Biodiversity Science ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 517-526.doi: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.10038

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Diversity, distribution and conservation of Chinese seagrass species

Fengying Zheng1, Guanglong Qiu2, 3, Hangqing Fan3, *(), Wei Zhang1   

  1. 1 Marine College, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209
    2 State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085
    3 Guangxi Key Lab of Mangrove Conservation and Utilization, Guangxi Mangrove Research Centre, Beihai, Guangxi 536000
  • Received:2013-02-05 Accepted:2013-04-19 Online:2013-10-08
  • Fan Hangqing E-mail:fanhq666@126.com

Seagrass beds are one of the most productive ecosystems on Earth and an important source of ecosystem services. Accurate mapping of spatial patterns of seagrass species diversity are lacking at the national scale in China, while taxonomic information on Chinese seagrass species requires an urgent update. This lack of information hinders national conservation and restoration programs for seagrass biodiversity. In this article we review studies of diversity, distributions and degradation of seagrass in China. A total of 22 seagrass species distributed along China’s coastal regions belong to ten genera and four families, and account for about 30% of known seagrass species worldwide. A check of herbarium material stored in Sun Yat-sen University showed that the seagrass species previously identified as Posidonia australis in Hainan is in fact Enhalus acoroides. From our analyses, two Chinese seagrass biotas are proposed. These include the South China Sea Bioregion (SCSBR) and China’s Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea Bioregion (CYSBSBR). The SCSBR includes Hainan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hongkong, Taiwan and Fujian provinces, and contains 15 seagrass species representing nine genera with Halophila ovalis being most widely distributed. The CYSBSBR includes Shandong, Hebei, Tianjin and Liaonin provinces and contains nine seagrass species belonging to three genera with Zostera marina being most widely distributed. The total distribution area for China’s seagrass meadows is estimated to be 8,765.1 ha, with Hainan, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces accounting for 64%, 11% and 10% of the area, respectively. Both the number and area of seagrass meadows are much higher in the SCSBR than in the CYSBSBR. In the SCSBR, seagrass meadows are mainly located in the eastern Hainan coast, Zhanjiang in Guangdong, Beihai in Guangxi and Dongsha Island in Taiwan, whereas in the CYSBSBR they predominate in Rongcheng in Shandong and Changhai in Liaoning. Halophila ovalis, Thalassia hemprichii and Z. marina are the dominated species in seagrass meadows in Guangdong and Guangxi, Hainan and Taiwan, Shandong and Liaoning respectively. Seagrass degradation in China is mainly attributed to human disturbances caused by fishing, aquaculture and sea reclamation. For conservation purposes we advise the following: (1) initiate an extensive national survey of spatial patterns of seagrass species diversity; (2) conduct long-term monitoring of typical seagrass meadows and establish a national seagrass monitoring network; (3) accelerate legislation for seagrass conservation and include some ecologically-significant seagrass meadows as reserves; (4) invest more finance in research on the restoration of seagrass beds and conservation of seagrass germplasm resources; (5) standardize the Chinese names of seagrassesin China.

Key words: seagrass meadow, seagrass species, Chinese seagrass biotas, degradation, human disturbances

Table 1

The seagrass species and their distributions in China"

序号
No.
种类
Species
分布 Distribution
海南
Hainan
广东
Guangdong
广西
Guangxi
香港
Hong Kong
台湾
Taiwan
山东
Shandong
河北
Hebei
辽宁
Liaoning
江苏
Jiangsu
浙江
Zhejiang
福建
Fujian
天津
Tianjin
1 丝粉藻 Cymodocea rotundata + + +
2 齿叶丝粉藻 C. serrulata + +
3 二药藻 Halodule uninervis + + + +
4 羽叶二药藻 H. pinifolia + + + +
5 针叶藻 Syringodium isoetifolium + +* +* +
6 全楔草 Thalassodendron ciliatum +* +* +
7 海菖蒲 Enhalus acoroides +
8 泰来藻 Thalassia hemprichii + + +
9 喜盐草 Halophila ovalis + + + + +
10 小喜盐草 H. minor + + +
11 毛叶喜盐草 H. decipiens +* +
12 贝克喜盐草 H. beccarii + + + + +
13 矮大叶藻 Zostera japonica + + + + + + + +* +*
14 丛生大叶藻 Z. caespitosa + + +
15 宽叶大叶藻 Z. asiatica +*
16 具茎大叶藻 Z. caulescens +*
17 大叶藻 Z. marina + + +
18 黑纤维虾海藻 Phyllospadix japonicus + + +*
19 红纤维虾海藻 P. iwatensis + + +*
20 川蔓藻 Ruppia maritima + + + + + + + + +
21 长梗川蔓藻 R. cirrhosa + + + + + + +
22 宽叶川蔓藻 R. megacarpa + +
种类合计 Total 14 11 8 5 12 7 6 8 3 2 3 1

Table 2

Families and genera of seagrass in China and in the world"


Family

Genus
属内中国种数
(属内全球种数)
No. of species belonging to this genus in China
(in the world)
丝粉藻科
Cymodoceaceae
根枝草属 Amphibolis* 0(2)
丝粉藻属 Cymodocea 2(4)
二药藻属 Halodule 2(7)
针叶藻属 Syringodium 1(2)
全楔草属 Thalassodendron 1(2)
水鳖科
Hydrocharitaceae
海菖蒲属 Enhalus 1(1)
泰来藻属 Thalassia 1(2)
喜盐草属 Halophila 4(17)
波喜荡科
Posidoniaceae*
波喜荡属 Posidonia* 0(8)
大叶藻科
Zosteraceae
虾海藻属 Phyllospadix 2(5)
大叶藻属 Zostera 5(14)
川蔓藻科
Ruppiaceae
川蔓藻属 Ruppia 3(6)
角果藻科
Zannichelliaceae*
Lepilaena* 0(2)

Fig. 1

Main seagrass meadows in China"

Appendix I

Information about the important current seagrass meadows in China"

序号
No.
海草场
Seagrass meadows
面积(ha)
Cover area
主要种类
Main species
文献来源
References
海南 Hainan 5634.2
1 文昌市高隆湾 Gaolong Bay, Wenchang 3158 (文昌全市, 椰林湾除外 Wenchang except Yelin Bay) 泰来藻、二药藻、海菖蒲、喜盐草 Thalassia hemprichii, Halodule uninervis, Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis 王道儒等, 2012
2 文昌市港东村 Gangdong Village, Wenchang 泰来藻、海菖蒲、喜盐草 T. hemprichii, E. acoroides, H. ovalis 王道儒等, 2012
3 文昌市长圮港 Changpi Harbor, Wenchang 泰来藻、海菖蒲、二药藻、喜盐草、小喜盐草 T. hemprichii, E. acoroides, H. uninervis, H. ovalis, Halophila minor 王道儒等, 2012
4 文昌市宝峙村 Baoshi Village, Wenchang 泰来藻、二药藻、丝粉藻、喜盐草、针叶藻、齿叶丝粉藻 T. hemprichii, H. uninervis, Cymodocea rotundata, H. ovalis, Syringodium isoetifolium, C. serrulata 王道儒等, 2012
5 文昌市冯家湾 Fengjia Bay, Wenchang 泰来藻、海菖蒲、喜盐草、二药藻、齿叶丝粉藻 T. hemprichii, E. acoroides, H. ovalis, H. uninervis, C. serrulata 王道儒等, 2012
6 文昌市椰林湾 Yelin Bay, Wenchang 101.2 泰来藻、丝粉藻、喜盐草 T. hemprichii, C. rotundata, H. ovalis 郭振仁等, 2009
7 琼海市青葛 Qingge, Qionghai 1596 (琼海市 Qionghai) 泰来藻、海菖蒲、丝粉藻、喜盐草(H. ovalis)、二药藻 T. hemprichii, E. acoroides, C. rotundata, H. ovalis, H. uninervis 王道儒等, 2012
8 琼海市龙湾 Long Bay, Qionghai 海菖蒲、泰来藻、丝粉藻 E. acoroides, T. hemprichii, C. rotundata 王道儒等, 2012
9 琼海市潭门 Tanmen, Qionghai 泰来藻、喜盐草、丝粉藻、二药藻、针叶藻 T. hemprichii, H. ovalis, C. rotundata, H. uninervis, S. isoetifolium 王道儒等, 2012
10 三亚市后海湾 Houhai Bay, Sanya 164 (三亚市 Sanya) 泰来藻、丝粉藻 T. hemprichii, C. rotundata 王道儒等, 2012
11 三亚市铁炉港 Tielu Harbor, Sanya 海菖蒲、喜盐草 E. acoroides, H. ovalis 王道儒等, 2012
12 澄迈市花场湾 Huachang Bay, Chengmai 40 羽叶二药藻、贝克喜盐草 Halodule pinifolia, Halophila beccarii 王道儒等, 2012
13 陵水县黎安港 Li’an Lagoon, Lingshui 574 (陵水县 Lingshui) 海菖蒲、泰来藻, 丝粉藻、喜盐草 E. acoroides, T. hemprichii, C. rotundata, H. ovalis 王道儒等, 2012
14 陵水县新村港 Xincun Lagoon, Lingshui 海菖蒲、泰来藻、丝粉藻、喜盐草、二药藻、小喜盐草、矮大叶藻 E. acoroides, T. hemprichii, C. rotundata, H. ovalis, H. uninervis, H. minor, Zostera japonica 王道儒等, 2012; 作者调查
15 万宁市 Wanning 1 二药藻、喜盐草 H. uninervis, H. ovalis 王道儒等, 2012; den Hartog & Yang, 1990
16 东方市 Dongfang 面积不详
Unclear
二药藻 H. uninervis den Hartog & Yang, 1990
17 海口市 Haikou 面积不详
Unclear
矮大叶藻、贝克喜盐草、二药藻、喜盐草 Z. japonica, H. beccarii, H. uninervis, H. ovalis den Hartog & Yang, 1990
18 西沙群岛(晋卿岛) Xisha Islands (Jinqing Island) 面积不详
Unclear
全楔草、泰来藻、喜盐草 Thalassodendron ciliatum, T. hemprichii, H. ovalis den Hartog & Yang, 1990
19 南沙群岛(太平岛等) Nansha Islands (Taiping Island, etc.) 面积不详
Unclear
种类不详 Unclear Dai & Fan, 1996
广西 Guangxi 942.2
20 北海市铁山港沙背 Shabei, Tieshangang, Beihai 283.1 喜盐草、矮大叶藻、小喜盐草、贝克喜盐草 H. ovalis, Z. japonica, H. minor, H. beccarii 范航清等, 2011
21 北海市铁山港北暮 Beimu, Tieshangang, Beihai 170.1 喜盐草、矮大叶藻、小喜盐草、贝克喜盐草 H. ovalis, Z. japonica, H. minor, H. beccarii 范航清等, 2011
22 北海市山口乌坭 Wuni, Shankou, Beihai 94.1 喜盐草 H. ovalis 范航清等, 2011
23 北海市铁山港下龙尾 Xialongwei, Tieshangang, Beihai 79.1 喜盐草、矮大叶藻、贝克喜盐草、小喜盐草 H. ovalis, Z. japonica, H. beccarii, H. minor 范航清等, 2011
24 北海市铁山港川江 Chuanjiang, Tieshangang, Beihai 73.3 喜盐草、二药藻 H. ovalis, H. uninervis 范航清等, 2011
25 防城港市交东(珍珠湾) Jiaodong, Fangchenggang (Pearl Bay) 41.6 矮大叶藻, 贝克喜盐草 Z. japonica, H. beccarii 范航清等, 2011
26 北海市沙田山寮 Shanliao, Shatian, Beihai 14.3 矮大叶藻 Z. japonica 范航清等, 2011
27 钦州市纸宝岭 Zhibaoling, Qinzhou 10.7 贝克喜盐草 H. beccarii 范航清等, 2011
28 北海市山口丹兜 Dandou, Shankou, Beihai 10.7 贝克喜盐草 H. beccarii 范航清等, 2011
29 其他零星分布点 Others 165.2 喜盐草、矮大叶藻、贝克喜盐草等 H. ovalis, Z. japonica, H. beccarii, ect. 范航清等, 2011
广东 Guangdong 975
30 湛江市流沙湾 Liusha Bay, Zhanjiang 900 喜盐草、二药藻 H. ovalis, H. uninervis 黄小平等, 2007
31 潮州市饶平柘林湾 Zhelin Bay, Raoping, Chaozhou 40 喜盐草 H. ovalis 黄小平等, 2010
32 湛江市东海岛 Donghai Island, Zhanjiang 9 贝克喜盐草 H. beccarii 黄小平等, 2007
33 珠海市唐家湾 Tangjia Bay, Zhuhai 7.6 贝克喜盐草 H. beccarii 黄小平等, 2010
34 台山市上川岛 Shangchuan Island, Taishan 7 矮大叶藻 Z. japonica 黄小平等, 2010
35 惠东县考洲洋 Kaozhouyang, Huidong 6.95 喜盐草 H. ovalis 黄小平等, 2010
36 阳江市海陵岛 Hailing Island, Yangjiang 1 喜盐草 H. ovalis 黄小平等, 2007
37 台山市下川岛 Xiachuan Island, Taishan 1 矮大叶藻、贝克喜盐草 Z. japonica, H. beccarii 黄小平等, 2010
38 汕尾市白沙湖 Baishahu, Shanwei <1 喜盐草 H. ovalis 黄小平等, 2010
39 深圳市大亚湾 Daya Bay, Shenzhen <1 喜盐草 H. ovalis 黄小平等, 2010
40 雷州市企水湾 Qishui Bay, Leizhou <1 喜盐草 H. ovalis 黄小平等, 2010
41 湛江市硇洲岛 Naozhou Island, Zhanjiang 面积不详
Unclear
喜盐草 H. ovalis den Hartog & Yang, 1990
42 汕尾市海丰县 Haifeng, Shanwei 面积不详
Unclear
矮大叶藻 Z. japonica den Hartog & Yang, 1990
香港 Hong Kong 4
43 元朗区下白泥 Ha Pak Nai, Yuen Long District 4 贝克喜盐草 H. beccarii Fong, 2000
44 其他分布点(荔枝窝、印洲塘、三桠涌、
大潭湾、散头等) Others (Lai Chi Wo, Yan Chau Tong、Sam A Chung, Tai Tam Bay, San Tau, etc.)
面积不详
Unclear
矮大叶藻、喜盐草、小喜盐草、贝克喜盐草 Z. japonica, H. ovalis, H. minor, H. beccarii Fong, 2000; Yip & Lai, 2006
福建 Fujian
45 晋江市 Jinjiang 面积不详
Unclear
矮大叶藻 Z. japonica den Hartog &Yang, 1990
46 厦门市 Xiamen 面积不详
Unclear
矮大叶藻 Z. japonica den Hartog & Yang, 1990
47 漳洲市东山岛 Dongshan Island, Zhangzhou 面积不详
Unclear
矮大叶藻 Z. japonica den Hartog & Yang, 1990
台湾 Taiwan 820.7
48 东沙岛 Tongsha Island 820 泰来藻、丝粉藻、齿叶丝粉藻、针叶藻、二药藻、喜盐草、全楔草 T. hemprichii, C. rotundata, C. serrulata, S. isoetifolium, H. uninervis, H. ovalis, T. ciliatum 柯智仁, 2004; Lin et al., 2005
49 屏东市恒春半岛南湾 Nanwan, Hengchun Peninsular, Pingtung 0.4 泰来藻, 二药藻 T. hemprichii, H. uninervis Lin & Shao, 1998; Kuo & Lin, 2010
50 屏东市恒春半岛大光 Dakwan, Hengchun Peninsular, Pingtung 0.3 泰来藻 T. hemprichii Lin & Shao, 1998; Kuo & Lin, 2010
51 澎湖列岛(分布于岐头、镇海、沙港、讲美等地) Penghu Islands (Chihtou, Chenhai, Shiakang, Chiangmei, etc.) 面积不详
Unclear
喜盐草、矮大叶藻、二药藻 H. ovalis, Z. japonica, H. uninervis Yang et al., 2002
柯智仁, 2004
52 绿岛 Lutao Island 面积不详
Unclear
泰来藻 T. hemprichii Yang et al., 2002
柯智仁, 2004
53 小琉球岛 Hsiaoliuchiu Island 面积不详
Unclear
泰来藻、二药藻 T. hemprichii, H. uninervis Yang et al., 2002
柯智仁, 2004
54 金门岛(分布于浯江口、慈湖—南山等地) Kinmen Island (Wu river mouth, Cihu-Nanshan, etc.) 面积不详
Unclear
矮大叶藻 Z. japonica 柯智仁, 2004
55 台湾本岛其他海域(位于屏东市海口、后湾、万里桐, 新竹市香山, 台中市高美, 嘉义市白水湖, 台南市七股, 台东市小港等地) Others in the main island (Haikou, Houwan and Wanlitung, Pingtung; Hsiangshan, Hsinchu; Kaomei, Taichung, Baishuihu, Chiayi; Qigu, Tainan; Hsiaokang, Taitung, etc.) 面积不详
Unclear
矮大叶藻、贝克喜盐草、喜盐草、泰来藻、羽叶二叶藻、二叶藻、毛叶喜盐草 Z. japonica, H. beccarii, H. ovalis, T. hemprichii, H. pinifolia, H. uninervis, Halophila decipiens Yang et al., 2002
柯智仁, 2004
山东 Shandong 289
56 荣成市月湖(或天鹅湖) Yue Lagoon (Swan Lagoon), Rongcheng 191 大叶藻、矮大叶藻 Z. marina, Z. japonica 刘炳舰, 2012
57 荣成市桑沟湾 Sanggou Bay, Rongcheng 60 大叶藻、丛生大叶藻、矮大叶藻、红纤维虾海藻 Z. marina, Z. caespitosa, Z. japonica, Phyllospadix iwatensis 高亚平等, 2010; 郭栋等, 2010
58 荣成市俚岛湾 Lidao Bay, Rongcheng 30 大叶藻、丛生大叶藻、黑纤维虾海藻、红纤维虾海藻 Z. marina, Z. caespitosa, P. japonicus, P. iwatensis 郭栋等, 2010
59 威海市区双岛湾 Shuangdao Bay, Weihai 5 大叶藻、红纤维虾海藻 Z. marina, P. iwatensis 作者调查
60 烟台市区担子岛、玉岱山 Danzi Island and Yudai Hill, Yantai <1 大叶藻、丛生大叶藻 Z. marina, Z. caespitosa 江鑫等, 2012; 作者调查
61 莱州市莱州湾 Laizhou Bay, Laizhou <1 大叶藻 Z. marina 徐宗军等, 2010; 作者调查
62 东营市垦利县 Kenli County, Dongying <1 大叶藻 Z. marina 郭栋等, 2010; 作者调查
63 青岛市区(汇泉湾、青岛湾等) Huiquan Bay and Qingdao Bay, Qingdao 面积不详
Unclear
大叶藻、 矮大叶藻、 丛生大叶藻、 红纤维虾海藻、黑纤维虾海藻 Z. marina, Z. japonica,Z. caespitosa, P. iwatensis, P. japonicus 郭栋等, 2010; 刘炳舰, 2012
64 其他分布点(分布于潍坊市的寿光, 烟台市的龙口和长岛县, 威海市的石岛与乳山, 青岛市的崂山与胶南岛, 以及日照市的石臼所等) Others (Shouguang, Weifang; Longkou and Changdao, Yantai; Laoshan and Jiaonan Island, Qingdao; Shijiusuo, Rizhao, etc. 面积不详
Unclear
大叶藻、矮大叶藻、丛生大叶藻、红纤维虾海藻 Z. marina, Z. japonica, Z. caespitosa, P. iwatensis den Hartog & Yang, 1990
河北 Hebei
65 秦皇岛市北戴河 Beidaihe, Qinghuangdao 面积不详
Unclear
大叶藻、丛生大叶藻、矮大叶藻 Z. marina, Z. caespitosa, Z. japonica den Hartog & Yang, 1990
辽宁 Liaoning 100
66 大连市长海县樟子岛、海洋岛 Zhangzi Island and Haiyang Island, Changhai, Dalian 100 大叶藻、丛生大叶藻 Z. marina, Z. caespitosa 作者调查
67 葫芦岛市兴城市 Xingcheng, Huludao 面积不详
Unclear
大叶藻 Z. marina den Hartog & Yang, 1990
合计 Total 8,765.1
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