on biosafety related crimes, the establishment and perfection of the coordination mechanism among biosafety departments, the number and percentage of biosafety laboratories meeting the prescribed standards, the number and density of biosafety talents, the total amount of official assistance to the biological industry and the basic health sector and other investments, the proportion of target population covered by vaccines, the popularization rate of biosafety publicity and education, and a total of 32 biosafety evaluation indicators.
Conclusion Based on the field investigation and data statistical analysis, the evaluation system was validated by the biological safety work in Shenzhen in 2019 and 2020. The results show that the biological safety work in Shenzhen has achieved remarkable achievements in agricultural biological safety, animal and plant epidemic prevention, and prevention of alien species invasion. However, there are still some deficiencies in laws and regulations system, cultivation of biosafety personnel, investment of funds and biosafety popularization rate. In view of the above problems, this paper puts forward some suggestions, such as perfecting the legal system of biosafety and paying attention to the coordination of laws, realizing the multi-coordinated biocontrol of “One health”, strengthening the talent training and capital investment, and strengthening the propaganda and education of biosafety.

Key words: biosafety, DPSEEA, biological elements, biological rule of law, evaluation index system