In order to understand the diversity of culturable bacteria, we collected Bashania fangiana rhizosphere soil in Wolong Nature Reserve in May 2006. Then we isolated and cultured 50 bacteria strains with different morphological character of colonies from the soil. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial 16S rDNA sequences indicated that the 50 strains were clustered into ten genera: 27 strains of Gammaproteobacteria (42.3%), nine strains of Firmicutes (26.9%), four strains of Actinobacteria (15.4%), six strains of Betaproteobacteria (7.7%), three strains of Alphaproteobacteria (3.9%), one strain closely related to the ge-nus Pedobacter. The dominant bacteria were Pseudomonas and Bacillus. Additionally, we found two poten-tial novel species. The result shows that the bacterial population diversity is abundant in B. fangiana rhizosphere soil.