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Table of Content
    Volume 21 Issue 3
    20 May 2013

    The Paracel Islands (Xisha Islands) comprise a group of tropical islands that are located in south of mainland China. There is a particular natural flora which few researches have reported. Based on a literature search and field investigations, Tong et al. present a checklist of plants for 24 of the Paracel Islands (for details see pages 364–374 of this issue). The picture shows a Tournefortia argentea community on the Lincoln Island of the Paracel Islands. (Photographe

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    Orginal Article
    Impact of invasive plants on food webs and pathways
    Sikai Wang,Qiang Sheng,Tianjiang Chu,Bo Li,Jiakuan Chen,Jihua Wu
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  249-259.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11240
    Abstract ( 1871 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (308KB) ( 3253 )   Save
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    In natural ecosystems, energy mainly flows along food chains in food webs. Numerous studies have shown that plant invasions influence ecosystem functions through altering food webs. In recent decades, more attention has been paid to the effects of alien plants on local food webs. In this review, we analyze the influence of exotic plants on food webs and pathways, and explore the impacts of local food web characteristics on community invasibility. Invasive plants alter food webs mainly by changing basal resources and environment conditions in different ways. First, they are consumed by native herbivores due to their high availability, and are therefore incorporated into the native food web. Second, if they show low availability to native herbivores, a new food web is generated through introduction of new consumers or by changing the energy pathway. Third, environmental changes induced by plant invasions may alter population density and feeding behavior of various species at different trophic levels, thus alien plants will affect the communities and food web structures along non-trophic pathways. The influence of the local food web on plant invasions depends on web size and trophic connections. Issues that deserve attention in future studies are raised and discussed. Future research should extend from short-term experiments to long-term monitoring. More quantitative researches to define the responses of food web parameters are needed. In addition, recovering of food web structure and species interaction in restored habitats is an important issue requiring future research.

    Impacts of urbanization process on insect diversity
    Shuisong Ye,Yan Fang,Kai Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  260-268.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09206
    Abstract ( 2886 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (434KB) ( 3072 )   Save
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    Rapid worldwide urbanization during the last century has led to more than half the world’s population living in urban regions. Studies of how urbanization affects insect diversity have focused on the following: insect abundance, distribution, extinction, food habits and ecosystem services. Native insect populations have declined greatly in urban areas, where studies of their spatial distribution have revealed that abundance decreases along what is termed the rural-city center gradient (RCG), many native insects even extinct with urbanization process. Most specialist insect communities have declined in abundance due to urbanization, while some generalist species, such as aphids, cockroaches and termites, have increased slightly in abundance. It is also the case that herbivorous, parasitic, saprophagous and flower-visiting insects are much more negatively influenced by urbanization than predator insects. This has a significant effect on the ecosystem services of insects. The decline of many insects due to urbanization can be attributed to environmental pollution (including air pollution, water pollution, light pollution, and heat pollution), habitat fragmentation, road hardening, clustering of buildings, and occurrence of introduced invasive species. As urbanization continues, measures should be taken to protect insects in urban areas. This will entail improving basic scientific research on the problem, construction of suitable habitats, and informing the general public of the benefits of environmental protection.

    Effects of topography, neighboring plants and size-dependence of Machillus thunbergii on sapling growth and survivorship
    Yuewei Tong,Wenhua Xiang,Zhengwen Wang,Walter Durka,Markus Fischer
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  269-277.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09008
    Abstract ( 2168 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (423KB) ( 2336 )   Save
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    Growth and survivorship of Machillus thunbergii saplings in mountain forest are likely to be affected by topographical factors, biotic interactions with neighbouring plants, and individual size. However, such effects are always species- and site-specific, and may influence how plant species diversity contributes to ecosystem productivity. This study aimed to examine how individual growth and survivorship of Machilus thunbergii saplings are affected by: (1) topographical factors, such as aspect and inclination of slope, (2) species richness and type of neighboring plants, and (3) individual plant size. The experiment was conducted in the framework of BEF-China, a manipulated subtropical forest site in China. A total of 265 plots of 25.82 m × 25.82 m were planted with 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 24 different tree species. Each plot contained 400 trees arranged in a rectangular pattern with 1.29 m distance between individuals. In 2010 we added 16 individuals of M. thunbergii to each plot. These 16 individuals were planted in two rows along the western edge of the plots, with each individual in the center of 4 adjacent trees. Height and basal diameter of 1,452 surviving Machilus saplings were measured in June 2011 and 2012. ANOVA and Duncan’s multiple comparison tests were used to analyze the effects of both topography and of neighbouring plants, and linear regression was used to test size-dependence of growth. We found that Machilus saplings on shady slopes grew faster and had higher survival rates than those on sunny slopes, while the height increment of Machilus on plots with a mild incline was greater than that on steep slopes. Richness of neighboring plant species had an insignificant effect on Machilus sapling growth and survival rate; while the type of neighbouring species had different effects on Machilus sapling growth, but no effect on survival rate. Deciduous broadleaved species had the greatest effect on growth, followed by a mixture of deciduous and evergreen broadleaved species, followed by evergreen broadleaved species and lastly by evergreen needle leaved species; Machilus sapling growth was positively size-dependent, i.e., larger saplings grew faster. We conclude that, modelling tree growth should simultaneously incorporate topographical factors, species-specific neighborhood interaction and size of individuals, thereby providing a more accurate prediction of forest productivity and development, as well as information that will aid the conservation of endangered species.

    Relationships between plant functional traits at the community level and environmental factors during succession in a tropical lowland rainforest on Hainan Island, South China
    Wensheng Bu,Runguo Zang,Yi Ding,Junyan Zhang,Yunze Ruan
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  278-287.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.10012
    Abstract ( 1934 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (349KB) ( 2771 )   Save
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    We explored how plant functional traits respond to environmental factors and examined the underlying mechanism driving the ecological strategies of plant species in a community. Experiments were conducted at four randomly selected tropical lowland rainforests at different successional stages:15-, 30- and 60-year-old secondary forests and one old-growth forest, each in the Bawangling Nature Reserve of Hainan Island. A total of 200 plots (20 m×20 m) were sampled. Individuals of tree and shrub species with diameter at breast height (DBH) ≥1 cm were identified and both their functional traits and the environmental factors in each plot were measured. ANOVA showed that canopy openness, level of soil nutrients, specific leaf area, and content of total organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus within the leaf decreased at the community level during the successional process. Meanwhile, leaf dry matter content, wood density and potential maximum height increased. However, soil water content and leaf potassium content, changed non-significantly. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that environmental factors driving functional traits at the community level varied during the successional process. The key environmental factors were soil organic matter and pH value in the 15-year-old secondary forest; canopy openness and soil total phosphorus content in the 30-year-old secondary forest; available phosphorus and total potassium content of the soil in the 60-year-old secondary forest; and soil phosphorus content and organic matter content in the old-growth forest. Our results indicate that at different successional stages, the same functional traits respond to different environmental factors, enabling adaptation to specific environmental conditions.

    Plant species diversity and dynamics in forests invaded by Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve
    Shangbin Bai,Guomo Zhou,Yixiang Wang,Qianqian Liang,Juan Chen,Yanyan Cheng,Rui Shen
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  288-295.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08258
    Abstract ( 2018 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (368KB) ( 2889 )   Save
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    Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is an economically important plant, widely cultivated not only for its delicious shoots and versatile culms, but also as an important biomass resource in southern China. However, with its robust growth and strong rhizomes, it has recently been shown to be a problem tree, capable of dominating some forest stands. Indeed, it may displace species within the community it invades with considerable potential impacts. However, little is known about the consequences of its invasion on plant community composition. We compared plant biodiversity change in different communities where we monitored and removed bamboo over a seven years period (2005 to 2011) in Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, so as to elucidate the impacts of Moso bamboo invasion. The results showed that Moso bamboo invasion had negative effects on plant communities. Simpson’s Diversity Index in tree and shrub layers of bamboo forest was lower than that of forests consisting of needle and broad-leaved species, and also those containing a mixture of bamboo with needle and broad-leaved plants. However, Simpson’s Diversity Index in the herb layer of bamboo forest was higher than that in the two other forest types. Plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index varied greatly among the different forest types over time. In the tree and shrub layers of forests containing bamboo growing with both needle and broad-leaved species, these three indices declined significantly over the monitoring period (P<0.05). In contrast, no significant changes of Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index were exhibited in either forests containing a mixture of needle and broad-leaved plants or in pure bamboo forest (P>0.05). Plant species richness increased in the herb layer of forests containing bamboo mixed with needle and broad-leaved species, while Simpson’s Diversity Index and Pielou’s Eveness Index did not change greatly over time. The removal of Moso bamboo resulted in an increase in plant species richness and Simpson’s Diversity Index in the tree and shrub layers. In contrast, plant species richness, Simpson’s Diversity Index, and Pielou’s Eveness Index decreased significantly in the herb layer. In summary, in the Tianmu Mountain Nature Reserve, Moso bamboo invasion was found to cause substantial changes in plant species diversity and had strong negative effects on plant communities. These results suggest that, in addition to scientific management, removal of Moso bamboo may be required to restore plant species diversity in these communities.

    Priority plant communities for conservation in Northwest Yunnan
    Yanni Zhang,Zhiming Zhang,Yupeng Geng,Xiaokun Ou,Shengjing Peng,Wenli Wang,Xin Feng,Jingwen Guo
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  296-305.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.10207
    Abstract ( 1617 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (722KB) ( 2398 )   Save
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    Because of limited resources, it is very important for biodiversity conservation to make accurate assessments of biodiversity prior to setting out measures for protecting regions and communities. To more effectively manage and protect forest resources in Northwest Yunnan, we evaluated the priority plant community types for conservation by mainly considering the function of plant communities in maintaining habitat and biodiversity. Recognizing the principles of good science, hierarchy and practicability, we established an evaluation indicator system consisting of six indicators: species diversity, number of rare and endangered plant species, protection level of plant species, number of endemic plant species, and rarity and endemism of community type. We selected 61 formations belonging to 13 vegetation subtypes in Northwest Yunnan for analysis. Assessment criteria followed a general ranking assignment methodology, and weights assigned to individual indicators were determined using an Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and expert consultation. GIS technology was used as an aid to integrate evaluation. The results yielded conservation values of communities as follows: (1) at the association level: 4 associations were at first category, 31 second category, 23 third category, and three general category; (2) at the vegetation subtype level: one was at first category, six second category, six third category. The distribution of priority vegetation subtypes for conservation were: (1) first category: a small area distributed in Gaoligong Mountains; (2) second category: mainly distributed in high altitude mountains in the northwest, and also in some alpine areas in the southeast of the study area; (3) third category: distributed at low altitude in the southeast of the study area and in valleys of the Dulong River, Nu River, Lancang River and Jinsha River.

    Population genetics and demographic history of red seaweed, Palmaria palmata, from the Canada-northwest Atlantic
    Jingjing Li,Jie Zhang,Zimin Hu,Delin Duan
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  306-314.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09029
    Abstract ( 1989 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (451KB) ( 3020 )   Save
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    The paleoclimate change (e.g. the glacial fluctuation in the late Pleistocene) played an important role in shaping species’ population genetic structure, geographic distribution patterns, and gradient of diversity and composition. In this study, we sampled eight populations (138 individuals) of Palmaria palmata, a commercially and ecologically important red macroalga found on both sides of the North Atlantic coast, aiming to assess the genetic structure and demographic history through the integration of mitochondrial cox2-3 spacer and RAPD variation. Eleven mtDNA cox2-3 haplotypes were detected, one of which (C3) was common and located centrally in a haplotype network. It is shared by all populations and is regarded as ancestral. Two northern populations from the Gulf of St. Lawrence had highest levels of genetic diversity, and were significantly divergent from all other populations. AMOVA showed that highest genetic variation for cox2-3 occurred within populations, while less existed among groups. This was consistent with the results of a STRUCTURE clustering analysis of RAPD data. Our genetic diversity and haplotype network analyses indicated that multiple glacial refugia might have existed for the species along the Canada-north- west Atlantic coast. Furthermore, Bayesian skyline plot analysis based on cox2-3 spacer sequences indicated that population size underwent a slight increase over temporal and spatial scales. This occurred in approximately 0.18-0.13 million years ago. Pairwise genetic distance (K2P) between populations from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Bay of Fundy was 0.2%, indicating that they diverged from their common ancestor since about 0.36 million years ago. The evidence from our study suggests that climatic oscillations during the late Pleistocene had a drastic influence on the demography and genetic diversity of P. palmatain the Canada-northwest Atlantic.

    Genetic diversity and molecular genealogy of local silkworm varieties
    Zhouhe Du,Junfeng Liu,Binbin Liu,Yanchun Zuo,Jianmei Wu,Yi-an Chen,Jianfei Zhang,Cheng Lu
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  315-325.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11035
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    In order to explore the genetic diversity and systematic differentiation pattern among silkworm varieties, aiming to guide hybridization breeding, we sequenced a total of 72 Bmamy2gene fragments from local silkworm varieties. The analysis of nucleotide sequence diversity and systematic differentiation indicated that there was rich genovariation in the sequencing region of Bmamy2gene, and the base mutation rate is 5.6- 8.2%, the haplotype diversity is 0.8294, and the nucleotide diversity is 0.0236±0.00122, suggesting Bmamy2being a better marking gene with rich nucleotide sequence diversity, based on which the genetic diversity among different local silkworm varieties can be identified. The same heredity population structure is proclaimed by several analysis methods that every clade consisting of varieties from different geosystems and ecological types, while the varieties from the same geosystem and ecotype belong to different clades in the phylogeny. There is no population structure pattern that different varieties claded together according to geosystem or ecotype. It can be speculated that the silkworm origins from mixture of kinds of several voltinism mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mandarina, while the domestication events took place in several regions, from which the domesticated mulberry silkworms are all devoting to the domesticated silkworm population of today.

    Concordance among different aquatic insect assemblages and the relative role of spatial and environmental variables
    Chunyan Qin,Yong Zhang,Haiyan Yu,Beixin Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  326-333.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08223
    Abstract ( 1388 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (322KB) ( 3033 )   Save
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    Indicator groups are often used for biodiversity monitoring and conservation, however, the effectiveness of these groups in representing biodiversity is rarely tested. To explore community congruence among different aquatic insect groups and how this may be affected by spatial factors and environmental variables, we carried out an investigation on aquatic insects in April 2010 in 21 headwater streams within the Dongtiaoxi Basin, China. In total, we recorded 130 species from 92 genera, 44 families and 7 orders. We divided the stream insects into three groups, Coleoptera (C), Ephemeroptera + Plecoptera + Trichoptera (EPT), and Diptera + Megaloptera + Odonata (DMO). In Mantel tests, three aquatic insect groups showed significant cross-taxon concordance, C versus EPT (r= 0.65, P< 0.001), C versus DMO (r= 0.67, P< 0.001) and EPT versus DMO (r= 0.82, P< 0.001). According to variance partitioning procedures, environmental variables were the major determinants of aquatic insect community structures, while spatial factors were less important. Species composition in different taxon groups exhibited similar relationships to environmental gradients. Altitude, pH, mean velocity and concentration of oxygen were the most important drivers of aquatic insect assemblage patterns. Overall, our results indicated that, at least in the studied region, community congruence among different aquatic insect groups was strong. We propose that one group, such as the EPT group, may be used as a biodiversity indicator in future cost-effective surveys.

    Changes in soil microbial properties and nematode assemblage over time during rice cultivation
    Yudi Liu,Xiaoyun Chen,Manqiang Liu,Jiangtao Qin,Huixin Li,Feng Hu
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  334-342.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09030
    Abstract ( 1879 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (355KB) ( 2070 )   Save
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    The properties of red soil may change over time when paddy fields are developed on what was previously dry land. The effect of rice cultivation duration on soil invertebrates is unknown. Five chronosequences of rice cultivation (1, 10, 20, 50 and 100 years) were selected to investigate the temporal changes of soil microbiological properties and nematode assemblages. The results showed that soil microbial properties (microbial biomass C, microbial biomass N, basal respiration), nutrient availability (mineral N and P), nematode abundance and richness of nematode genera generally increased with the duration of rice cultivation. Notably, most soil measurements peaked after 50 years of cultivation (P<0.05) and decreased slightly after 100 years. As the period of rice cultivation increased, the proportion of nematode herbivores rose significantly (P< 0.05), while that of predators/omnivores slightly declined. Nematode Channel Ratio (NCR) also increased with cultivation duration (P< 0.05), indicating that the bacterial energy channel was more dominant in old rice fields when compared to those cultivated for a shorter period. Other ecological indices of nematode assemblage such as maturity index and structure index, did not reveal consistent trends with an increased period of rice cultivation. In summary, a change in land use from dry land to paddy fields promotes soil microbial properties and nematode assemblages in the first few decades, which then become stable after 50 years of cultivation.

    Effects of facultative mutualism between ants and lac insects on the diversity of ant communities
    Zhixing Lu,Youqing Chen,Wei Zhang,Siming Wang,Qiao Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  343-351.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09039
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    In order to reveal the effects of facultative mutualism between ants and lac insects on the diversity of canopy ant communities, a sight-seeking method was used to investigate ant community diversity on the tree, Dalbergia obtusifoliain different plots, with infestation rates of the lac insect, Kerria yunnanensisvarying on branches between 60%, 30%, 10% and 0%, respectively. The results showed that the facultative mutualism could increase the abundance and species richness of the canopy ant assembly, and also change the ant community structure. The amount of honeydew resulting from the presence of lac insect populations had a significant effect on the abundance of ant assembly, and on the community structure of canopy ants, but had no significant effect on ant species richness. Stage of lac insect life cycle was also an important factor affecting the abundance of canopy ants. It was concluded that lac insect cultivation can positively protect canopy ant assemblages and be beneficial to ant diversity conservation.

    Population number and distribution of oriental pied hornbill in Guangxi, China
    Yik Fui Philip Lo,Aiwu Jiang,Bosco Pui Lok Chan,Sai Chit Ng,Naiwen Xie,Tengcheng Que,Fei Li
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  352-358.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.07203
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    The oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris albirostris) is a State Protected Species and also an important seed dispersal agent in Tropical Asia. Recent studies show that the range of oriental pied hornbill in Guangxi has decreased significantly in the last decades. During the 1970s the species was widespread along the Sino-Vietnamese border but since the 2000s it has been confined to only three isolated areas. Although the population has declined substantially, Xidamingshan still supports the largest hornbill population known in Guangxi. In order to understand the current status of the species in Guangxi, China, we conducted a simultaneous population survey in Xidamingshan Nature Reserve in 2009. At least, fifty birds were recorded during survey and 124 plant species are identified as potential food source of the bird. Human disturbance and hunting are the main threats to the species in Guangxi. Further research and conservation of the species are urgently required.

    Diversity and distribution of higher plants in Yunnan, China
    Li Chen,Hongjin Dong,Hua Peng
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  359-363.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.05162
    Abstract ( 2030 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (236KB) ( 3032 )   Save
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    Yunnan Province is a biodiversity hotspot in China that has global significance. In order to further recognize and protect the biodiversity of Yunnan, we examined the basic distributional pattern of its plant diversity based on Flora Yunnanica. According to our analysis, Northwest Yunnan had the highest plant diversity, with Yulong County the most diverse, containing 4,358 species of higher plants, followed by Gongshan County and Xianggelila County, which had 3,981 and 3,874 higher plants respectively. The tropical edge region of southern Yunnan, represented by Xishuangbanna, had the second highest level of diversity, with Mengla County and Jinghong County containing more than 3,000 higher plant species. In contrast, the plant diversity of Eastern and Central Yunnan, comprising mainly the Yunnan Plateau, was deemed relatively poor, possibly reflecting lower attention and field surveys by botanists. Both the distribution patterns of endemic and narrow-ranging species were similar to that for all plants. Yunnan contains 4,008 endemic and 4,509 narrow-ranging species with Gongshan County being most diverse, having more than 500 narrow-ranging species. Most species (64.1%) were distributed in less than five counties in Yunnan, and 46.0% could only be found in one. Our analysis reveals that previous field surveys of Yunnan’s plant diversity did not fully reflect the natural zonal regularity and consequently further investigation is warranted. Some narrow-ranging species will be endangered without protection.

    Vascular plant diversity of the Paracel Islands, China
    Yi Tong,Shuguang Jian,Quan Chen,Yuling Li,Fuwu Xing
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  364-374.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.11222
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    The Paracel Islands (Xisha Islands) comprise a group of tropical islands that are located south of mainland China and have a particular natural flora. Based on a literature search and our own investigations, we present here a checklist of plants for 24 of the Paracel Islands. We also report an analysis of plant diversity, its distribution and relationship with that of neighboring regions. A total of 396 vascular plants were recorded which belonged to 262 genera and 85 families. Of these, 220 were wild species and 176 were cultivated. As a whole, the islands do not possess a rich flora; however, there are major differences in plant diversity among islands. The flora consists in large part of tropical elements, typical of tropical coral islands of China. The flora is most closely connected to that of Hainan Island, and closely related to those of Taiwan of China, Indochina, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.

    Current situation of geoengineering and its impact on biodiversity
    Senlu Yin,Junsheng Li,Xiaopu Wu,Guo Li,Jing Xu
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  375-382.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08022
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    Interests in the process of geoengineering have grown and geoengineering is a focus for the Convention on Biological Diversity now. Geoengineering programs and experiments have been carried out to varying extent globally and are of significance to Chinese interests. This paper originates from a review of a conference discussion and of relevant literatures. It introduces the concept of geoengineering, describes the current status of its development and discusses the potential impacts geoengineering may have on biodiversity. Arguments about geoengineering in the Convention on Biological Diversity are also discussed. Researches show that geoengineering programs mainly affect biodiversity by changing the local or regional climate and environment. Large scale geoengineering programs may be prohibited in future due to uncertainty over their potential impacts on biodiversity. However, the necessity for energy saving and obligations to reduce emissions will drive the progress of geoenginering. The future development of geoengineering is also examined. It is concluded that the techniques involved need to be of a high standard, highly efficient, low in cost and environmentally safe. Precautionary measures should be taken in the implementation of geoenginering related activities, and mechanisms for monitoring their effects should be thoroughly explored.

    The evolution and outlook of REDD-plus negotiation
    Ming Xue,Shuhong Wu,Lidan An,Jiliang Xu
    Biodiv Sci. 2013, 21 (3):  383-388.  doi:10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.06023
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    Based on the development of the negotiations on REDD-plus in Conferences of the Parties of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate (UNFCCC) and Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), we analyzed the status of REDD-plus negotiations since the formulation of Bali Road Map in 2007. We examined the progress, the divergences of the Parties, future trends, some countermeasures for future negotiations on REDD-plus and the implementation of relevant international conventions for China. Our results indicate that all Parties from UNFCCC and CBD have reached a consensus on the priorities of incentive measures and technologies and methodologies, and the implementation level in relation to REDD-plus, and that REDD-plus should be implemented at the national level rather than at subnational levels. Consensus between Parties have not yet been reached on the financial mechanism, the forest reference emission level, the implementation of REDD-plus safeguard and whether the results based REDD-plus activities be measurable, reportable and verifiable at international/national level. Negotiations on REDD-plus in the future will focus on the issues of incentive measures and verification methodologies in relation to non-carbon benefits resulting from the implementation of REDD-plus activities. As a result, we recommend that multiple benefits to climate, biodiversity and community should be considered when national strategy plans for REDD-plus are formulated in China, and that the implementation of REDD-plus activities in China should be engaged in three phases, i.e. capacity building, demonstration activities and monitoring.

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