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Table of Content
    Volume 07 Issue 3
    20 August 1999
      
    论文
    A preliminary evaluation of the habitat quality of the Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon)
    LI Xin-Hai, LI Dian-Mo, DING Chang-Qing, CAO Yong-Han, LU Xi-Rong, FU Wen-Kai, MA Zhi-Jun, LU Bao-Zhong, ZHAI Tian-Qing
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  161-169.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999025
    Abstract ( 2963 )   PDF (330KB) ( 2532 )   Save
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    The habitat quality of the Crested ibis was evaluated. First , we digitized the topographic map , vegetation map , river map , road map , and village map by geographical information system , and gave each map the suitability values according to the favorite degree of the Crested ibis. Then we overlaid these maps to obtain an integrated map of habitat quality. Compared with the actural distribution of the Crested ibis , we found that it always inhabited at the sites of high quality. This indicated that the factors we chose were very important for the Crested ibis. However , we also found that the Crested ibis never inhabited at some sites of high quality. We speculated , therefore , some other factors restricted the distribution of the Crested ib
    The status of species diversity and conservation strategy of bumble bees, a pollination insect in Lancang River Basin of Yunnan, China
    YANG Da-Rong
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  170-174.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999026
    Abstract ( 2871 )   PDF (128KB) ( 1978 )   Save
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    The species diversity status of important pollination insects , Bombus (Hymenoptera) was investigated at three sites , Mengla County at low elevations , Nanjian County at intermediate elevations , and Deqin County at high elevations , in Lancang River Basin in Yunnan , China. The species diversity of Bombus at present (1996~1980) and 20 years ago (1976~1980) was compared. The reduction of vegetation induced by human activities has led to great changes in the habitats , number of species and population size of bumble bees over 20 years. The changing tendency among pollination insect species and populations obviously varied due to different biological and ecological characteristics. The decreasing rate of endemic bumble bee species and populations is more rapid than that of common and euryecic ones. The results showed that changes of habitats induced by human activities significantly influenced species diversity of pollination insects in Lancang River Basin. To conserve and restore the population of bumble bees , the priority is to conserve and restore local ecosystems.
    The diversity of benthic macrofauna on mud flat in Dongzhaigang Mangrove Rserve, Hainan
    ZOU Fa-Sheng, SONG Xiao-Jun, CHEN Wei, ZHENG Xin-Ren, CHEN Jian-Hai
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  175-180.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999027
    Abstract ( 3167 )   PDF (189KB) ( 2708 )   Save
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    This paper reported the results of investigation on benthic macrofauna on mud flat in Dongzhaigang Mangrove Reserve , Hainan. Sixty eight species of benthic macrofauna , belonging to six Phyla , 34 families were found. The dominant species were Cerithidea cingulata , Batillaria cumingi , Cyclotellina remies and Potamocorbula rubromuscula of Mollusca. The mean biomass of benthic macrofaunu in summer and in winter was 133.0 g/m2 and 63.0 g/m2 , respectively. The mean densities were 106.4 ind./m2 in summer and 103. 5 ind./m2 in winter. The species diversity indexes of benthic macrofaunu in summer and in winter were 1.841 and 0.380 , respectively. The species evenness indexes were 0.514 and 0.113 , respectively. The biomass diversity indexes of benthic macrofaunu were 1.994 in summer and and 1.751 in winter. The biomass evenness indexes were 0.556 and 0.520 , respectively. The biomass , density , species diversity index and biomass diversity index of benthic macrofauna varied with season and substrate. All these values were greater in summer than in winter , greater in sand2mud substrate than in mud substrate
    The diversity of scleractinian coral associated species in Dongshan, Fujian Province
    HUANG Zong-Guo, ZHENG Cheng-Xing, LI Chuan-Yan, WANG Jian-Jun, ZOU Ren-Lin
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  181-188.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999028
    Abstract ( 2699 )   PDF (209KB) ( 2796 )   Save
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    A total of six species of scleractinian corals was recorded in Dongshan of Fujian Province , China , including Cyphast rea serralia , Favia speciosa , and Turbinaria peltata et al. In the stereoscopic habitat formed by corals , 154 associated species were found. They either lived in caves or crevices , attached on corals , buried in corals or were errant . Buried barnacles Nobia conjugatum , mussels in caves Lithophaga malaccana and Gregariella coralliophaga are the feature of the coral associated species.
    An indirect assessment system for biodiversity in the Korean pine-broadleaved forest region under the framework of sustainable forest management
    ZANG Run-Guo, ZHU Chun-Quan, LEI Jing-Pin, JIN Tie-Shan
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  189-196.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999029
    Abstract ( 2492 )   PDF (213KB) ( 2125 )   Save
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    Conservation and sustainable utilization of biodiversity is one of the most important work in sustainable forest management . One of the challenges in the practice of sustainable forest management is how to assess biodiversity quickly and effectively. Under the framework of sustainable development , this paper dealt with biodiverdity assessment for sustainable forest management in the Korean pine-broadleaved forest region. An indirect assessment system and method was proposed. It was mainly based on the principles of relationships between species and habitats , natural disturbance regimes , the interactions among species , special habitats , and vulnerable species. On the basis of characteristics of disturbance regimes , general conditions of forest stands , tree layer , shrub layer , herbaceous layer , vines , and epiphytes in the Korean pine2broadleaved forest region , a table for field recording of indirect biodiversity assessment in subcompartments was made using the repetition accumulation method. When making plans for biodiversity conservation for a forest management unit such as forestry bureau or forest farm , we should firstly make conservation priority for different forest types according to the resistance and adaptability of forest to disturbances. We then make field record for subcompartments of different forest types ,and determine the conservation priority and correspondent measures for different subcompartments. The field indirect record for biodiversity can be combined with forest management inventory.
    Comparison of genetic diversity in Laminaria japonica gametophytes
    WANG Ying, DAI Ji-Xun
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  197-201.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999030
    Abstract ( 2378 )   PDF (157KB) ( 2209 )   Save
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    Genetic diversity was compared and analyzed between Laminaria japonica gametophytes from Qingdao of China and those from Hokkaido of Japan. Six enzyme systems ( Adh , Gdh , Idh , Lh , Sdh , and Sod) were examined by PAGE , and twenty two gene loci were found. The results showed that the genetic diversity in the gametophytes of Hokkaido was higher than that of Qingdao. There was genetic differentiation in gametophytes between Hokkaido and Qingdao. Double banding patterns of allozymes with different mobility were found for Qingdao gametophytes in Idh , Ldh , and Sdh enzymes as well as for Hokkaido gametophytes in all six enzymes. The bands may be controlled by special genes which mainly exist in the third gene loci.
    Community structure dynamics of the hermatypic corals on Luhuitou fringing reef, Hainan, China. II. species diversity
    YU DENGPAN, ZOU RENLIN
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  202-207.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999031
    Abstract ( 2681 )   PDF (163KB) ( 2060 )   Save
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    Patterns of community structure , in terms of total number of species , percentage of coral cover , species diversity and evenness , of the hermatypic corals on Luhuitou fringing reef were analyzed on the temporal scale of successional phases and the spatial scales of habitats. Temporal variation of species diversity in the mid and the deep-zone declined during succession , while the shallow zone did not . There is no indication that coral assemblages in different habitats become more similar over time as corals grow ; each successional period showed significant between-habitat variability in the pattern of species diversity.
    Research on species diversity of evergreen broad-leaved shelter-forests in Jianxi River Valley, Fujian
    HONG Wei, LIN Cheng-Lai, WU Cheng-Zhen, HE Dong-Jin, CHEN Kun
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  208-213.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999032
    Abstract ( 2578 )   PDF (199KB) ( 2913 )   Save
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    According to the principle of biodiversity conservation , the species diversity should be regarded as an important target of synthetical benefit of the shelter2forests. The authors analyzed the species abundance of tree layer and shrub layer of the shelter-forest using the model of the Weibull distribution , and calculated the species diversity for each layer by means of various formulas and compared with that of the deciduous broadleaved forests in North China. The results were as follows :(1) in the valley the species abundance relationship fitted with the Weibull distribution model , suggesting that those trees with the greatest number of individuals were only restricted in a few species and evenness indices was small ; (2) its richness indices , evenness indices and species diversity indices were higher than those of the deciduous broad2leaved forests.
    Population extinction rates of species in a relict group—Klugieae, with special reference to its phylogeny and the destruction degree of its habitat
    WANG Yin-Zheng, FU De-Zhi, PENG Hua
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  214-219.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999033
    Abstract ( 2643 )   PDF (181KB) ( 2060 )   Save
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    By means of statistic analysis on the dynamic state of the enrichment and declination of 59 local populations in 12 surviving species in Klugieae from China ,the population extinction rate is calculated using the formula of R ( %/ 20 years) = (1 - Wi/ Wi - 1) ×100. During the period of 120 years from 1870 to 1990 ,the population extinction rate of species in Klugieae sharply increased while their habitats became severely fragmented. The population extinction rates of species in different groups are correlated with their phylogeny. The primitive groups have higher population extinction rate than the derivative groups. The endemic groups , especially the endemic genera are inclined to suffer higher extinction than the widely distributed genera.
    Avian-mammalian species diversity in nine representative sites in China
    JIANG Zhi-Gang, JI Li-Qiang
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  220-225.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999034
    Abstract ( 3233 )   PDF (190KB) ( 2792 )   Save
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    Species check-lists of birds or mammals , normally accomplished after a general biological survey , are valuable for calculating the diversity index. We recommend a method that uses avian and mammalian species check-lists to assess the species diversity in an area. The first step is to compute the diversity indexes at the genus level ( G-index) and the family level ( F-index) , then to calculate the ratio of G-index and F-index as the G-F index . The G-index reflects the diversity at the genus level . The F-index has two components , i. e. the diversity within and the diversity among families. G-F index ranges between 0 and 1. (1) F-index , DF : For a particular family k :        DFk = - r n i = 1 piln pi (1) Where n = the number of genera in the family k , pi = ski / Sk , ski = the number of species in genus i , Sk = the total number of species in family k. For overall F-index :           DF = r m k = 1 DFk (2) Where m = the total number of families in the class (2) G-index , DG : DG = - r p j = 1 DGi = - r p j = 1 qjln qj (3) Where qj = sj / S , sj = the number of species in genus j , S = the total number of species in the class , p = the total number of genus in the class.(3) G-Findex : DG-F = 1 - DG DF (4) We calculated the G-F indexes for nine representative sites. They are the Dayaoshan Mountain Nature Reserve , the Funiushan Mountain Nature Reserve , the Fanjingshan Mountain Nature Reserve , the Qinghai Lake Nature Reserve , the Haibei Alpine Ecosystem Research Station , the Liangshui Nature Reserve , the BeijingTianjin region , the Baiyinxile Grassland Ecosystem Research Station , and the Parmir Plateau for a comparative species diversity study. Based on the biological census data , such as the species check-lists of birds and mammals , G-F index provides a rapid and efficient assessment of biodiversity , because the species check-lists are readily available. In the study areas , the F-index of birds was significantly higher than that of mammals , indicating higher species diversity in birds than that in mammals at the study sites. The avian and mammalian G-F indexes of the study sites were closely correlated.
    On the phylogeny of Drosophila nasuta species subgroup
    ZHENG Xiang-Zhong, ZHU Ding-Liang, GENG Zhen-Cheng, ZHANG Ya-Ping
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  226-233.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999035
    Abstract ( 2589 )   PDF (192KB) ( 2447 )   Save
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    Drosophila nasuta species subgroup , belonging to Drosophila immigrans species group , consists of 14 closely related taxa in various levels of the speciation process. This subgroup exhibits much evolutionary idiosyncrasies which attract great interest in the study of speciation mechanism. However , extensive studies on morphometric , reproductive isolation , chromosomal , allozyme variation , mtDNA RFL P , and courtship song characteristics have failed to produce a coherent phylogenetic tree for this subgroup. This paper reviews the available data on the phylogeny of this subgroup , and some ideas for future research are proposed.
    The impacts of agricultural activities on biodiversity
    CHEN Xin, TANG Jian-Jun, WANG Zhao-Qian
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  234-239.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999036
    Abstract ( 2362 )   PDF (168KB) ( 4470 )   Save
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    Agricultural activities , such as land use , tillage , intercropping and rotation , grazing , and extensive usage of pesticides and fertilizers , exotic germplasms introduction , and screening of varying progenies in breeding program , have significant impacts on species diversity , genetic diversity of flora and fauna. Land use in an unreasonable way results in habitat fragmentation and biodiversity decrease. Species in soil were disturbed or became extinct on a large scale by tillage activities with agricultural machines. Extensive usage of pesticides causes loss of non2target insects and plants. Genetic erosion resulted from modern breeding program by means of limited interspecies hybridization decreases the genetic diversity of agroecosytem. Some agricultural activities such as intercropping , rotation , organic farming practice are favorable for biodiversity conservation. In most cases , agricultural activities focus only on crop production , while the impacts on wild plants and animals by agricultural activities are neglected. This paper provided an overview of the impacts of agricultural practices on biodiversity , and discussed how agricultural practices could be modified so as to enhance the conservation of biological resources and long term viability of agriculture.
    The roles of mycorrhizal fungi in terrestrial ecosysytems
    ZHAO Zhi-Wei
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  240-244.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999037
    Abstract ( 2335 )   PDF (141KB) ( 2607 )   Save
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    I discussed the roles that mycorrhizal fungi play in terrestrial ecosystems. They form mutualistic association with plants , retain nutrient elements and water in the soil , supply foods for animals ,affect the succesion of community and the composition of flora , regulate the integration of the resources and sustain species diversity of ecosystems.
    Impacts of traditional culture of Yi nationality upon biodiversity in Zixishan Mountain area, Yunnan
    LONG Chun-Lin, ZHANG Fang-Yu, PEI Sheng-Ji, CHEN San-Yang
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  245-249.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999038
    Abstract ( 2772 )   PDF (135KB) ( 1985 )   Save
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    The relationship between traditional culture of Yi minority and biodiversity in Zixishan Mountain area , central Yunnan , SW China , was investigated through the approaches of ethnobiology and cultural anthropology. Rich biodiversity in Zixishan Mountain area is benefited from traditional Yi culture. Totem culture of Yi minority has contributed significantly to the success of biodiversity conservation at ecosystem , species and genetic levels. It is suggested that the traditional culture and indigenous knowledge of the Yi ethnic culture be conserved and extensively studied for biodiversity conservation.
    Effects of religious culture on forest resource conservation in Dinghu mountain, Guangdong
    WEI Ping, WEN Da-Zhi
    Biodiv Sci. 1999, 07 (3):  250-254.  doi:10.17520/biods.1999039
    Abstract ( 2478 )   PDF (106KB) ( 1986 )   Save
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    According to the historical records and some inscriptions on the steles found in Dinghu Mountain Biosphere Reserve , the rise and decline of the religious temples of Dinghu Mountain in different historical periodsand the protection and management measures of the forest adopted by monks , and the effects of the religious culture on the forest community and biodiversity conservation are presented. From the recorded writings , the protection and management of the representative vegetation in Dinghu Mountain —South Asian subtropical monsoon evergreen broad2leafed forest was initiated in 1633. Thus this vegetation has been protected and managed for 366 years , of which , 319 years was done by the monks in Qingyun Temple. Religious culture is one of the important reasons why the forest community and biodiversity have been protected well.

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