Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 313-320.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015367

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Fish diversity in four nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan, China and the evaluation indicators

Wei Zhou*(), Minghui Li, Youlan Li   

  1. Key Laboratory of Forest Disaster Warning and Control in Yunnan Province, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
  • Received:2015-12-23 Accepted:2016-03-01 Online:2016-04-05
  • Zhou Wei

This study investigated the diversity of fish species in the Nangunhe, Nanpenghe, Yongde Daxueshan and Lancangjiang nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan, China. The β diversity index, current and ancient endemic and monotypic taxa of inhabitants were used to compare the differences in present and historic fish species and genera composition among the nature reserves. The mechanisms behind difference in fish species diversity among the nature reserves were also investigated. We recorded 85 extant native species, belonging to 6 orders, 13 families, and 45 genera. There are four endemic genera and 18 endemic species being observed in Nujiang River system in China. The genera Aspidoparia and Neonoemacheilus and five endemic species occurred in these three nature reserves (Nangunhe, Nanpenghe, Yongde Daxueshan reserves). There have been 31 genera occurred only in the Lancangjiang River system in China, but the only genus observed in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve was Ambastaia. In China twenty species were observed only in Lancangjiang Nature Reserve, three of which were only found in this reserve. Among the three nature reserves within the Nujiang river system, only one monotypic genus Anguilla and no monotypic species were observed. No monotypic genera or species were observed in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve. Comparisons of observed species and groups with fossil records show that the current fishes of Yunnan are species and groups that evolved in the later Tertiary and Quaternary periods, and there are no old or relic species currently present. The β diversity index showed that fish diversity was greatest in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve, and the lowest in the Nangunhe Nature Reserve. However, the fish diversity representation and protected status in the three nature reserves located within the Nujiang River system are higher than those in the Lancangjiang Nature Reserve. The existence of monotypic species and taxa in the three nature reserves within the Nujiang River system reflects the importance of fisheries protection within these reserves. Geographical location, the length, heterogeneity, number of river branches in the reserve explained difference in fish diversity among the four nature reserves. In order to provide protection to the greatest number of fish species, the first branches in the upper, middle and lower regions of the river system should be designated as reserves.

Key words: fish diversity, monotypic, endemic, βdiversity index, Southwest Yunnan

Table 1

Taxa shared only by a reserve or two reserves when compared among four nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan"

Nangunhe Reserve
Nanpenghe Reserve
Yongde Daxueshan Reserve
Lancangjiang Reserve
8 24 33 10 29 41 10 28 35 12 36 54
独有类群数 Taxa shared only by a reserve
南滚河保护区 Nangunhe Reserve - - - 0 2 5 1 3 10 1 7 18
南捧河保护区 Nanpenghe Reserve 2 7 13 - - - 1 6 14 1 8 24
永德大雪山保护区 Yongde Daxueshan Reserve 3 7 12 1 5 8 - - - 1 9 25
澜沧江保护区 Lancangjiang Reserve 5 19 39 3 15 37 3 16 43 - - -
共有类群数 Taxa shared by two reserves
南滚河保护区 Nangunhe Reserve
南捧河保护区 Nanpenghe Reserve 8 22 28
永德大雪山保护区 Yongde Daxueshan Reserve 7 21 23 9 23 27
澜沧江保护区 Lancangjiang Reserve 7 17 17 9 17 21 9 13 20

Table 2

Fish category comparisons between the reserves and its drainage"

Fish taxa from Nanpenghe Reserve/
taxa from Nujiang (%)
Fish taxa from 3 reserves of Nujiang/taxa from Nujiang (%)
Fish taxa from Lancangjiang Reserve/
taxa from Lancangjiang (%)
目 Order 5 / 6 83.3 5 / 6 83.3 5 / 7 71.4
科 Family 10 / 13 76.9 11 / 13 84.6 12 / 22 54.5
属 Genus 29 / 51 56.9 36 / 51 70.6 36 / 93 38.7
种 Species 41 / 77 53.2 54 / 77 70.1 54 / 183 29.5

Table 3

The relationship between species or genera and reserve area of four nature reserves in Southwest Yunnan"

Nangunhe Reserve
Nanpenghe Reserve
Yongde Daxueshan Reserve
Lancangjiang Reserve
保护区面积 Reserve area (ha) 7,082.5 36,970 15,900 75,186
种数/保护区面积 Species/reserve area 0.0047 0.0011 0.0022 0.0007
属数/保护区面积 Genera/reserve area 0.0034 0.0008 0.0018 0.0005

Table 4

Fish β diversity index in species/genera level among four nature reserves"

Diversity index
Nangunhe Reserve
Nanpenghe Reserve
Yongde Daxueshan Reserve
Lancangjiang Reserve

南滚河保护区 Nangunhe Reserve 9.00/4.50 11.00/5.00 28.50/13.00
南捧河保护区 Nanpenghe Reserve 41.12/27.96 11.00/5.50 30.50/11.50
永德大雪山保护区 Yongde Daxueshan Reserve 39.56/27.77 43.43/30.54 34.00/12.50
澜沧江保护区 Lancangjiang Reserve 63.69/37.30 68.96/38.49 70.36/39.16

南滚河保护区 Nangunhe Reserve 0.6087/0.7097 0.5111/0.6774 0.2083/0.3953
南捧河保护区 Nanpenghe Reserve 0.7568/0.8302 0.5510/0.6765 0.2179/0.4773
永德大雪山保护区 Yongde Daxueshan Reserve 0.6765/0.8077 0.7105/0.8070 0.1711/0.4545
澜沧江保护区 Lancangjiang Reserve 0.3448/0.5667 0.3579/0.6462 0.2921/0.6250
1 Chen XY (2013) Checklist of fishes of Yunnan. Zoological Research, 34, 281-343.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈小勇 (2013) 云南鱼类名录. 动物学研究, 34, 281-343.]
2 Chen XY, Pan XF, Yang JX (2007) Fishes. In: Integrated Scientific Studies on Lancang River Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China (eds Wang J, Du F, Yang YM), pp. 373-407. Science Press, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[陈小勇, 潘晓赋, 杨君兴 (2007) 鱼类. 见: 中国云南澜沧江自然保护区科学考察研究 (王娟, 杜凡, 杨宇明主编), 373-407. 科学出版社, 北京.]
3 Chen YR, Cui GH (1989) Summary of ancient fish in Yunnan. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 8(1), 27-29.(in Chinese)
[陈银瑞, 崔桂华 (1989) 云南古鱼类概述. 四川动物, 8(1), 27-29.]
4 Chen YY (1998) The Fishes of the Hengduan Mountains Region. Science Press, Beijing.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈宜瑜 (1998) 横断山区鱼类. 科学出版社, 北京.]
5 Chen ZM, Pan XF, Kong DP, Yang JX (2006) Fish biodiversity and its distributional characters during winter in the Dulong River Basin, Yunnan, China. Zoological Research, 27, 505-512.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈自明, 潘晓赋, 孔德平, 杨君兴 (2006) 独龙江流域冬季鱼类多样性及其分布特点. 动物学研究, 27, 505-512.]
6 Cody ML (1975) Towards a theory of continental species diversity: bird distributions over Mediterranean habitat gradients. In: Ecology and Evolution of Communities (eds Cody ML, Diamond JM), pp. 214-257. Harvard University Press, Cambridge.
7 Li FL, Li X, Fu Q, Zhou W (2006) Fish diversity in Simao District, Yunnan. Journal of Guangxi Normal University (Natural Science Edition), 24, 77-80.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[李凤莲, 李旭, 付蔷, 周伟 (2006) 云南思茅地区鱼类多样性分析. 广西师范大学学报(自然科学版), 24, 77-80.]
8 MacArthur RH, Wilson EO(1967) The Theory of Island Biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
9 Magurran AE (1988) Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton University Press, New Jersey.
10 Routledge RD (1977) On Whittaker’s components of diversity. Ecology, 58, 1120-1127.
11 Simberfloff DS, Abele LG (1976) Island biogeography theory and conservation practice. Science (New Series), 191, 285-286.
12 Su GH, Sha YC, Xiong Y, Zhang PY, Xu J (2015) Changes of functional diversity in fish community before and after a dam closure in the Guanyinyan Hydropower Station. Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 24, 965-970.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[苏国欢, 沙永翠, 熊鹰, 张培育, 徐军 (2015) 大坝截流前后金沙江观音岩水电站鱼类群落功能多样性的变化. 长江流域资源与环境, 24, 965-970.]
13 Tang FL, Du F, Sun GZ (eds) (2015) Comprehensive Scientific Investigation Research of National Nature Reserve of Nangunhe, Yunnan Province. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[唐芳林, 杜凡, 孙国政 (主编) (2015) 云南南滚河国家级自然保护区综合科学考察研究. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
14 Willig MR, Kaufman DM, Steves RD (2003) Latitudinal gradients of biodiversity: pattern, process, scale, and synthesis. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 34, 273-309.
15 Xiao Q, Yang Z, Tang HY, Duan PX, Wang XQ, Xiao TY, Liu XY (2015) Species diversity of fish and its conservation in the mainstream of the lower reaches of Wu River. Biodiversity Science, 23, 499-506.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[肖琼, 杨志, 唐会元, 段鹏翔, 王晓清, 肖调义, 刘小燕 (2015) 乌江下游干流鱼类物种多样性及其资源保护. 生物多样性, 23, 499-506.]
16 Yang JX, Chen YR, He YH (1994) Studies on fish diversity in plateau lakes of the central Yunnan. Chinese Biodiversity, 2, 204-209.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[杨君兴, 陈银瑞, 何远辉 (1994) 滇中高原湖泊鱼类多样性的研究. 生物多样性, 2, 204-209.]
17 Zhou W, Chen YR, Liu N, Zhang Q, Feng CZ (2004) Fishes. In: Nangun River National Nature Reserve of China (eds Yang YM, Du F), pp. 223-235. Yunnan Science and Technology Press, Kunming.(in Chinese)
[周伟, 陈银瑞, 刘宁, 张庆, 冯朝忠 (2004) 鱼类. 见: 中国南滚河国家级自然保护区 (杨宇明, 杜凡主编), 223-235. 云南科技出版社, 昆明.]
18 Zhou W, Han LX (2000) Ichthyo-fauna and sustainable utilization of fish resources in Yunnan Lancangjiang River (the upper Mekong). In: China’s Biodiversity Conservation Toward the 21th Century (ed. Xu ZH), pp. 282-288. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[周伟, 韩联宪 (2000) 云南澜沧江水系鱼类资源的保护及持续利用. 见: 面向21世纪的中国生物多样性保护 (许智宏主编), 282-288. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
19 Zhou W, Liu JH, Ye XM (1999) A comparison of fish β diversity among three branches of Yuanjiang River system, Yunnan. Zoological Research, 20, 111-117.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[周伟, 刘菊华, 叶新明 (1999) 云南元江水系三条支流鱼类β多样性比较. 动物学研究, 20, 111-117.]
20 Zhou XY, Han YH, Gao HW (2011) Study on diversity of fishes in Qinling Ecological Protection Zone. Ecological Science, 30, 624-629.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[周小愿, 韩亚慧, 高宏伟 (2011) 秦岭生态保护区鱼类多样性研究. 生态科学, 30, 624-629.]
[1] NING Yao, LEI Jin-Rui, SONG Xi-Qiang, HAN Shu-Mei, ZHONG Yun-Fang. (2018) Modeling the potential suitable habitat of Impatiens hainanensis, a limestone-endemic plant . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 42(9): 946-954.
[2] Chu Kelin, Ma Xiaoping, Zhang Zewei, Wang Pengfei, Lü Linna, Zhao Qiang, Sun Hongying. (2018) A checklist for the classification and distribution of China’s freshwater crabs . Biodiv Sci, 26(3): 274-282.
[3] Shaojun Ling, Qianwan Meng, Liang Tang, Mingxun Ren. (2017) Gesneriaceae on Hainan Island: distribution patterns and phylogenetic relationships . Biodiv Sci, 25(8): 807-815.
[4] Zhekun Zhou,Jian Huang,Wenna Ding. (2017) The impact of major geological events on Chinese flora . Biodiv Sci, 25(2): 123-135.
[5] Yukai Chen,Xiaobo Yang,Donghai Li,Wenxing Long. (2016) Status of vascular plant species on Hainan Island . Biodiv Sci, 24(8): 948-956.
[6] Yanyun Zhang,Zhengwang Zhang,Lu Dong,Ping Ding,Changqing Ding,Zhijun Ma,Guangmei Zheng. (2016) Assessment of red list of birds in China . Biodiv Sci, 24(5): 568-577.
[7] Shengwang Pan, Mingcheng Hu, Jinghong Luo, Yunxiao Wu. (2015) Effects of rehabilitation species on slope vegetation diversity and soil and water conservation . Biodiv Sci, 23(3): 341-350.
[8] Zhigang Jiang,Yong Ma,Yi Wu,Yingxiang Wang,Zuojian Feng,Kaiya Zhou,Shaoying Liu,Zhenhua Luo,Chunwang Li. (2015) China’s mammalian diversity . Biodiv Sci, 23(3): 351-364.
[9] Yukun Wei, Qi Wang, Yanbo Huang. (2015) Species diversity and distribution of Salvia (Lamiaceae) . Biodiv Sci, 23(1): 3-10.
[10] Yunfang Zhong,Zhe Zhang,Xiqiang Song,Zhaode Zhou. (2014) Pollination biology of Impatiens hainanensis (Balsaminaceae) populations at different altitudes . Biodiv Sci, 22(4): 467-475.
[11] Li Chen,Hongjin Dong,Hua Peng. (2013) Diversity and distribution of higher plants in Yunnan, China . Biodiv Sci, 21(3): 359-363.
[12] SHENG Da-Yong, ZHUANG Xue-Ying, XU Han, LI Yi-De, HU Yue-Hua, SHI Lei-Lei, LUO Tu-Shou, CHEN De-Xiang, and LIN Ming-Xian. (2012) Community structure of endemic woody plants in tropical montane rainforest of Jianfengling, Hainan Island, China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 36(9): 935-947.
[13] Han Xu, Yide Li, Tushou Luo, Dexiang Chen, Mingxian Lin, Huai Yang. (2012) Impacts of forest logging on the species diversity of endemic seed plants from Hainan Island . Biodiv Sci, 20(2): 168-176.
[14] Shengbin Chen, Zhiyun Ouyang, Yu Fang, Zhenji Li. (2011) Geographic patterns of endemic seed plant genera diversity in China . Biodiv Sci, 19(4): 414-423.
[15] Dacai Zhang, , , Hang Sun. (2008) Distribution of specimens and species richness of seed plants above tim-ber line in the Hengduan Mountains, southwest China . Biodiv Sci, 16(4): 381-388.
Full text