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Table of Content
    Volume 25 Issue 7
    20 July 2017

    The picture consists of three elements: dice, hands, and background. Dice contains three photos of “bud”, “biodiversity” and “destroyed forest”, which represent three status of biodiversity, i.e. “birth”, “existence” and “destruction”. The hands represent human influences on nature, and the background consists of mountains and city. This picture shows that human impact on nature are expanding. And for biodiversity, just li

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    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (7):  0-0. 
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    Editorial
    Evaluating the threat status of higher plants in China
    Haining Qin, Lina Zhao
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (7):  689-695.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017146
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    Threatened Species List of China’s Higher Plants
    Haining Qin, Yong Yang, Shiyong Dong, Qiang He, Yu Jia, Lina Zhao, Shengxiang Yu, Huiyuan Liu, Bo Liu, Yuehong Yan, Jianying Xiang, Nianhe Xia, Hua Peng, Zhenyu Li, Zhixiang Zhang, Xingjin He, Linke Yin, Yulin Lin, Quanru Liu, Yuantong Hou, Yan Liu, Qixin Liu, Wei Cao, Jianqiang Li, Shilong Chen, Xiaohua Jin, Tiangang Gao, Wenli Chen, Haiying Ma, Yuying Geng, Xiaofeng Jin, Chaoyang Chang, Hong Jiang, Lei Cai, Chunxin Zang, Jianyong Wu, Jianfei Ye, Yangjun Lai, Bing Liu, Qinwen Lin, Naxin Xue
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (7):  696-744.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017144
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    Evaluating the endangerment status of China’s angiosperms through the red list assessment
    Haining Qin, Lina Zhao, Shengxiang Yu, Huiyuan Liu, Bo Liu, Nianhe Xia, Hua Peng, Zhenyu Li, Zhixiang Zhang, Xingjin He, Linke Yin, Yulin Lin, Quanru Liu, Yuantong Hou, Yan Liu, Qixin Liu, Wei Cao, Jianqiang Li, Shilong Chen, Xiaohua Jin, Tiangang Gao, Wenli Chen, Haiying Ma, Yuying Geng, Xiaofeng Jin, Chaoyang Chang, Hong Jiang, Lei Cai, Chunxin Zang, Jianyong Wu, Jianfei Ye, Yangjun Lai, Bing Liu, Qinwen Lin, Naxin Xue
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (7):  745-757.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017156
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    All known species of Angiosperms in China were evaluated according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second edition and the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels, Version 4.0. Of the 30,068 species evaluated, 21 species were found Extinct (EX), 9 species were Extinct in the Wild (EW), 10 species were Regionally Extinct (RE), 518 species were Critically Endangered (CR), 1,152 species were Endangered (EN), 1,693 species were Vulnerable (VU), 2,538 species were Near Threatened (NT), 21,132 species were Least Concern (LC), and 2,995 species were Data Deficient (DD). The results show that 3,363 species, representing 11.2% of the evaluated species, were identified as threatened (CR, EN and VU). The main portion of threatened species occurs below 2,000 m elevation in southwestern and southern China. Habitat loss and degradation, over-collecting by humans, and intrinsic factors are the three leading threats to angiosperms in China. Comparisons of the status of taxa on this Red List to those evaluated by Wang & Xie (2004) show changes in the names and categories of some taxa due to land use pressures, the impact of conservation measures to improve the status of some species as well as new information, such as from taxonomic revisions. Therefore, there is a need for future data collection and reevaluation of the red list.

    Red list assessment and conservation status of gymnosperms from China
    Yong Yang, Bing Liu, Dennis M. Njenga
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (7):  758-764.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017145
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    Based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Version 3.1), we assessed native gymnosperm species and infraspecific taxa found in China between March of 2010 and December of 2012. Results indicated that 37 species were critically endangered (CR), 35 species were endangered (EN), 76 species were vulnerable (VU), 87 species were of least concern (LC), and 16 species were data deficient (DD). Up to 59% of the 251 native species of gymnosperms found in China were classified as threatened. Threatening factors impacting gymnosperm species in China were ascribed into seven categories, among which habitat degradation, restricted distribution, and over exploitation were listed as the top three threats. According to results of red list assessments and conservation practices of gymnosperms in China, we propose that conservation of endangered gymnosperm species should have a targeted program. Otherwise, over-protection could result in additional threats to endangered species.

    Red list assessment of lycophytes and ferns in China
    Shiyong Dong, Zhengyu Zuo, Yuehong Yan, Jianying Xiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (7):  765-773.  doi:10.17520/biods.2016204
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    To understand the extinction risk of lycophytes and ferns in China, we conducted an evaluation of the two groups according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (version 3.1) at the national level. During a period of 16 months, a group of three researchers evaluated each taxon by means of reading literature, checking herbarium specimens, and consulting colleagues working on lycophytes and ferns in China. A total of 30 colleagues share their knowledge, mainly regarding living status and distribution, on Chinese lycophytes and ferns. Here we present a preliminary red list of Chinese lycophytes and ferns which includes 2,244 taxa of the following categories: 43 Critically Endangered (CR, among which six have probably been already extinct) , 68 Endangered (EN), 71 Vulnerable (VU), 66 Near Threatened (NT), 1,124 Least Concern (LC), and 872 Data Deficient (DD). The taxa which have been taken into account include species, subspecies, and varieties only, with forms and hybrids excluded. Of the 182 threatened species (VU, EN, and CR), 79 are endemic (or nearly) to China. Conservation priorities are suggested for the 79 threatened and endemic species, especially the 24 critically endangered species which include Adiantum meishanianum, A. nelumboides, Angiopteris chingii, Asplenium cornutissimum, Bolbitis hainanensis, Huperzia quasipolytrichoides var. rectifolia, Isoëtes orientalis, I. taiwanensis, I. yunguiensis, Paesia taiwanensis, Parathelypteris subimmersa, Polystichum basipinnatum, P. cavernicola, P. minutissimum, P. oblanceolatum, P. speluncicola, Pronephrium longipetiolatum, Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus, Pteridrys lofouensis, Pteris angustipinna, Selliguea cruciformis, Tectaria ebenina, T. hekouensis, and Woodsia okamotoi. This red list is of a preliminary nature as a rather high proportion of taxa belong to DD (up to 872, ca. 39 % of total taxa in China). To gain a complete and precise red list, further evaluation work, especially taxonomic revisions based on field observations, is needed for the lycophytes and ferns in China. These include Angiopteris, Asplenium, Athyrium, Deparia, Dryopteris, Huperzia, Polystichum, Pteris, Selaginella, Polypodiaceae, and Thelypteridaceae which are still relatively poorly understood in terms of taxonomy and conservation.

    Assessing the threat status of China’s bryophytes
    Qiang He, Yu Jia
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (7):  774-780.  doi:10.17520/biods.2016205
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    In this paper, the assessment principles of the endangered categories of Chinese bryophytes are expanded. This principle mainly refer to “IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Version 3.1”, and also include results from other bryologists. The authors propose that those taxa published in the past ten years temporarily be classified as Data Deficient (DD), and estimate population sizes for all taxa be made based on herbarium specimens. A total of 3,221 taxa of Chinese bryophytes were evaluated based on the above principles and methods. Sixteen species were identified as Critically Endangered (CR), 58 species as Endangered (EN), 112 species as Vulnerable (VU), 214 species as Near Threatened (NT), 1,900 species as of Least Concern (LC), and 921 species are classified as Data Deficient (DD). Overall, 186 species of bryophytes (5.77% of the bryophytes found in China) were identified as threatened (including CR, EN, and VU).

    Current status of wild tree peony species with special reference to conservation
    De-Yuan Hong, Shiliang Zhou, Xingjin He, Junhui Yuan, Yanlong Zhang, Fangyun Cheng, Xiuli Zeng, Yan Wang, Xiuxin Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2017, 25 (7):  781-793.  doi:10.17520/biods.2017129
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    The section Moutan DC. of Paeonia L. contains nine wild species of tree peonies and one cultivated species comprising hundreds of cultivars. All wild species are endemic to China, and are highly valuable resources. The China Plant Red Data Book published in 1992 includes 388 conservation units, of which four are tree peonies. The present article briefly reviews the history of field surveys, investigations, and conservation of wild tree peonies, as well as preliminary results, and finally proposes questions and suggestions for future work. The article focuses the biological background of wild tree peonies, their distribution and habitats, and proposes suggestions for endangered ranks and conservation strategies. Based on our survey and incomplete data, we consider that P. ostii and P. cathayana each has only one individual, and thus effective conservation measures should be taken for them immediately; P. rockii, P. qiui, P. decomposita and P. rotundiloba are endangered; P. ludlowii and P. jishanensis are vulnerable, and of the nine wild species of tree peonies, unfortunately, only P. delavayi is classified as a healthy species. We emphasize that if species delimitation is not rational, conservation units are not clearly defined, and ecological and biological information is inadequate, it will be impossible to work out a scientific conservation strategy and practical conservation measures. Lastly, the article appeals to relevant agencies to pay attention to conservation of wild tree peonies, to provide funds for conducting intensive surveys examining the present situation of wild tree peonies, and subsequently to formulate a rational strategy and feasible measures for conserving precious wild tree peonies.


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