生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 287-295.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2015312

• • 上一篇    下一篇

不同施肥方式对稻麦轮作田土壤杂草种子库的影响

孙国俊1,*(), 李勇3,*, 李粉华1, 张海艳1, 韩敏1, 袁方1, 朱荣松3, 季忠4, 孙亦诚1, 朱凤5, 徐冬平1,2, 黄丽1,2   

  1. 1 常州市金坛区植保植检站, 江苏金坛 213200
    2 扬州大学园艺与植物保护学院, 江苏扬州 225009
    3 常州市金坛区土壤肥料技术指导站, 江苏金坛 213200
    4 常州市金坛区种子管理站, 江苏金坛 213200
    5 江苏省植物保护站, 南京 210036
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-12 接受日期:2016-02-02 出版日期:2016-03-20 发布日期:2016-04-05
  • 通讯作者: 孙国俊,李勇
  • 基金资助:
    国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201103004)、江苏省农业科技自主创新项目[CX(14)4044]和江苏省农业三项工程项目(SXGC[2015]293)

Effects of fertilization regimes on weed seed banks in a rice-wheat crop system

Guojun Sun1,*(), Yong Li3,*, Fenhua Li1, Haiyan Zhang1, Min Han1, Fang Yuan1, Rongsong Zhu3, Zhong Ji4, Yicheng Sun1, Feng Zhu5, Dongping Xu1,2, Li Huang1,2   

  1. 1 Plant Protection and Quarantine Station in Jintan District of Changzhou, Jintan, Jiangsu 213200
    2 School of Horticulture and Plant Protection, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009
    3 Soil and Fertilizer Technology Guidance Station in Jintan District of Changzhou, Jintan, Jiangsu 213200
    4 Seed Management Station in Jintan District of Changzhou, Jintan, Jiangsu 213200
    5 Jiangsu Plant Protection and Quarantine Station, Nanjing 210036
  • Received:2015-11-12 Accepted:2016-02-02 Online:2016-03-20 Published:2016-04-05
  • Contact: Sun Guojun,Li Yong

摘要:

为揭示不同施肥方式(纯施化肥、有机肥配施化肥、秸秆还田配施有机无机肥、有机无机复合肥)对稻麦两熟制地区农田土壤杂草种子库的影响, 在江苏常州金坛区进行了固定施肥试验。经过连续4年试验处理后, 对不同施肥处理下农田土壤杂草种子库杂草种子种类及密度进行了调查, 并对杂草种子多样性、数量、分布与施肥措施的关系进行了分析。结果表明, 与不施肥相比, 施肥有减少稻麦轮作田土壤杂草种子库杂草种子种类数、杂草种子群落均匀度指数和物种多样性指数的趋势, 并使稻麦轮作田土壤杂草种子库杂草种子总密度明显降低。施肥明显提高了土壤杂草种子库菵草(Beckmannia syzigachne)、日本看麦娘(Alopecurus japonicus)、看麦娘(A. aequalis)种子的密度, 施用猪粪堆肥配施化肥处理提高程度更为显著; 秸秆还田配施化肥、秸秆还田配施有机肥化肥、有机无机复合肥施用处理有减少菵草、日本看麦娘、看麦娘杂草种子密度的趋势。施肥明显降低了土壤杂草种子库阔叶杂草种子密度; 施用有机肥有增加土壤杂草种子库水苦荬(Veronica undulata)、蛇床(Cnidium monnieri)种子密度的趋势; 施用猪粪堆肥有增加土壤杂草种子库鸭舌草(Monochoria vaginalis)种子密度的趋势。因此, 不同种类杂草对不同肥料存在偏好性差异, 不同施肥方式造成了土壤杂草种子库优势物种组成的差异。

关键词: 化肥, 有机无机肥配施, 秸秆还田, 有机无机复合肥, 土壤杂草种子库, 稻麦轮作田

Abstract

To reveal the effects of different fertilization treatments on weed seed banks in a rice-wheat crop system, a field test using fixed fertilization was conducted in Jintan of Changzhou, Jiangsu Province. After the four-year experiment, the weed seed species and density of the soil seed bank were investigated and the relationships among weed seed diversity, density, distribution, and fertilization were analyzed. Results showed that: fertilization reduced the number of weed species and the evenness and diversity index of the weed seed bank in a rice-wheat crop system; fertilization significantly reduced the total density of the weed seed bank, but increased the seed density of Beckmannia syzigachne, Alopecurus japonicus and A. aequalis, especially with the application of pig manure plus chemical fertilizers. Straw returning plus chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer plus chemical fertilizer, and organic-inorganic compound fertilizer treatments had the same tendency to reduce the seed density of B. syzigachne, A. japonicus and A. aequalis. Fertilization significantly decreased the seed bank densities of broadleaf weeds. Organic fertilizers had a tendency to increase the seed bank density of Veronica undulate and Cnidium monnieri. Application of pig manure compost increased the seed bank density of Monochoria vaginalis. Therefore, different weed species had different preferences to different fertilizers as the dominant species composition of the weed seed bank was influenced by different fertilization techniques.

Key words: chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizers plus chemical fertilizer, straw returning, organic and inorganic fertilizer, soil weed seed bank, rice-wheat cropping