生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (12): 0-0.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020234

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榕树-榕小蜂互惠合作系统中的非对称性博弈

杨丽媛1,王瑞武2   

  1. 1. 浙江农林大学风景园林与建筑学院
    2. 西北工业大学生态环境学院
  • 收稿日期:2020-06-09 修回日期:2020-07-28 出版日期:2020-12-20 发布日期:2020-08-25
  • 通讯作者: 杨丽媛

Asymmetric interaction in the fig-fig wasp mutualism

Liyuan Yang1,Ruiwu Wang2   

  1. 1. Department of Ornamental Horticulture, School of Landscape Architecture, Zhejiang Agriculture and Forestry University,
    2. School of Ecology and Environment, Northwestern Polytechnical University
  • Received:2020-06-09 Revised:2020-07-28 Online:2020-12-20 Published:2020-08-25
  • Contact: Liyuan Yang

摘要: 榕树及其传粉榕小蜂是目前所知道的自然界中,关系最为紧密的互利共生系统之一。随着研究的深入,越来越多的证据发现榕树-传粉榕小蜂之间互惠合作的过程中,存在着复杂的种间竞争和对抗关系,例如榕树与传粉榕小蜂之间对公共资源的竞争、传粉者的欺骗与宿主对传粉者的惩罚、榕树与传粉小蜂之间的军备竞赛等。在相互竞争或者对抗关系中,双方表现出非对称性相互作用。其非对称性关系主要表现出如下三个特征:1)收益不对称,即榕树(宿主)与传粉榕小蜂(共生体)之间在资源利用等方面的实力不对称;2)榕树与传粉榕小蜂之间的信息不对称;以及3)进化速率不对称。这些非对称的相互作用可能导致种群的波动、榕树与传粉榕小蜂相互适应和进化策略的变化。因此,理解榕树与传粉榕小蜂之间的非对称交互作用有助于理解为什么合作和冲突在互利共生关系中经常能同时存在,也将有助于解释榕树-传粉榕小蜂种间相互关系和物种的多样性。

关键词: 协同进化, 传粉欺骗, 寄主惩罚, 进化速率, 军备竞赛

Abstract: Fig and fig pollinating wasp system is one of most well-known inter-specific cooperation between different species (i.e., mutualism). However, more and more researches showed that interspecific competition or antagonism is also widely exist in this obligate mutualism system, such as the competition of common resources, the pollination cheating and the host sanction, the arms race between host tree and the pollinators. In the competition and antagonism interactions between fig and fig pollinating wasp, three main asymmetric relationships were presented: 1) asymmetric payoffs, i.e. asymmetric power between figs (host) and their pollinators (symbionts); 2) asymmetric evolution rate; and 3) asymmetric information between figs and their pollinators. These asymmetric relationships together may contribute to population fluctuation, as well as mutual adaptation and the strategy evolution of each species, which will help to understand why both cooperation and conflict could be observed in a specific mutualism and the diversified strategies or species exist in almost every mutualism system.

Key words: Coevolution, Pollination cheating, Host sanction, Evolutionary rate, Arms race