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Table of Content
    Volume 08 Issue 1
    20 February 2000
    Genetic diversity in the genus Actinidia
    HUANG Hong-Wen, GONG Jun-Jie, WANG Sheng-Mei, HE Zi-Can, ZHANG Zhong-Hui, LI Jian-Qiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  1-12.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000001
    Abstract ( 2892 )   PDF (414KB) ( 3336 )   Save
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    The genus Actinidia contains more than 66 species and 118 taxa. Sixty two species , 114 taxa have been found in China. Genetic diversity from morphological characteristics to DNAs was discussed in thispaper : (1) morphological diverity (important horticultural characteristics) ; (2) diversity of nutritional consstituents and flavor ; (3) gender variation ; (4) ploidy variation ; (5) isozyme genetic variation , and (6) genetic diversity DNAs.
    The roles of ecological genetics in biodiversity conservation
    HUANG Rui-Fu
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  13-16.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000002
    Abstract ( 2450 )   PDF (91KB) ( 2412 )   Save
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    In the present paper , some problems were discussed on the roles of ecological genetics in biodiversity conservation. First of all , the nature of ecological genetics was described. Ecological genetics represents a union of population ecology and population genetics and it studies on evolution at population level. Second , the basic content of ecological genetics was introduced to show that it is one of the basic knowledgements in the study and protection of biodiversity. Last , two examples were given to illustrate the application of ecological genetics in biodiversity conservation.
    The maintenance mechanism of plant community and its species diversity
    YE Wan-Hui
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  17-24.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000003
    Abstract ( 2907 )   PDF (240KB) ( 2906 )   Save
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    The origins and maintenance of species diversity is a core of biodiversity. Numerous hypotheses address this topic. The maintenance of species diversity in community is divided into increasing process ( speciation , invasion and colonization) , decreasing process(extinction) and species coexistence. The internal cause of species coexistence is the different biological and ecological property of species , external cause is the habitation heterogeneity of community. The habitation heterogeneity of community is the basis of species diversity and drives the community organization process. Patches mosaic structure of community is due to gap formation and lead species diversity. Patches mosaic is the basic property of community which makes the structure and function of ecosystem prolonged maintaining. The patches mosaic pattern and its role in maintenance of species diversity and productivity for the Monsoon evergreen broadleaved forest in Dinghushan Biosphere Reserve have been discussed.
    The present status and conservation of the biodiversity in Hong Kong
    Lawrence Chau, Michael Lau, Billy Hau, Gloria Siu
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  25-35.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000004
    Abstract ( 3724 )   PDF (376KB) ( 3716 )   Save
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    The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region lies within the tropics and experiences a maritime climate.As a part of the Guangdong coastal massif , it is characterized by a hilly terrain. The highest peak is Damaoshan Mountain(957 m) and hilly areas (altitudes above 150 m) account for three quarters of the total land area. Due to the general lack of flat land , urban development is concentrated along coastal areas. The developed areas (including urban areas and rural towns) account for about 20 % of the total land area , agricultural land about 5 % (most of which is abandoned) , and the rest is countryside including native woodlands and plantations (15 %) , shrublands (36 %) and grasslands (17 %) . The favourable climate and geographical conditions bring about a large variety of ecological environments , which in turn support an exuberant variety of both plants and animals making Hong Kong , such a small place of 1090 km2 , very rich in biological diversity. There are about 2500 species of native plants , including 1900 species of angiosperms , seven species of gymnosperms , around 220 species of ferns and about 300 species of bryophytes. For wild fauna , so far about 40 species of wild mammals , more than 459 species of birds , 23 species of amphibians , around 70 species of reptiles , about 100 species of dragonflies , about 220 species of butterflies and 2000 species of moths have been recorded. As well as having a huge variety , some of these species are protected by China’s government and others are endemic. For plants , there is one species (Spiny Tree Fern , A lsophila spinulosa) listed in Category I of the State Protection L ist , three species (e.g. Tetrathryrium subcordatum) in Category II and eight species (e.g. Amentotaxus argotaenia) in Category III. Moreover , there are 16 endemic plant species in Hong Kong. Examples are Osmunda mildei (Osmundaceae) , Asarum hongkongense (Aristolochiaceae) and Bulbophyllum tseanum (Orchidaceae) . For animals , there are nine species listed in Category I of the State Protection List (e. g. the Chinese White Dolphin , Sousa chinensis) , and 79 species in Category II. Endemic animals include Romer’s Tree Frog ( Philautus romeri) , Bogadek’s Legless Lizard ( Dibamus bogadeki) and many insects. To protect the varieties of wild animals , plants and their habitats , the Hong Kong SAR Government has formulated some ordinances and launched quite a few conservation measures. For instance , there are 21 country parks and 14 special areas , covering about 38 % of the total land area of Hong Kong. There are also two special restricted zones , three marine parks , and one marine reserve. The government has also set up 59 ”Site of Special Scientific Interest”(SSSI) so as to conserve and study various species of plants and animals , ecosystem , special geology and landscapes in Hong Kong.

    Creative prospect on biodiversity science in the 21 Century
    HU Zhi-Ang
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  36-40.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000005
    Abstract ( 2506 )   PDF (123KB) ( 2584 )   Save
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    After a brief introduction of Creative Botany invented by famous phyisologist P. S. Tang in 1983 , recent situations and problems in biodiversity reseach were analysed according to his creative thinking. A new hierarchy of genetic diversity was suggested based on variation scales involved in DNA diversity. In corresponding to ESU ( Evolutionaryly Significant Unit) , an OTU (Operational Taxonomic Unit) measured by DNA variation may be used to replace categories of taxa since its subjectivity. Next century , molecular systematics and ecology will probably pay attention to the question about DNA variation , especially the changes in repeat sequences how to control living activities of organisms and uncover relationships between structure and function in molecular levels in the course of evolution and adaptation. The third part of present paper discussed five core programms of the Diversitas , which indicated researches at molecular level are urgently needed and biotechnology will play an important role in conservation and sustainable uses of biological diversity. Finally some related philosophical viewpoints were discussed.
    The construction status of biodiversity information system and a brief introduction of CBISThe construction status of biodiversity information system and a brief introduction of CBIS
    JI Li-Qiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  41-49.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000006
    Abstract ( 2905 )   PDF (242KB) ( 3699 )   Save
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    In order to implement the Convention of Biological Diversity for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, governments and conservation organizations have built up lots of biodiversity information (database) systems to support the decision-making on conservation and utilization from the basis of science. The development of information technology , especially the Internet , provides powerful tools and foundation for biodiversity information system and enables the information sharing globally. This paper briefly introduced the objective , content , status and nature of several famous information systems in biodiversity conservation and the representative in China , the Chinese Biodiversity Information System (CBIS) .
    A study on bryophytes diversity in the main ecosystems in Changbai Mountain
    CAO Tong, GUO Shui-Liang
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  50-59.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000007
    Abstract ( 2805 )   PDF (235KB) ( 2878 )   Save
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    There are 469 species of bryophytes (including 32 taxa under species) belonging to 179 genera and 65 families in Mt . Changhai. The species richness ranged from the highest to the lowest as saxicolous bryophytes , saprophytic bryophytes , epiphytic bryophytes , soil and humus bryophytes and peat , marsh and water bryophytes. For soil and humus bryophytes , the species richness is highest in dark conifer forest ,Shannon index is highest in L arix olgensis- bogs and dark conifer forest . The species richness and Shannon index for saprophytic bryophytes are highest in the dark conifer forest , and those for epiphtic bryophytes are highest in both the dark conifer forest and the transitive forest between Pinus koraiensis borad-leaved mixed forest and dark conifer forest . Qualitative analyses showed that altitude , canopy density , soil acidity , soil water content and richness of rotten wood in the forest could be the important environmental factors influencing the diversity of bryophytes. Among them , the humidity and canopy density rank the first .
    The population density and commnnity structure of the pheasants in northern Qinling Mountains
    YU Yu-Qun, WU Jian-Ping, GUO Song-Tao, HE Peng-Ju, JI Ming-Zhou, HU Yong-Le
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  60-64.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000008
    Abstract ( 2638 )   PDF (134KB) ( 2593 )   Save
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    Zhouzhi Nature Reserve in north Qinling Mountains might be divided into four geo- biotic zones. The population density and community structure of the pheasants were studied by Gates lines transect . The result shows that species diversity of pheasants relates to altitude and vegetation. The diversity of pheasants is influenced by the stability of environment . Golden pheasant can be found at altitudes of up to 2700 m in the winter.
    Variations in community structure of fishery resources and biodiversity in the Laizhou Bay, Shandong
    JINXian-Shi, DENG Jing-Yao
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  65-72.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000009
    Abstract ( 2550 )   PDF (186KB) ( 3479 )   Save
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    Based on seasonal bottom trawl surveys from 1959 to 1999 , the variations in fishery resources , dominant species composition and community structure were analyzed. The results indicate that the biomass has continuously declined from 1959. The current biomass account for only 3. 3 % , 7. 3 % and 11. 0 % of that in 1959 , 1982 and 1992~1993 , respectively. Although dominant species vary in different seasons , the traditional large- sized demersal species , such as largehead hairtail ( Trichiurus haumela) and small yellow croaker ( Pseudosciaena polyactis) , have been replaced by small pelagic species , such as anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) , half-financhovy ( Setipinna taty ) , gizzard- shad ( Clupanodon punctatus ) , and rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis) . The community structure has also changed , while species diversity increased from 1959 to 1982 and then decreased continuously. The disturbance , particularly fishing , may increase the diversity at intermediate intensity , but too high fishing intensity may lead to diversity decrease. At present , the community structure is simple at un-equilibrium state in the Laizhou Bay , the community succession will continue , and the biomass of small pelagic species with high resilience may recover and increase if the disturbance is significantly reduced.
    Study on fungal flora diversity in Daqinggou Nature Reserve
    Tolgor, LI Yu
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  73-80.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000010
    Abstract ( 2350 )   PDF (254KB) ( 2399 )   Save
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    The result of the flora diversity study indicated that there were rich fungal flora in the Daqinggou Nature Reserve in Inner Mongolia of China. The dominant families are Tricholomataceae ,Coriolaceae ,Cortinariaceae , Agaricaceae ,Strophariaceae , Hygrophoraceae and Xylariaceae , while the dominant genera are Inocybe , Marasmius , Polyporus , Pholiota , Pluteus , Xylaria , A garicus , Rhodophyllus , Hygrophorus , Hygrocybe , Crepidotus , Melanoleuca , Trametes and Helvella. Regarding the composition , the species were grouped into : Cosmopolitan (34. 11 %) , North Temperate Zone (42. 05 %) ,North Temperate-Australia (5. 30 %) , Temperate- subtropical or Tropical (3. 31 %) , Eurasian (2. 98 %) , Eastern Asia-North America (2. 32 %) , Eastern Asia(1. 97 %) , Sino-Japan in common(4. 64 %) , and endemic(3. 97 %) . In all nine distributional types , cosmopolitan and North Temperate Zone are characteristics of this region. The fungal flora of Daqinggou is very similar to that of the Changbai Mountains in Northeast China. This suggests that the origins of these two floras may have a certain relationship , but they have no close relationship with the fungal flora in subtropical and tropical regions.
    Status of wild ass in China
    ZHENG Sheng-Wu, GAO Xing-Yi
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  81-87.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000011
    Abstract ( 3236 )   PDF (193KB) ( 3105 )   Save
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    During 1993~1997 , the status of Chinese wild ass was assessed. The Chinese wild ass is divided into two species , i. e. Mongolian wild ass or chigetai , kulan ( Equus hemionus) and Tibetan wild ass or kiang ( Equus kiang) . Equus hemionus is distributed in the Meng-Xin Region , while Equus kiang was found in the Qin- Zang Region , including Inner Mongolia , Xinjiang , Tibet , Qinghai , Gansu and Sichuan Province. The distribution area of Mongolian wild ass is about 0. 14 million km2 (40°20′~46°40′N ,85°40′~107°30′E) , about 700~1500 m in altitude , with a population size less than 2000. Tibetan wild ass is distributed in an area of about 0. 972 507 million km2 (27°48′~39°27′N ,78°40′~103°00′E) ,about 3000~5500 m in altitude , with an estimated population size of 88 871.
    A study on soil animal fauna from warm_temperate zone in Xiaolongmen forest areas, Beijing
    CHEN Guo-Xiao, SONG Da-Xiang
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  88-94.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000012
    Abstract ( 2540 )   PDF (206KB) ( 1994 )   Save
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    Up to now , there have been no special reports regarding soil animals in warm2temperate zone at home and abroad. From April 1993 to January 1994 ,by means of commonly- used quantitative and qualitative method , we carried out monthly sample collections in five plots in the Xiaolongmen Forestry Research Stations , Beijing. A total of 35 294 specimens were collected , belonging to five phyla , six classes , 54 orders , 176 families , 252 genera and 356 species. Among them , 822 individuals were large size soil animals ( Gastropoda , Arachnida , Myriapoda , Hymenoptera etc. ) , 3129 were small size animals (mainly ticks and mites) , 31 227 were wet land living soil animals (mainly nematods) , and annual mean occurrence of individuals per gram of dry soil of Protozoan (mainly Amoebae and Flagellates) was 789 238. The tendency of population fluctuation of dry soil animals showed evident seasonal variations and comparatively obvious fauna characteristics. There are similarities and differences regarding species composition compared with other areas in China and neighbouring countries.
    Gene frequency distributions of Anthoxanthum alpinumalong the altitudinal gradients in Swiss Alps
    ZHAO Gui-Fang, Francois Felber, Philippe Kuepfer
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  95-102.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000013
    Abstract ( 2392 )   PDF (344KB) ( 1439 )   Save
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    Anthoxanthum alpinum has a continuous distribution from the treeline (1700 m) to the summit ridges (2830 m) in Arpette and Belalp of Valais , Swiss Alps. The highest and lowest sites of the transect differ by almost 1000 m in elevation , but only an average of 1. 4 km apart . A significant clinal variation was observed at three allozyme loci ( Px- 1 , Got- 2 and Mdh- 1) on all three transects. It suggests that gene flow among sub-populations may be too weak to overcome the effects of natural selection in favor of adaptations to local conditions , and that temperature variables may function as major selective force in this case.
    A homologous comparison between mycoplasma and phytoplasma using 16S rDNA PCR amplification and RFLP analysis
    DENG Zhao-Qun, HU Qin-Xue, LIU Sheng, WANG Yao, LIN Mu-Lan
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  103-105.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000014
    Abstract ( 2627 )   PDF (119KB) ( 1764 )   Save
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    16S rDNA from mycoplasma and phytoplasma was amplified by PCR , and a band was detected at about 1 kb. DNA products were digested with restriction enzymes EcoR Ⅰ, Hind Ⅲ, Bam H Ⅰ, Sal Ⅰ and Sma Ⅰ, and then were analyzed using RFLP. Similarity coefficient derived from RFL P analysis of mycoplasma and phytoplasma is 0. 72
    A preliminary study on the populatiou size of Yangtze finless propoise in Poyang Lake, Jiangxi
    XIAO Wen, ZHANG Xian-Feng
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  106-111.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000015
    Abstract ( 2543 )   PDF (161KB) ( 3114 )   Save
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    We estimated the population density and size of the Yangtze finless porpoise ( Neophocaena phocaenoides asiaeorientalis) using line transect sampling in Poyang Lake , Jiangxi. The estimated density is 0. 1940 individual/ km2 and population size 388 , respectively. Feasibility , validity and other problems of line transect survey method in shallow fresh water lake were also discussed.
    The effects of paying tribute to the imperial court in the history on rkinoceros' extinction and elephant's endangerment in Southern Yunnan
    XU Zai-Fu
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  112-119.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000016
    Abstract ( 2497 )   PDF (457KB) ( 2608 )   Save
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    In accordance with the statistic from related historical documentst we estimated that 79~ 123 rhinoceros harns had been paid as tribute to the imperml oourts of China from southern Yunnan since the Yuan Dynasty (the 13rd certtury),The rhinoceros in the region,therefoxe,was becoming extinct during the period ofthe Qing Dynasty from the end of the 18th century to the beginnlng of the 19th century The last rhinoceros was killed in 1957 in sourhem Yunnan.Meanwhile. 1140~ 1339 elephants and 38~ 76 ivories were estimated to be paid as tribute to the imperial courts of China from Sourhern Yurman xince the Yuan Dynasty.and elephants were fallen into the situation of endangeredness in the middle of the 17th certtury Paying a special human factort was one of the important reas0ns for the endangerment and extinction of rhinoceros and elephants AIthough rhinoceros has been extinct in southern Yunnan,it can be reintroduced in recent ecoeavlronment.
    Edge effect and biodiversity
    LIAN Zhen-Min, YU Guang-Zhi
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  120-125.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000017
    Abstract ( 3112 )   PDF (142KB) ( 4082 )   Save
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    The relationship between edge effects and biodiversity has been the focus of study of many ecologists since the concept of edge effects was proposed. A lot of evidences and theoretical arguments indicate that edge effects are characterized by positive or negative effects. The results varied. Application and management of the edge effects , as well as the protection of biodiversity are important and urgent .
    An introduction to the International Biodiversity Observation Year(IBOY)
    REN Yi, ZHAO Shi-Dong, LI Yun
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  126-129.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000018
    Abstract ( 2329 )   PDF (97KB) ( 1903 )   Save
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    The program of the International Biodiversity Observation Year is underway by DIVERSITAS to study integratedly on the status of global biodiversity in all of its dimensions. The main objects of the program are : promoting the public to understand the status and the future of global biodiversity , pushing forward and perfecting the subject of Biodiversity and providing the scientific basis for policy decisions. DIVERSITAS attempts to understand what do we have in terms of global biodiversity , how much global biodiversity have we lost , why are we losing global biodiversity , what implications do these biodiversity losses have for us , how do we conserve and maintain the biodiversity that we have , what can we do to improve the biodiversity that we have , and how can we integrate and assess the total picture of global biodiversity. Some proposals for the undergoing of the program were also briefly introduced in this paper.
    An investigation and study on the plant worship by Yi people in Chuxiong, Yunnan
    LIU Ai-Zhong, PEISheng-Ji, CHEN San-Yang
    Biodiv Sci. 2000, 08 (1):  130-136.  doi:10.17520/biods.2000019
    Abstract ( 2857 )   PDF (512KB) ( 2533 )   Save
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    Based on a community-based study and an extensive field survey,the plant worship by the Yi people in Chuxiong,Yunnan and its culture content was inventoried,The effect and impact of the plant worship upon conservation and management of lacal biodiversity were highlighted,The possibility,necessity and feasibility to utilize traditional culture for modern natrue conservation in China were discussed.

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