Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (5): 583-588.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.14056

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Bryophyte composition and diversity within anthropogenic habitats in a residential area of Chongqing municipality city

Chunyan Pi, Yan Liu*()   

  1. College of Life Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331
  • Received:2014-03-19 Accepted:2014-08-26 Online:2014-10-09
  • Liu Yan E-mail:tracy-moss@hotmail.com

Little is known about bryophyte composition and diversity in habitats created by residential areas. Ours is the first study aiming at gathering baseline information on the bryophyte flora of Chongqing municipality city and providing a scientific basis for evaluation of environmental quality and bryophyte adaptability in residential environments. Based on extensive field work, 84 bryophyte species in 33 genera and 19 families were reported from 23 residential areas in nine districts of Chongqing. Of those, 39.28% of the species belonged to Pottiaceae and Bryaceae, and most of them grew on soil. The most common species were Fissidens bryoides, Haplocladium microphyllum, Hydrogonium majusculum, Taxiphyllum taxirameum and Aneura pinguis. The number of bryophyte species in these 23 residential areas varied from 5 to 25. The similarity of bryophyte species composition between different residential areas was very low, suggesting the presence of distinct habitats and a high diversity among these areas. Turfs were the main life form of bryophytes that we observed. Canonical Correspondence Analysis revealed that the number of residents was the most influential factor in terms of the bryophyte species composition and diversity, followed by the area of green space. Our results suggested that, within cities, residential areas contain important environments for bryophytes. Observed differences in bryophyte composition among residential areas may be attributed to spatial background, urbanization, microhabitat and human disturbance.

Key words: plant biodiversity, city, life form, Canonical Correspondence Analysis

Table 1

Bryophyte diversity from 23 residential areas in nine districts of Chongqing"

编号
No.
行政区
District
小区名称
Name
科数
Family
属数
Genus
种数
Species
Shannon-Wiener指数
H′
1 巴南区 Banan District 帝豪巴南印象 Dihaobananyinxiang 6 8 11 1.04
2 巴南区 Banan District 恒大城 Hengdacheng 11 16 21 1.32
3 巴南区 Banan District 融汇半岛 Ronghuibandao 7 12 15 1.18
4 北碚区 Beibei District 华立北泉花园 Hualibeiquanhuayuan 10 16 25 1.40
5 大渡口区 Dadukou District 锦天康都 Jintiankangdu 7 10 13 1.11
6 江北区 Jiangbei District 华宇北国风光 Huayubeiguofengguang 5 7 10 1.00
7 江北区 Jiangbei District 鹏润蓝海 Pengrunlanhai 8 10 15 1.18
8 九龙坡区 Jiulongpo District 金科西城大院 Jinkexichengdayuan 9 9 15 1.18
9 九龙坡区 Jiulongpo District 金科云湖天都 Jinkeyunhutiandu 11 12 19 1.28
10 九龙坡区 Jiulongpo District 协信天骄城 Xiexintianjiaocheng 9 10 15 1.18
11 南岸区 Nan’an District 康德国会山 Kangdeguohuishan 8 10 12 1.08
12 南岸区 Nan’an District 东海长洲 Donghaichangzhou 8 11 16 1.20
13 南岸区 Nan’an District 阳光100国际新城 Yangguang 100 guojixincheng 5 7 8 0.90
14 南岸区 Nan’an District 渝能国际 Yunengguoji 12 14 16 1.20
15 沙坪坝区 Shapingba District 华宇金沙时代 Huayujinshashidai 5 5 7 0.85
16 沙坪坝区 Shapingba District 华宇林泉雅舍 Huayulinquanyashe 5 6 7 0.85
17 沙坪坝区 Shapingba District 蓝溪谷地 Lanxigudi 8 8 10 1.00
18 渝北区 Yubei District 保利香槟花园 Baolixiangbinhuayuan 9 10 14 1.15
19 渝北区 Yubei District 龙湖水晶郦城 Longhushuijinglicheng 6 6 11 1.04
20 渝北区 Yubei District 上品十六 Shangpinshiliu 10 15 23 1.36
21 渝中区 Yuzhong District 嘉华鑫城 Jiahuaxincheng 7 6 10 1.00
22 渝中区 Yuzhong District 兰波红城丽景 Lanbohongchenglijing 3 4 5 0.70
23 渝中区 Yuzhong District 丽水菁苑 Lishuijingyuan 8 13 16 1.20
总计 Total 19 33 84

Table 2

The similarity coefficients of bryophyte communities from 23 residential areas in nine districts of Chongqing. The codes of the residential areas correspond to those in Table 1."

编号
No.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
2 0.19
3 0.38 0.44
4 0.22 0.39 0.35
5 0.41 0.41 0.36 0.47
6 0.38 0.25 0.24 0.40 0.43
7 0.08 0.33 0.20 0.35 0.29 0.32
8 0.15 0.33 0.27 0.20 0.21 0 0.33
9 0.13 0.35 0.29 0.32 0.25 0.28 0.24 0.41
10 0.23 0.33 0.33 0.25 0.21 0.16 0.33 0.27 0.29
11 0.09 0.42 0.37 0.32 0.32 0.27 0.37 0.22 0.19 0.37
12 0.22 0.49 0.39 0.34 0.28 0.15 0.32 0.32 0.34 0.39 0.43
13 0.32 0.28 0.35 0.18 0.19 0.22 0.17 0.26 0.22 0.26 0.20 0.33
14 0.30 0.38 0.39 0.34 0.34 0.38 0.39 0.39 0.40 0.32 0.64 0.38 0.17
15 0.33 0.21 0.27 0.13 0.10 0.24 0.18 0.45 0.23 0.27 0.32 0.17 0.27 0.35
16 0.22 0.29 0.18 0.25 0.30 0.12 0.27 0.18 0.31 0.27 0.32 0.26 0.27 0.43 0.29
17 0.19 0.32 0.32 0.23 0.26 0.30 0.24 0.16 0.28 0.40 0.36 0.31 0.22 0.38 0.35 0.47
18 0.24 0.46 0.55 0.46 0.44 0.33 0.41 0.34 0.36 0.28 0.54 0.47 0.36 0.60 0.19 0.38 0.50
19 0.36 0.38 0.38 0.33 0.50 0.57 0.31 0.08 0.20 0.23 0.52 0.30 0.21 0.52 0.33 0.22 0.38 0.48
20 0.24 0.41 0.32 0.29 0.11 0.18 0.37 0.21 0.24 0.26 0.17 0.31 0.06 0.31 0.20 0.20 0.30 0.27 0.24
21 0.29 0.19 0.24 0.34 0.43 0.60 0.24 0.08 0.34 0.24 0.36 0.15 0.22 0.38 0.24 0.24 0.40 0.42 0.48 0.18
22 0.25 0.08 0.20 0.20 0.11 0.27 0.10 0.10 0.25 0.30 0.12 0.29 0 0.19 0.33 0.17 0.27 0.11 0.25 0.14 0.27
23 0.37 0.21 0.26 0.34 0.28 0.38 0.26 0.06 0.17 0.13 0.29 0.31 0.08 0.44 0.17 0.35 0.31 0.33 0.44 0.31 0.31 0.29

Table 3

Percentages of different life form of bryophytes from 23 residential areas in nine districts of Chongqing"

编号
No.
丛集型
Turfs
交织型
Wefts
平铺型
Mats
树状型
Dendroids
一年生型
Annuals
1 45.45 45.45 9.09 0.00 0.00
2 71.43 19.05 9.52 0.00 0.00
3 66.67 26.67 6.67 0.00 0.00
4 40.00 40.00 12.00 8.00 0.00
5 53.85 38.46 7.69 0.00 0.00
6 20.00 80.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 33.33 53.33 13.33 0.00 0.00
8 73.33 6.67 20.00 0.00 0.00
9 52.63 31.58 15.79 0.00 0.00
10 40.00 26.67 33.33 0.00 0.00
11 66.67 25.00 8.33 0.00 0.00
12 62.50 37.50 0.00 0.00 0.00
13 87.50 12.50 0.00 0.00 0.00
14 43.75 43.75 12.50 0.00 0.00
15 57.14 14.29 28.57 0.00 0.00
16 42.86 42.86 14.29 0.00 0.00
17 40.00 50.00 10.00 0.00 0.00
18 42.86 50.00 7.14 0.00 0.00
19 45.45 45.45 9.09 0.00 0.00
20 47.83 39.13 13.04 0.00 0.00
21 20.00 60.00 10.00 0.00 10.00
22 0.00 80.00 20.00 0.00 0.00
23 37.50 56.25 6.25 0.00 0.00

Fig. 1

Relationships of bryophyte communities with construction background from 23 residential areas in nine districts of Chongqing. The numbers of residential area see Table 1."

Table S1

The information of 23 residential areas from nine districts of Chongqing http://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/PDF/w2014-056-1.pdf"

编号
No.
行政区
District
住宅小区名称
Name
总户数
No. of residents
占地面积(㎡)
Area
绿化率(%)
Rate of green space
纬度(N)
Latitude
经度(E)
Longitude
竣工日期
Completion date
1 巴南区 帝豪巴南印象 1,158 83,637 35 29°22′26.61″ 106°31′21.96″ 2008.05
2 巴南区 恒大城 10,000 453,846 33 29°27′43.14″ 106°33′13.06″ 2010.01
3 巴南区 融汇半岛 1,252 1,666,667 42 29°27′36.33″ 106°31′6.93″ 2010.03
4 北碚区 华立北泉花园 1,600 119,048 30.5 29°49′43.74″ 106°24′44.48″ 2009.07
5 大渡口区 锦天康都 1,800 66,777 35.8 29°28′22.44″ 106°28′27.09″ 2006.12
6 江北区 华宇北国风光 3,700 14,827 35 29°33′40.33″ 106°30′17.63″ 2009.06
7 江北区 鹏润蓝海 6,000 256,000 41.9 29°33′44.82″ 106°31′37.22″ 2010.04
8 九龙坡区 金科西城大院 3,500 125,786 37 29°30′10.58″ 106°28′41.42″ 2009.12
9 九龙坡区 金科云湖天都 4,020 177,778 40 29°30′34.24″ 106°28′58.01″ 2009.09
10 九龙坡区 协信天骄城 1,654 84,951 46 29°30′38.41″ 106°28′28.93″ 2009.11
11 南岸区 康德国会山 7,000 162,500 56 29°31′39.25″ 106°34′32.46″ 2009.12
12 南岸区 东海长洲 1,502 97,826 30 29°34′29.56″ 106°36′5.84″ 2007.12
13 南岸区 阳光100国际新城 7,444 478,088 35 29°34′25.20″ 106°33′13.17″ 2009.12
14 南岸区 渝能国际 4,560 286,668 41 29°29′43.35″ 106°34′9.45″ 2008.03
15 沙坪坝区 华宇金沙时代 4,000 208,333 33 29°33′24.60″ 106°28′40.99″ 2011.09
16 沙坪坝区 华宇林泉雅舍 1,339 93,366 66 29°33′52.30″ 106°26′41.52″ 2006.12
17 沙坪坝区 蓝溪谷地 929 278,846 50 29°32′59.58″ 106°26′55.84″ 2009.01
18 渝北区 保利香槟花园 4,600 126,459 30.8 29°35′51.23″ 106°32′53.75″ 2009.12
19 渝北区 龙湖水晶郦城 3,800 136,068 60 29°36′4.78″ 106°30′9.50″ 2005.06
20 渝北区 上品十六 4,400 101,052 35.2 29°35′21.47″ 106°32′47.22″ 2010.04
21 渝中区 嘉华鑫城 1,948 38,429 35 29°32′28.69″ 106°30′48.36″ 2007.06
22 渝中区 兰波红城丽景 1,036 48,888 40.9 29°32′21.78″ 106°31′31.54″ 2007.08
23 渝中区 丽水菁苑 900 33,529 41 29°31′36.51″ 106°31′19.96″ 2011.07

Table S2

The bryophyte checklist of 23 residential areas from nine districts of Chongqing http://www.biodiversity-science.net/fileup/PDF/w2014-056-2.pdf"

1. Amblystegium serpens var. juratzkanum (Schimp.) Rau & Herv. 柳叶藓20, 柳叶藓科, 交织型
2. Amblystegium varium (Hedw.) Lindb. 多姿柳叶藓20, 柳叶藓科, 交织型
3. Aneura pinguis (L.) Dumort. 绿片苔2、4、5、7、8、9、10、14、16、17、18、20, 绿片苔科, 平铺型
4. Barbula amplexifolia (Mitt.) A. Jaeger 卷叶扭口藓10、13, 丛藓科, 丛集型
5. Barbula rigidula (Hedw.) Milde 硬叶扭口藓20, 丛藓科, 丛集型
6. Brachymenium exile (Dozy & Molk.) Bosch & Sande Lac. 纤枝短月藓1、2、3、4、5、8、12、13、18, 真藓科, 丛集型
7. Brachythecium brotheri Paris 勃氏青藓4、7、12、20, 青藓科, 交织型
8. Brachythecium fasciculirameum Müll. Hal. 多枝青藓18, 青藓科, 交织型
9. Brachythecium glareosum (Bruch ex Spruce) Schimp. 石地青藓10, 青藓科, 交织型
10. Brachythecium helminthocladum Broth. & Paris 粗枝青藓4, 青藓科, 交织型
11. Brachythecium kuroishicum Besch. 皱叶青藓7, 青藓科, 交织型
12. Brachythecium moriense Besch. 柔叶青藓1、12、20、23, 青藓科, 交织型
13. Brachythecium plumosum (Hedw.) Schimp. 羽枝青藓17、18, 青藓科, 交织型
14. Brachythecium populeum (Hedw.) Schimp. 长肋青藓2, 青藓科, 交织型
15. Brachythecium procumbens (Mitt.) A. Jaeger 匐枝青藓7, 青藓科, 交织型
16. Brachythecium pulchellum Broth. & Paris 青藓1、10, 青藓科, 交织型
17. Brachythecium reflexum (Starke) Schimp. 弯叶青藓3、8、9、14、18, 青藓科, 交织型
18. Brachythecium rutabulum (Hedw.) Schimp. 卵叶青藓5、12, 青藓科, 交织型
19. Brachythecium starkei (Brid.) Schimp. 林地青藓17, 青藓科, 交织型
20. Brachythecium subalbicans Broth. 亚灰白青藓10、12、22, 青藓科, 交织型
21. Bryum algovicum Sendtn. ex Müll. Hal. 狭网真藓2, 真藓科, 丛集型
22. Bryum apiculatum Schwägr. 毛状真藓20, 真藓科, 丛集型
23. Bryum argenteum Hedw. 真藓2、8、20, 真藓科, 丛集型
24. Bryum caespiticium Hedw. 丛生真藓4、7、8、9、12、13、18, 真藓科, 丛集型
25. Bryum calophyllum R. Br. 卵叶真藓9, 真藓科, 丛集型
26. Bryum dichotomum Hedw. 双色真藓8, 真藓科, 丛集型
27. Bryum lonchocaulon Müll. Hal. 刺叶真藓2、3、4、11、12、14、18、19、20、23, 真藓科, 丛集型
28. Bryum pallens Sw. 灰黄真藓9, 真藓科, 丛集型
29. Bryum pallescens Schleich. ex Schwägr. 黄色真藓2、4、5、11、19, 真藓科, 丛集型
30. Bryum pseudotriquetrum (Hedw.) G. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb. 拟三列真藓20, 真藓科, 丛集型
31. Bryum salakense Cardot 拟大叶真藓4, 真藓科, 丛集型
32. Claopodium aciculum (Broth.) Broth. 狭叶麻羽藓6、13、21, 羽藓科, 交织型
33. Claopodium gracillimum (Cardot & Thér.) Nog. 细麻羽藓4, 羽藓科, 交织型
34. Dicranella varia (Hedw.) Schimp. 变形小曲尾藓2、7、8、10、11、12、14, 曲尾藓科, 丛集型
35. Ditrichum pallidum (Hedw.) Hampe 黄牛毛藓8、9、14, 牛毛藓科, 丛集型
36. Entodon sullivantii (Müll. Hal.) Lindb. 亚美绢藓19, 绢藓科, 平铺型
37. Entodon viridulus Cardot 绿叶绢藓10, 绢藓科, 平铺型
38. Eurhynchium eustegium (Besch.) Dixon 尖叶美喙藓2、7、9、16、20, 青藓科, 交织型
39. Eurhynchium kirishimense Takaki 扭尖美喙藓20, 青藓科, 交织型
40. Eurhynchium laxirete Broth. 疏网美喙藓4、6、7、20、23, 青藓科, 交织型
41. Eurhynchium savatieri Schimp. ex Besch. 密叶美喙藓4、9、12、14、16、22、23, 青藓科, 交织型
42. Fissidens bryoides Hedw. 小凤尾藓1、2、3、4、5、6、9、10、11、12、13、14、15、16、17、18、19、21, 凤尾藓科, 丛集型
43. Fissidens cristatus Wilson & Mitt. 卷叶凤尾藓23, 凤尾藓科, 丛集型
44. Funaria attenuata (Dicks.) Lindb. 狭叶葫芦藓2、3、9、13, 葫芦藓科, 丛集型
45. Funaria hygrometrica Hedw. 葫芦藓2、8、9、11、12、14、18、20, 葫芦藓科, 丛集型
46. Gymnostomum aeruginosum Sm. 铜绿净口藓1、3、13, 丛藓科, 丛集型
47. Gymnostomum calcareum Nees & Hornsch. 净口藓7、20, 丛藓科, 丛集型
48. Haplocladium angustifolium (Hampe & Müll. Hal.) Broth. 狭叶小羽藓1、6、9、14、15、17、19、20、21、22、23, 羽藓科, 交织型
49. Haplocladium microphyllum (Hedw.) Broth. 细叶小羽藓2、3、4、5、6、7、9、10、11、12、17、18、19、21、22、23, 羽藓科, 交织型
50. Haplocladium strictulum (Cardot) Reimers 东亚小羽藓4、5、6、7、11、14、18、19、21, 羽藓科, 交织型
51. Homomallium connexum (Cardot) Broth. 东亚毛灰藓23, 灰藓科, 交织型
52. Hydrogonium consanguineum (Thwaites & Mitt.) Hilp. 南亚石灰藓7、8、15, 丛藓科, 丛集型
53. Hydrogonium gangeticum (Müll. Hal.) P.C. Chen. 疣叶石灰藓19, 丛藓科, 丛集型
54. Hydrogonium majusculum (Müll. Hal.) P.C. Chen 大叶石灰藓2、3、7、8、10、11、12、13、14、15、16、17、18、19、20、23, 丛藓科, 丛集型
55. Hymenostylium recurvirostrum (Hedw.) Dixon 钩喙净口藓1, 丛藓科, 丛集型
56. Hyophila propagulifera Broth. 芽孢湿地藓1、5、16、23, 丛藓科, 丛集型
57. Hyophila rosea R.S. Williams 花状湿地藓4、23, 丛藓科, 丛集型
58. Hypnum fertile Sendtn. 多蒴灰藓4、6、9, 灰藓科, 交织型
59. Marchantia emarginata Reinw., Blume & Nees 楔瓣地钱4、9、10、20、21, 地钱科, 平铺型,
60. Marchantia paleacea Bertol. 粗裂地钱2、8、9、15, 地钱科, 平铺型
61. Marchantia polymorpha L. 地钱7、10、11、14, 地钱科, 平铺型
62. Philonotis mollis (Dozy & Molk.) Mitt. 柔叶泽藓2、12, 珠藓科, 丛集型
63. Philonotis turneriana (Schwägr.) Mitt. 细叶泽藓2、10、12、17、20, 珠藓科, 丛集型
64. Physcomitrium coorgense Broth. 狭叶立碗藓8、11、14、15, 葫芦藓科, 丛集型
65. Plagiomnium acutum (Lindb.) T.J. Kop. 尖叶匐灯藓4, 提灯藓科, 树状型
66. Plagiomnium medium (Bruch & Schimp.) T.J. Kop. 多蒴匐灯藓4, 提灯藓科, 树状型
67. Pohlia cruda (Hedw.) Lindb. 泛生丝瓜藓3、17、20, 真藓科, 丛集型
68. Pohlia elongata Hedw. 丝瓜藓8、9、12, 真藓科, 丛集型
69. Pohlia sphagnicola (Bruch & Schimp.) Broth. 大丝瓜藓11, 真藓科, 丛集型
70. Racopilum aristatum Mitt. 毛尖卷柏藓4、11、14、16、17、18、21、23, 卷柏藓科, 交织型
71. Reboulia hemisphaerica (L.) Raddi 石地钱1、3、4、8、10、15、20、22, 瘤冠苔科, 平铺型
72. Riccia fluitans L. 叉钱苔21, 钱苔科, 一年生型
73. Sematophyllum phoeniceum (Müll. Hal.) M. Fleisch. 橙色锦藓23, 锦藓科, 平铺型
74. Taxiphyllum aomoriense (Besch.) Z. Iwats. 细尖鳞叶藓3, 灰藓科, 交织型
75. Taxiphyllum giraldii (Müll. Hal.) M. Fleisch. 陕西鳞叶藓1、5、6、14、19、23, 灰藓科, 交织型
76. Taxiphyllum taxirameum (Mitt.) M. Fleisch. 鳞叶藓1、2、3、4、5、6、7、14、18、19、20、21、23, 灰藓科, 交织型
77. Timmiella anomala (Bruch & Schimp.) Limpr. 反纽藓3, 丛藓科, 丛集型
78. Timmiella diminuta (Müll. Hal.) P.C. Chen 小反纽藓23, 丛藓科, 丛集型
79. Trichostomum aristatulum (Broth.) Hilp. ex P.C. Chen芒尖毛口藓3、9、10, 丛藓科, 丛集型
80. Trichostomum brachydontium Bruch 毛口藓2、3、4、5, 丛藓科, 丛集型
81. Trichostomum tenuirostre (Hook. & Taylor) Lindb. 波边毛口藓5、8、9、21, 丛藓科, 丛集型
82. Weissia exserta (Broth.) P.C. Chen 东亚小石藓4、5, 丛藓科, 丛集型
83. Weissia longifolia Mitt. 皱叶小石藓2、4、6, 丛藓科, 丛集型
84. Weissia planifolia Dixon 阔叶小石藓2、20, 丛藓科, 丛集型
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