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Table of Content
    Volume 07 Issue 4
    20 November 1999
      
    论文
    Foraging habitat selection of the wintering Black-necked Cranes in Caohai, Guizhou, China
    LI Feng-Shan
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  257-262.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999040
    Abstract ( 2965 )   PDF (381KB) ( 2643 )   Save
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    This paper reported results of field observation on foraging habitat selection of the wintering Blacknecked Cranes(Grus nigricollis)in Caohai,Guizhou of China. Data of the foraging habitat selectin were analyed by the Friedman statistical method.Five types of foraging habitats of Black-necked Cranes,i.e.,sedge meadow ,shallow water marsh,corn field,vegetable field and gras and,were identified in Caohai. The sedge meadow was the Most preferable one of BLack-necked Cranes while the farmland the least.The preferential sequenee of the other habitats varied site bv site.Human activities in Caohai were one of the major factors influencing habitat use and selectiola by crances.Some suggestions were also put forward on the habitat proteetioa for the wintering Black-necked Cranes.
    Species diversity of higher plant communities in Foping National Reserve
    YUE Ming, REN Yi, DANG Gao-Di, GU Tian-Qi
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  263-269.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999041
    Abstract ( 2830 )   PDF (214KB) ( 2427 )   Save
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    The species diversity of higher plant communities in Foping National Reserve was measured with species diversity index(Simpson index and Shannon index),Pielou's eventless index and species richness.The result shows that the diversity 0f forest cemmunities is higher than that 0f shrubs and meadow communities,the divesity 0f the deciduous broad-leaved forest is higher than that of coniferous forest,and that of oak forest is higher than that of popular and birch forest.The species diversity of higher plant communities decreases with the increase of elevation.The spcies diversity indices and evenness indices for different layers in forest communities show that the tree layer has similar divetslty and evenness with the shrub layer,while the herbaceous layer has higher diversity and evenness than both 0f the tree and the shrub layers.
    Geographical distribution of argali (Ovis ammon) in Xinjiang
    YU Yu-Qun, SHI Jun, LIU Chu-Guang, LUO Ning, GU Zheng-Qin, CHU Hong-Jun
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  270-276.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999042
    Abstract ( 3136 )   PDF (523KB) ( 2080 )   Save
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    Based on rock cawing,historical records and field investigation,the distribution of argali(Ovis ammon)can be divided into three stages,i.e.Stone Age(10 000~5000 years ago),5O00~50 years ago, and current distribution.At present,argali is widespread in Xinjiang,even in Lop Lake and Pamirs.The continuous distributions are in the middle Tianshan Mountains,south A1tun and Kunlun Mountains,as well as the west part of Junggar,while the others are fragmentary or seasonal distributions Argali are distrbuted at the elevation of 920- 4600 meters.As the latitude increases.it’s vertical distribution becomes low In arid areas, the distribution of argali depends on springs~and surface water,not correlated with latitude.
    Characterization of soybean rhizobia at different levels using PCR based techniques
    ZHANG XUE-XIAN, MARTIN MUILENBURG, TAK AN LIE, ZHOU JUN-CHU, LI FU-DI
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  277-284.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999043
    Abstract ( 2839 )   PDF (512KB) ( 2402 )   Save
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    Nineteen standard USDA strains reprenting three recognized soybean rhizobia,Sinorhizobium fredii,Bradyrhizobium japonicum and B.elkanii,were examined by restrietion fragment length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of 16S rRNA genes amplified by Polymerase chain reactin (PCR).Four composite genotypes were obtained from the combined data of the RFLP analysis with three endonucleases,S.fredii,Bjaponicum,Belkanii Ⅱ and Ⅱa reference strains fell into these four genotypes respectively.No genotype was shared by two speciies.Therefore,16SrDNA PCR-RFLP is a rapid tool for the identification of soybean rhizobia.According to 16SrDNA PCR-FRLP,22 fast-growing and 19 slow-growing soybean rhizobia strains form China were identified to S.fredii and B.japonicum,respectively. The reference strains and wild type isolates were also examined by 16S~23S intergenic spacer PCRE-RFLP analysis.PCR results indicated that the length of the intergenic region between S.fredii and Bradyrhizobium sp.is different.All fast-growing S.fredii strains produced one large band (2.1kb),and all slow-growing Bradyrhi-zobium strains produced one smaller band (2.0kb).Based on 16S~23SRFLP analysis,22S.fredii isolate can be further separated into two "genotypes"that originated from two different regions in China;19B.japonicum were also characterized at strain level by REP (repetitive extragenic palindromic)and ERIC (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus)PCR fingerprinting.
    Genetic diversity of Yunnan local chicken breeds and its relationship with origin of Chinese domestic chicken
    HU Wen-Ping
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  285-290.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999044
    Abstract ( 2661 )   PDF (173KB) ( 2360 )   Save
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    The habitat,appearance,karyotype,and blood protein locus of Yunnan local chicken breeds are diverse,but no mtDNA polymorphism exists inferred from restriction endonuelease analysis.Due to diferent geological locations and ecologicalcondition,Yunnan local chicken breeds have their unique gene types,relatively independent of other Chinese chicken breeds.The results from blood protein,karyotype and mtDNA demonstrate further that Gallus domesticus originated from Gallus gallus Yunnan is probably one of the original center of Chinese domestic chieken.
    A study on composition structure and species diversity in ecotone of coniferous and broad-leaved forest in Russia plain
    LI Xin-Rong, Pabnov BH
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  291-296.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999045
    Abstract ( 2610 )   PDF (215KB) ( 1962 )   Save
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    This paper studied on species diversity in ecotone of coniferous and broad-leaved forest community in Russia plain.The results show that species diversity in this region is similar to those in most other ecotones.The species diversity in the ecotone(mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest)is higher than those in contiguous communities(coniferous and broad-leared forest) The composition structure of mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest communities represents its transition feature.In this ecotone,the higher diversity can’t demonstrate the increasing of the community stability.Therefore。the correct results rely on the integrated consideratiou of more indexes when the rehtionship between species diversity and community stalfility is discussed.
    A study on quantity and diversity of soil microorganisms in Gaoligong Mountains
    ZHANG Ping, GUO Hui-Jun, DAO Zhi-Ling, LONG Bi-Yun
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  297-302.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999046
    Abstract ( 2744 )   PDF (389KB) ( 2046 )   Save
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    The quantity and diversity of soil microbe were studied in different vegetation types in Gaoligong Mountain,Yunnan.The quantities of microbes,diverstity of fungi,and the amount of nutritions were examined in 12 soil samples,which were collected from different habitats with the elevation ranging from 1000 to 3000 meters,The result showed that the quantities of bacteria,fungi,actinomyces,and diversity of fungi varied with elevation.The highest values occurred at the elevation of about 2000 meters,and they decreased as the elevation increased of decreased.The lowest values appeared at bottom of the Mountains.The correlations between soil microbes and the ccological factors varied.The quantities and diversity of soil microbes were significantly correlated with temperature and organic matter except that there were to significant correlations between the quantity of bacteria and temperature,as well as between quantity of fungi and organic matter.In contrast,they correlated less with effective nitrogen and soil moisture content,much less with quick acting phosphorus and quick acting potassium.The results indicate that the main exoloical factors influencing the quantity and diversity of soil microbes were temperature,organic matter,effective nitrogen,and soil moisture content.
    Studies on the host-symbiont systems in sarcodines and flagellates
    GU Fu-Kang, SUI Shu-Guang, YANG Zhen-Yun
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  303-307.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999047
    Abstract ( 3068 )   PDF (149KB) ( 1899 )   Save
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    The study of the host-prokaryotic symbiosis in sarcodines and flagellates is an improtant part 0f the exploration of the Origin and evolution of eukaryocytes.Until now ,bacteria endosymbionts have been found in more than 20 species 0f amoebae and 70 species of flagellates. Most of the symbiotic bacteria are sustained in symbiontophoric vacuole of the host's cytoplasm ,whereas the nuclear symbionts are observed in few flagellate species.The biogenesis 0f membranes of symbiontophoric vaeucles an important aspect 0f the amoebaebacteria system establishment,also,the symbiont may become essential cellular components 0f amoebae by supplementing a genetic defect for an amoebae’s house-keeping gene that is brought about by an action of the symbiont themselves.Studies on the endosymbiotic systems 0f Glaucophyceae-cyanellae have proved that the chloroplast originated from a single ancestral symbiotic cyanobacterium.Trypanosomatids quite often contain endosymbiotic diplosomes in their cytoplasm,also,it is deduced that the diplosome have been inherited by trypanosomatids from bodonids.It is supposed that:(1)further study on basic stages of origin of symbiotic relationship between flagellates and prokaryotes may formulate the major principles of the origin of symbiotic systems of protozoa,and still further,furnish the theoretical evidences of the endosymbiotic origin of eukaryocytes;(2)profound study on the amoebae-bacteria system will probably produce testimony to the theory of endosymbiotic origin of eukaryocytes at the aspect of the evolution of genetic fine structures and metabolic regulation at molecular level.
    Some viewpoints on biodiversity research
    CHEN Ling-Zhi
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  308-311.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999048
    Abstract ( 3152 )   PDF (95KB) ( 3507 )   Save
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    The conservation of biodiversity and its sustainable use have been paid attention by governments and public in most countries.In this paper,some hot spots in biodiversity research which are followed with interest to worldwide,are introduced.DIVERSITAS,the international programme of biodiversity science,is being evaluated;some suggestions on the origin,maintenance,inventory and monitoring of biodiversity are supplemented.Studies on restoration of biodiversity,which depend upon the theoretical basis of dynamic,succession of ecosystem,have to be strengthened urgently.Biodiversity information system is the major part of biodiversity science.Studies on agrobiodiversity combine biodiversity with agricultural practice.Biosafety issue has been one of the current hot spots.Some viewpoints are suggested on the issues mentioned above by the author.
    Monitoring the ecological risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
    WEI Wei, QIAN Ying-Qian, MA Ke-Ping, SANG Wei-Guo
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  312-319.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999049
    Abstract ( 2620 )   PDF (207KB) ( 1806 )   Save
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    Long-term monitoring of ecological risks of GMOs,which will emerge during a long period of time after commercialized release,is necessary.The contents and approaches for monitoring are different in terms of various GMOs and release conditions.Mathematical models could play an improtant role for short or long-term monitoring and for predicting the consequences of GMOs release.The contents,principles and methodds for monitoring the ecological risks of GMOs are fully discussed in this paper.
    Biodiversity in the Wuyi Mountains and its importance in China
    CHEN Chang-Du
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  320-326.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999050
    Abstract ( 3176 )   PDF (517KB) ( 2714 )   Save
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    The Wuyi Mountains are located in northwestern Fujian Province,and contain the Huanggangshan,the highest peak in southeastern China,at an elevation of 2158m.In this mountainous district,with warm and moist climate,the species diversity is high.The known species of higher plants reaches 2615,and animals 5249.The endemic,ancient,relic,and rare species are plentiful.Some of them distributed here emerge variations.It is famous for large number of animal type specimens.So it is an important center for speciation,as well as "refuge" in southeastern part of China.Ecosystems are also diverse.Some old and famous trees,aged more than 200,even 1000 years can be found.Therefore in China's Biodiversity:A Country study,the Wuyi Mountains are listed as one of the eleven terrestrial critical regions for biodiversity conservation in China.Besides,on the bank of Giuqu Stream,there exists two steles recording the proclamations of Emperors Kangxi and Qianlong,which laid prohibitions againsting felling trees and fishing in the stream.It indicates that this is one of the regions with old tradition to protect biodiversity.
    Conservation and utilization of wild relatives of crops
    HOU Xiang-Yang, GAO Wei-Dong
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  327-331.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999051
    Abstract ( 3204 )   PDF (145KB) ( 2554 )   Save
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    Wild relatives 0f crops are very important to ensure suitidentfood in the comlng century. In the past thirty years,notable progresses have been made in the research on collection,preservation,identification and utilization of wild relatives 0f crops.China is especially rich in wild relatives of crops but they are facing severe threats.It is very urgent to strengthen researches on genetic diversity,preservation techniques,innovation and utilization.
    The role of bryophytes in biodiversity
    WANG Qing, HE Shan-An, WU Peng-Cheng
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  332-339.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999052
    Abstract ( 2846 )   PDF (251KB) ( 3635 )   Save
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    With nearly 23000 species,various ecological adaptation,unique life history and poikilohydrous water relations,bryophytes are important components of the biodiversity of the world,In virtue of their ecophysiological attributes,bryophytes grow in all vegetation types,and always form their own societies within vascular plant societies.They are important for other organisms,By creating a special environment,they increase the species diversity in many ecosystems,Bryophytes play an important role in energy flow,nutrient cycling and water balance,It is necessary to define and emphasize the role of bryophytes in biodiversity,which has been neglected by the public,Otherwise,these highly specialized and sensitive organisms would disappear.The damaged habitat is also a main threat to bryophytes.
    Population genetics and its implications for conservation of rare and endangered plants
    LIU Zhan-Lin, ZHAO Gui-Fang
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  340-346.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999053
    Abstract ( 3045 )   PDF (205KB) ( 3028 )   Save
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    Population genetics is of great value in the study on the conservation of rare and endangered plants.The authors introduced some important concepts in population genetics,including effective population size,inbreeding,genetic drift and gene flow,and then proposed some areas in which population genetics can be used for the conservation of rare and endangered plants.
    Marine biodiversity and conservation strategies in China
    WANG Bin
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  347-350.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999054
    Abstract ( 3731 )   PDF (73KB) ( 3074 )   Save
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    Present status of marine biodiversity as well as the impacts of human activities were analysed in this paper.The policies,laws,and regulations formulated by the State Oceanic Administration for protecting and managing marine biodiversity were introduced.The paper also summarized the development of scientific investigations and researches on marine biodiversity,the construction of monitoring system on marine ecological environment,the management of marine nature reserves,and the sustainable use of marine biodiversity.On the basis of the present situation,a series of management strategies were put forward:1)to establish early warning system and to enhance the capacity for catastrophe handing;2)to integrate the management of biociversity into the regional economic and social development program;3)to coordinate efforts among institutions and legislation on biodiversity management and 4)to manage biodiversity based on ecosystem function and public participation.
    Special Issue
    A preliminary study on the management strategies in Futian Mangrove and Birds Nature Reserve, Shenzhen
    Wang Yong-Jun, Zhu Ge-Ren, Terry Delacy
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (4):  351-354.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999055
    Abstract ( 3424 )   PDF (88KB) ( 2803 )   Save
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    Located in Shenzhen Special Economic Zone,Futian Mangrove and Birds Nature Reserve is one of the regious with rich biodiversity.Under the great pressure from the rapid economic development and increasing expansion of the urban district,the nature reserve readjusts its management strategies from isolated conservation to open conservation and improve the involvement of local communities,local governments and neighbouring bodies in the comanagement of biodiversity.By means of development of ecotourism,fish ponds and low-lying land economy within sea wall,the natural reserve changes its role in the natural conservation.In order to ensure the implement of open management strategies on local nature reserve management should be put forward.

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