Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 313-320.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015367

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Fish diversity in four nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan, China and the evaluation indicators

Wei Zhou*(), Minghui Li, Youlan Li   

  1. Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control in Yunnan Province, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
  • Received:2015-12-23 Accepted:2016-03-01 Online:2016-04-05
  • Zhou Wei E-mail:weizhouyn@163.com

This study investigated the diversity of fish species in the Nangunhe, Nanpenghe, Yongde Daxueshan and Lancangjiang nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan, China. The β diversity index, current and ancient endemic and monotypic taxa of inhabitants were used to compare the differences in present and historic fish species and genera composition among the nature reserves. The mechanisms behind difference in fish species diversity among the nature reserves were also investigated. We recorded 85 extant native species, belonging to 6 orders, 13 families, and 45 genera. There are four endemic genera and 18 endemic species being observed in Nujiang River system in China. The genera Aspidoparia and Neonoemacheilus and five endemic species occurred in these three nature reserves (Nangunhe, Nanpenghe, Yongde Daxueshan reserves). There have been 31 genera occurred only in the Lancangjiang River system in China, but the only genus observed in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve was Ambastaia. In China twenty species were observed only in Lancangjiang Nature Reserve, three of which were only found in this reserve. Among the three nature reserves within the Nujiang river system, only one monotypic genus Anguilla and no monotypic species were observed. No monotypic genera or species were observed in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve. Comparisons of observed species and groups with fossil records show that the current fishes of Yunnan are species and groups that evolved in the later Tertiary and Quaternary periods, and there are no old or relic species currently present. The β diversity index showed that fish diversity was greatest in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve, and the lowest in the Nangunhe Nature Reserve. However, the fish diversity representation and protected status in the three nature reserves located within the Nujiang River system are higher than those in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve. The existence of monotypic species and taxa in the three nature reserves within the Nujiang River system reflects the importance of fisheries protection within these reserves. Geographical location, the length, heterogeneity, number of river branches in the reserve explained difference in fish diversity among the four nature reserves. In order to provide protection to the greatest number of fish species, the first branches in the upper, middle and lower regions of the river system should be designated as reserves.

Key words: fish diversity, monotypic, endemic, βdiversity index, Southwest Yunnan

Table 1

Taxa shared only by a reserve or two reserves when compared among four nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan"

南滚河保护区
Nangunhe Reserve
南捧河保护区
Nanpenghe Reserve
永德大雪山保护区
Yongde Daxueshan Reserve
澜沧江保护区
Lancangjiang Reserve
F G S F G S F G S F G S
8 24 33 10 29 41 10 28 35 12 36 54
独有类群数 Taxa shared only by a reserve
南滚河保护区 Nangunhe Reserve - - - 0 2 5 1 3 10 1 7 18
南捧河保护区 Nanpenghe Reserve 2 7 13 - - - 1 6 14 1 8 24
永德大雪山保护区 Yongde Daxueshan Reserve 3 7 12 1 5 8 - - - 1 9 25
澜沧江保护区 Lancangjiang Reserve 5 19 39 3 15 37 3 16 43 - - -
共有类群数 Taxa shared by two reserves
南滚河保护区 Nangunhe Reserve
南捧河保护区 Nanpenghe Reserve 8 22 28
永德大雪山保护区 Yongde Daxueshan Reserve 7 21 23 9 23 27
澜沧江保护区 Lancangjiang Reserve 7 17 17 9 17 21 9 13 20

Table 2

Fish category comparisons between the reserves and its drainage"

阶元
Category
南捧河保护区阶元数/怒江水系
的阶元数及百分比
Fish taxa from Nanpenghe Reserve/
taxa from Nujiang (%)
怒江水系3个保护区阶元数/怒江水系
的阶元数及百分比
Fish taxa from 3 reserves of Nujiang/taxa from Nujiang (%)
澜沧江保护区阶元数/澜沧江水系
的阶元数及百分比
Fish taxa from Lancangjiang Reserve/
taxa from Lancangjiang (%)
目 Order 5 / 6 83.3 5 / 6 83.3 5 / 7 71.4
科 Family 10 / 13 76.9 11 / 13 84.6 12 / 22 54.5
属 Genus 29 / 51 56.9 36 / 51 70.6 36 / 93 38.7
种 Species 41 / 77 53.2 54 / 77 70.1 54 / 183 29.5

Table 3

The relationship between species or genera and reserve area of four nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan"

南滚河保护区
Nangunhe Reserve
南捧河保护区
Nanpenghe Reserve
永德大雪山保护区
Yongde Daxueshan Reserve
澜沧江保护区
Lancangjiang Reserve
保护区面积 Reserve area (ha) 7,082.5 36,970 15,900 75,186
种数/保护区面积 Species/reserve area 0.0047 0.0011 0.0022 0.0007
属数/保护区面积 Genera/reserve area 0.0034 0.0008 0.0018 0.0005

Table 4

Fish β diversity index in species/genera level among four nature reserves"

多样性指数
Diversity index
保护区
Reserve
南滚河保护区
Nangunhe Reserve
南捧河保护区
Nanpenghe Reserve
永德大雪山保护区
Yongde Daxueshan Reserve
澜沧江保护区
Lancangjiang Reserve
Cody指数(βc)




Routledge指数(βR)
南滚河保护区 Nangunhe Reserve 9.00/4.50 11.00/5.00 28.50/13.00
南捧河保护区 Nanpenghe Reserve 41.12/27.96 11.00/5.50 30.50/11.50
永德大雪山保护区 Yongde Daxueshan Reserve 39.56/27.77 43.43/30.54 34.00/12.50
澜沧江保护区 Lancangjiang Reserve 63.69/37.30 68.96/38.49 70.36/39.16
Jaccard相似性指数(CJ)




Sorenson相异性指数(Cs)
南滚河保护区 Nangunhe Reserve 0.6087/0.7097 0.5111/0.6774 0.2083/0.3953
南捧河保护区 Nanpenghe Reserve 0.7568/0.8302 0.5510/0.6765 0.2179/0.4773
永德大雪山保护区 Yongde Daxueshan Reserve 0.6765/0.8077 0.7105/0.8070 0.1711/0.4545
澜沧江保护区 Lancangjiang Reserve 0.3448/0.5667 0.3579/0.6462 0.2921/0.6250
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