Biodiversity Science ›› 2014, Vol. 22 ›› Issue (3): 302-310.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2014.13141

Special Issue: Marine Biodiversity Special Feature

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The variation of biodiversity of macrobenthic fauna with salinity and water depth near the Pearl Estuary of the northern South China Sea

Jinghuai Zhang*()   

  1. South China Sea Environmental Monitoring Center, State Oceanic Administration (SOA), Guangzhou 510300
  • Received:2013-06-24 Accepted:2013-12-09 Online:2014-06-04
  • Zhang Jinghuai E-mail:zhangjinghuai@sohu.com

To study the relationship between macrobenthic fauna and environmental factors, we investigated four transects from coast to deep-sea waters near the Pearl Estuary in the northern South China Sea from July -August 2006 (Summer, wet season), April-May 2007 (Spring, normal water season), and October-December 2007 (Autumn, dry season). A total of 273 species, 256 species and 148 species were identified in spring, summer and autumn, respectively. Macrobenthic fauna belonging to the Annelida phylum had the greatest species richest, followed by Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Echinodermata. The species richness, abundance and biomass of macrobenthic fauna increased from estuary sites to coastal sites, and decreased from coastal sites to deep-sea sites. The Shannon-Wiener index of macrobenthic fauna was higher in coastal sites than those in estuary and deep-sea sites. The species evenness of macrobenthic fauna was the highest in deep-sea sites, followed by coast and estuary sites. The k-dominance curves of macrobenthic fauna were higher in estuary and deep-sea sites than that in coastal sites. These results show that the macrobenthic biodiversity was the highest in coastal sites. Species richness, abundance, and biomass of macrobenthic fauna are negatively correlated with water depth in spring and autumn, but only biomass of macrobenthic fauna is negatively correlated with water depth in summer. The species richness, abundance, Shannon-Wiener index, and species evenness of macrobenthic fauna are positively correlated with salinity in the bottom of the water column in summer, but are not correlated in spring and autumn.

Key words: Macrobenthic fauna, Shannon-Wiener index, k-dominance curve, Pearl Estuary

Fig. 1

The sketch map of stations near the Pearl Estuary of the Northern South China Sea"

Table 1

Shannon-Wiener index (H'), Pielou’s evenness (J') of macrobenthic fauna and environmental factors near the Pearl Estuary of the northern South China Sea"

断面
Transect
站位
Station
沉积类型
Sediment
水深
Water depth
春季 Spring 夏季 Summer 秋季 Autumn
BWS H' J' BWS H' J' BWS H' J'
T1 T1-01 细沙或泥 Silver sand or mud 15.5 34.0 3.44 0.72 31.5 2.00 1.00 31.4 4.14 0.93
T1-02 泥沙 Mud sand 48.1 34.3 3.41 0.90 34.3 4.22 0.82 33.1 3.48 0.87
T1-03 泥沙 Mud sand 97.5 34.4 3.92 0.94 34.5 2.81 0.70 34.2 2.32 1.00
T1-04 泥沙 Mud sand 259 34.5 1.58 1.00 34.5 1.37 0.86 34.5 NC NC
T1-05 沙 Sand 314 34.5 1.79 0.90 34.5 2.99 0.94 34.5 0.00 1.00
T2 T2-01 泥沙 Mud sand 8.5 13.7 1.91 0.95 0.8 2.15 0.83 15.0 1.45 0.72
T2-02 泥沙 Mud sand 10.7 10.5 1.00 1.00 1.6 0.00 1.00 15.6 0.00 1.00
T2-03 泥沙 Mud sand 7.7 18.0 2.13 0.92 6.0 2.25 0.97 17.0 2.11 0.75
T2-04 泥沙 Mud sand 9.8 32.2 3.75 0.68 18.0 1.50 0.95 21.6 1.36 0.68
T2-05 泥 Mud 9.0 32.5 4.04 0.81 19.8 2.05 0.79 26.5 2.59 1.00
T2-06 泥 Mud 6.0 31.9 0.20 0.06 9.8 2.92 0.92 27.9 3.39 0.98
T2-07 泥 Mud 7.9 31.1 2.71 0.78 28.1 2.93 0.93 29.1 3.07 0.89
T2-08 泥沙 Mud sand 16.8 33.4 4.65 0.88 30.3 4.24 0.93 32.8 4.00 0.85
T2-09 泥 Mud 31.0 34.4 4.14 0.92 34.3 3.67 0.92 32.9 3.12 0.90
T2-10 泥沙 Mud sand 41.6 34.4 4.61 0.93 34.31 4.02 0.96 33.6 3.68 0.97
T2-11 泥沙 Mud sand 54.0 34.4 3.72 0.95 34.4 4.31 0.98 34.0 3.80 0.89
T2-12 泥沙 Mud sand 70.8 34.4 3.17 1.00 34.4 4.08 0.87 34.1 4.28 0.98
T2-13 泥沙 Mud sand 92.4 34.4 3.48 0.94 34.4 3.67 0.94 34.2 2.95 0.98
T2-14 泥沙 Mud sand 131 34.6 2.86 0.90 34.5 2.52 0.98 34.3 1.00 1.00
T2-15 泥沙 Mud sand 486 34.4 3.52 0.93 34.5 2.41 0.93 34.4 2.65 0.94
T3 T3-01 泥沙 Mud sand 36 34.5 4.91 0.89 34.3 2.25 0.52 33.6 3.93 0.86
T3-02 泥沙 Mud sand 43.6 34.5 4.72 0.88 34.3 4.54 0.96 33.8 2.71 0.90
T3-03 泥沙 Mud sand 72.0 34.5 3.99 0.91 34.4 3.56 0.91 34.1 3.68 0.97
T3-04 泥沙 Mud sand 127 34.6 3.73 0.98 34.5 3.73 0.98 34.1 2.50 0.97
T3-05 泥沙 Mud sand 814 34.5 1.24 0.62 34.5 1.58 1.00 34.4 NC NC
T4 T4-01 泥 Mud 13.5 31.5 3.18 0.71 34.3 3.36 0.81 31.9 2.41 0.58
T4-02 泥沙 Mud sand 42.0 34.3 4.93 0.91 34.4 4.98 0.94 33.7 4.56 0.91
T4-03 泥沙 Mud sand 65.5 34.4 3.00 1.00 34.4 4.66 0.98 34.1 2.95 0.98
T4-04 泥沙 Mud sand 90.0 34.5 3.50 0.95 34.5 3.58 0.97 34.1 1.59 1.00
T4-05 泥沙 Mud sand 157 34.6 NC NC 34.6 1.79 0.90 34.5 1.50 0.95
T4-06 泥沙 Mud sand 455 34.4 NC NC 34.4 2.42 0.94 34.4 NC NC

Fig. 2

Species component of macrobenthic fauna near the Pearl Estuary of the northern South China Sea. ANN, Annelida; ART, Arthropoda; MOL, Mollusca; ECH, Echinodermata; OSP, Other species"

Fig. 3

Distribution of species richness, abundance and biomass of macrobenthic fauna near the Pearl Estuary of the northern South China Sea"

Fig. 4

k-dominance curve of macrobenthic fauna on the T2 transect near the Pearl Estuary of the northern South China Sea. A, areas A (water depth ≤ 100 m); B, areas B (water depth> 100 m); E, estuary (T2-01 to T2-07)."

Table 2

Pearson correlation between species richness (S), abundance (ABU), biomass (BIO), Shannon-Wiener index (H'), Pielou’s evenness (J') of macrobenthic fauna and environmental factors near the Pearl Estuary of the northern South China Sea"

季节 Seasons 项目 Items
S ABU BIO H' J'
春季 Spring (n=29)
水深 Water depth (m) -0.443* -0.524** -0.428* -0.306 -0.248
底层海水水温 Water temperature in the bottom of water column (°C) 0.528** 0.413* 0.421* 0.447* 0.319
底层海水盐度 Salinity in the bottom of water column 0.228 0.184 0.195 0.099 -0.121
底层海水溶解氧 Dissolved oxygen in the bottom of water column (mg/L) 0.643** 0.672** 0.481** 0.494** 0.371*
底层海水pH pH in the bottom of the water column 0.470** 0.351 0.324 0.324 0.074
底层海水碱度 Alkalinity in the bottom of water column (mmol/L) 0.096 -0.013 0.003 0.023 -0.160
底层海水悬浮物 Suspended substance in the bottom of water column (mg/L) -0.076 0.230 0.226 -0.141 -0.013
底层海水叶绿素a Chlorophyll a concentration in the bottom of water column (mg/m3) 0.556** 0.642** 0.506** 0.352 0.220
夏季 Summer (n=31)
水深 Water depth (m) -0.136 -0.17 -0.520** 0.082 0.212
底层海水水温 Water temperature in the bottom of water column (°C) 0.152 0.146 0.379* -0.094 -0.246
底层海水盐度 Salinity in the bottom of water column 0.469** 0.372* -0.038 0.603** 0.547**
底层海水溶解氧 Dissolved oxygen in the bottom of water column (mg/L) 0.373* 0.27 0.362* 0.342 0.208
底层海水pH pH in the bottom of the water column 0.677** 0.532** 0.146 0.836** 0.723**
底层海水碱度 Alkalinity in the bottom of water column (mmol/L) 0.487** 0.386* 0.001 0.659** 0.614**
底层海水悬浮物 Suspended substance in the bottom of water column (mg/L) -0.348 -0.241 0.230 -0.588** -0.588**
底层海水叶绿素a Chlorophyll a concentration in the bottom of water column (mg/m3) 0.031 0.16 0.481** -0.199 -0.295
秋季 Autumn (n=27)
水深 Water depth (m) -0.618** -0.651** -0.633** -0.524** -0.490**
底层海水水温 Water temperature in the bottom of water column (°C) 0.670** 0.661** 0.607** 0.633** 0.626**
底层海水盐度 Salinity in the bottom of water column 0.048 -0.016 -0.119 0.126 0.089
底层海水溶解氧 Dissolved oxygen in the bottom of water column (mg/L) 0.710** 0.658** 0.570** 0.717** 0.699**
底层海水pH pH in the bottom of the water column 0.415* 0.311 0.144 0.484** 0.453*
底层海水碱度 Alkalinity in the bottom of water column (mmol/L) -0.043 -0.099 -0.225 0.030 0.001
底层海水悬浮物 Suspended substance in the bottom of water column (mg/L) 0.261 0.348 0.306 0.099 0.039
底层海水叶绿素a Chlorophyll a concentration in the bottom of water column (mg/m3) 0.655** 0.714** 0.647** 0.532** 0.456**

Fig. 5

The Similarity-cluster analysis on macrobenthic fauna near the Pearl Estuary of the northern South China Sea. A, areas A (water depth≤100 m); B, areas B (water depth>100 m); E, estuary (T2-01 to T2-07)."

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