Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (12): 1309-1319.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019184

• Original Papers:Animal Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Distribution patterns and environmental interpretation of beetle species richness in Helan Mountain of northern China

Guijun Yang1, *(), Min Wang1, Yichun Yang1, Xinyun Li1, Xinpu Wang2   

  1. 1 School of Life Sciences, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021
    2 School of Agriculture, Ningxia University, Yinchuan 750021
  • Received:2019-06-05 Accepted:2019-09-17 Online:2020-01-14
  • Yang Guijun E-mail:yang_gj@nxu.edu.cn

Spatial patterns of species richness and mechanism are vital to biodiversity conservation. Based on the distribution of beetles and combined the climate and habitat heterogeneity, we explored the distribution patterns and effect factors of beetle species richness of overall and six dominant families in Helan Mountain of northern China. The results showed that species richness and fauna differentiation intensity of beetles were the highest in the middle of Helan Mountain, the southern section was higher than the northern section, and the western section was higher than the eastern section. After clustering analysis of species distributed in 183 grids, the distribution of beetles could be classified into three groups (xerophilic landscape beetle groups in the northern section, semi-hygric landscape beetle groups in the middle-western section, and semi-xerophytic beetle groups in the middle-east and south section). The mean annual temperature and precipitation were the most significant factors on beetle distribution by analyzing of RDA. Meanwhile, water and energy factors together explained 57.1% of the spatial variation in overall beetle species richness, only 5.9% and 7.1% separately, followed by habitat heterogeneity (35.2%) and only 1.8% separately. The relative effect of dominant species richness were inconsistent with climatic and habitat heterogeneity, but water and habitat heterogeneity have significant effect on beetle species richness in southern and northern of Helan Mountain. Water and energy factors dominantly impacted beetle spatial distribution, and habitat heterogeneity increased the species richness. Therefore, we suggested that topographic and soil factors may also have an important influence on beetle species richness in Helan Mountain according to the unexplained proportion.

Key words: beetle, species richness, distribution pattern, water factors, energy factors, habitat heterogeneity, Helan Mountain

Fig. 1

Grids for study on geographic distribution patterns of beetle in the Helan Mountain area"

Fig. 2

The distribution patterns of beetle species richness in Helan Mountain"

Fig. 3

The shift of fauna differentiation of the genus and the family of beetles from north to south in Helan Mountain"

Fig. 4

The shift of fauna differentiation of the genus and the family of beetles from west to east in Helan Mountain"

Fig. 5

The geographical division of beetle in Helan Mountain"

Table 1

Comparison of beetle diversity in different geographical units in Helan Mountain"

科数
No. of family
属数
No. of genus
种数
No. of species
G指数
(DG)
F指数
(DF)
G-F指数
(DG-F)
属区系分化强度
Genus fauna differentiation intensity (Dg)
科区系分化强度
Family fauna differentiation intensity (Df)
北段强旱生景观甲虫地理群
Xerophilic landscape beetle groups in the northern section (I)
26 145 250 4.71 26.80 0.824 1.57 3.19
中西段半湿生景观甲虫地理群
Semi-hygric landscape beetle groups
in the middle-western section (II)
29 218 419 5.03 35.35 0.858 1.73 4.29
中东段及南段半旱生景观甲虫地理群Semi-xerophytic landscape beetle groups in the middle-east and south section (III) 30 222 378 5.14 37.49 0.863 1.53 3.79

Table 2

The correlation coefficients between beetle species richness, fauna differentiation intensity and environmental factors in Helan Mountain"

环境因子
Environmental factor
物种丰富度
Species richness
(Nsp)
属区系分化强度
Genus fauna differentiation intensity (Dg)
科区系分化强度
Family fauna differentiation intensity (Df)
海拔高差 Altitude difference (AD) 0.54* 0.27* 0.46*
植被类型数 Vegetation diversity (VD) 0.55* 0.49* 0.27*
植被归一化指数 Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) 0.56* 0.41* 0.60*
年均降水量 Mean annual precipitation (MAP) 0.61* 0.34* 0.62*
年均潜在蒸散量 Mean annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) 0.31* 0.50* 0.25*
年均实际蒸散量 Mean annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) 0.49* 0.39* 0.36*
年均温 Mean annual temperature (MAT) -0.34* -0.58* -0.44*
最冷月均温 Mean temperature of coldest month (MTCM) -0.26* -0.51* -0.19*
最热月均温 Mean temperature of warmest month (MTWM) -0.41* -0.58* -0.34*
年均太阳辐射 Mean annual solar radiation (MASR) -0.56* -0.32* -0.57*

Table 3

The relative contribution of environmental factors for distribution of beetle species richness"

环境因子
Environmental factor
解释率
Percentage of variance explained (%)
贡献率
Contribution (%)
F P
年均温 Mean annual temperature (MAT) 34.8 57.0 96.6 0.002
年均降水量 Mean annual precipitation (MAP) 9.9 16.2 32.1 0.002
最冷月均温 Mean temperature of coldest month (MTCM) 3.8 6.1 13 0.002
年均潜在蒸散量 Mean annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) 3.6 5.9 13.3 0.002
海拔高差 Altitude difference (AD) 3.0 4.9 11.7 0.002
最热月均温 Mean temperature of warmest month (MTWM) 2.8 4.5 11.6 0.002
年均实际蒸散量 Mean annual actual evapotranspiration (AET) 1.5 2.5 6.5 0.002
年均太阳辐射 Mean annual solar radiation (MASR) 1.0 1.6 4.2 0.002
植被归一化指数 Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) 0.6 0.9 2.5 0.002
植被类型数 Vegetation diversity (VD) 0.3 0.5 1.4 0.048

Fig. 6

Relative influence of water, energy and habitat heterogeneity on distribution of beetle species richness of overall and dominant family. *P < 0.001."

Fig. 7

Relative influence of water, energy and habitat heterogeneity on distribution of beetle species richness in different geographical units. *P < 0.001."

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