Biodiversity Science ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 54-65.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019154

• Editorial • Previous Article     Next Article

Threatened categories assessment of lichens in China

Xinli Wei1, Hong Deng1, Jiangchun Wei1, 2, *()   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-05-07 Accepted:2019-07-11 Online:2019-12-27
  • Jiangchun Wei E-mail:weijc2004@126.com

Lichens are important components of macrofungi, and thus they are also main subjects in the Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China. A total of 2,164 lichen species were evaluated here, including 2,145 ascomycete lichen species and 19 basidiomycete lichen species. These species were organized into 2 phyla, 9 classes, 34 orders, 92 families and 352 genera. The results showed that, of the 28 species identified as threatened, 3 species were Critically Endangered (CR), 7 species were Endangered (EN) and 18 species were Vulnerable (VU). These 28 represented 1.29% of all evaluated species, with 6 other species considered to be Near Threatened (NT) and 657 species assessed as Least Concern (LC). More than half the species, 1,473 (68.07%), were Data Deficient (DD) and could not be further evaluated due to lack of data. This highlights the severe lack of lichen research and the urgent need for lichen taxonomists in China. The extremely slow growth, weak adaptability to habitat degradation, particular sensitivity to air pollution, narrow distribution and small population size characteristic of lichens all contribute to the susceptible state of lichens that face habitat destruction caused by human activities. In addition, it is worth noting that some lichen species evaluated as Vulnerable here, have since been overexploited due to their edibility and well-known medicinal value. These species’ conservation status will be further aggravated if they continue to lack effective protection.

Key words: IUCN red list, endangered taxa, assessment, lichen, China

Table 1

The species number of evaluated lichen taxa and different evaluated categories. CR, Critically Endangered; EN, Endangered; VU, Vulnerable; NT, Near Threatened; LC, Least Concern; DD, Data Deficient."

目 Order 科 Family 物种数 No. of species CR EN VU NT LC DD
子囊菌门 Ascomycota
斑衣纲 Arthoniomycetes 50
斑衣目 Arthoniales 斑衣科 Arthoniaceae 21 5 16
金絮衣科 Chrysotrichaceae 3 1 2
黑斑衣科 Melaspileaceae 1 1
孔文衣科 Opegraphaceae 2 1 1
染料衣科 Roccellaceae 23 3 20
粉头衣纲 Coniocybomycetes 2
粉头衣目Coniocybales 粉头衣科 Coniocybaceae 2 1 1
座曩菌纲 Dothideomycetes 36
纤柔菌目 Abrothallales 纤柔菌科 Abrothallaceae 1 1
未定目 Incertae sedis 未定科 Incertae sedis 5 1 4
衣外菌目 Lichenoconiales 衣外菌科 Lichenoconiaceae 2 2
单芽菌目 Monoblastiales 单芽菌科 Monoblastiaceae 10 10
球囊菌目 Mycosphaerellales 球囊菌科 Mycosphaerellaceae 2 2
格孢腔菌目 Pleosporales 星核衣科Arthopyreniaceae 2 2
叶上衣目 Strigulales 叶上衣科 Strigulaceae
乳嘴衣目 Trypetheliales 乳嘴衣科 Trypetheliaceae 10 10
散囊菌纲 Eurotiomycetes 94
类胶目 Collemopsidiales 黄核衣科 Xanthopyreniaceae 1 1
粉衣目 Mycocaliciales 粉衣科 Mycocaliciaceae 4 1 1 4
小核衣目 Pyrenulales 干瘤菌科 Celotheliaceae 1 1
小核衣科 Pyrenulaceae 14 14
瓶口衣目 Verrucariales 瓶口衣科 Verrucariaceae 74 8 66
未定纲 Incertae sedis 1
未定目 Incertae sedis 未定科 Incertae sedis 1 1
茶渍纲 Lecanoromycetes 1,933
微孢衣目 Acarosporales 微孢衣科 Acarosporaceae 30 11 19
极地衣目 Arctomiales 极地衣科 Arctomiaceae 1 1
羊角衣目 Baeomycetales 柄盘衣科 Anamylopsoraceae 1 1
羊角衣科 Baeomycetaceae 7 1 6
褐边衣科 Trapeliaceae 13 2 11
木刻衣科 Xylographaceae 3 2 1
粉衣目 Caliciales 粉衣科 Caliciaceae 60 10 49
黄烛衣目 Candelariales 黄烛衣科 Candelariaceae 15 2 13
膜衣目 Hymeneliales 膜衣科 Hymeneliaceae 6 6
未定目 Incertae sedis 珠节衣科 Arthrorhaphidaceae 4 4
锈疣衣科 Brigantiaeaceae 1 1
炭菌科 Carbonicolaceae 1 1
盘耳衣科 Elixiaceae 1 1
棕网盘科 Fuscideaceae 4 1 3
未定科 Incertae sedis 3 1 2
盾叶衣科 Ophioparmaceae 2 1 1
原乳衣科 Protothelenellaceae 1 1
锥形孢科 Ropalosporaceae 2 1 1
乳衣科 Thelenellaceae 2 2
茶渍目 Lecanorales 小蜡盘科 Biatorellaceae 2 2
旋衣科 Byssolomataceae 29 29
石蕊科 Cladoniaceae 109 1 2 1 2 55 50
棉絮衣科 Crocyniaceae 2 2
赤星衣科 Haematommataceae 4 1 3
茶渍科 Lecanoraceae 111 1 27 83
柄座衣科 Malmideaceae 3 3
托盘衣科 Megalariaceae 1 1
黑红衣科 Mycoblastaceae 2 2
梅衣科 Parmeliaceae 469 1 1 10 1 182 272
裸衣科 Psilolechiaceae 1 1
鳞网衣科 Psoraceae 8 1 1 6
树花科 Ramalinaceae 75 15 60
果衣科 Ramboldiaceae 3 3
绦孢衣科 Scoliciosporaceae 3 3
球粉衣科 Sphaerophoraceae 4 3 1
多孢衣科 Sporastatiaceae 2 2

Table 1 Continued

The species number of evaluated lichen taxa and different evaluated categories. CR, Critically Endangered; EN, Endangered; VU, Vulnerable; NT, Near Threatened; LC, Least Concern; DD, Data Deficient."

鳞茶渍科 Squamarinaceae 6 2 4
珊瑚枝科 Stereocaulaceae 31 4 27
峡孢菌科 Strangosporaceae 1 1
网衣目 Lecideales 网衣科 Lecideaceae 48 9 39
绒枝目 Leprocaulales 绒枝科 Leprocaulaceae 1 1
厚顶盘目 Ostropales 绒衣科 Coenogoniaceae 6 1 5
楔形衣科 Gomphillaceae 12 1 11
文字衣科 Graphidaceae 184 60 124
凹盘衣科 Gyalectaceae 5 5
疱衣菌科 Phlyctidaceae 2 1 1
污核衣科 Porinaceae 15 15
点盘菌科 Stictidaceae 5 5
地卷目 Peltigerales 瓦衣科 Coccocarpiaceae 3 3
胶衣科 Collemataceae 69 33 36
肺衣科 Lobariaceae 55 15 40
肾盘衣科 Nephromataceae 12 2 10
鳞叶衣科 Pannariaceae 23 9 14
地卷科 Peltigeraceae 42 25 17
胎座衣科 Placynthiaceae 4 4
鸡皮衣目 Pertusariales 球孔衣科 Coccotremataceae 1
霜降衣科 Icmadophilaceae 8 1 1 5
大孢衣科 Megasporaceae 42 15 27
肉疣衣科 Ochrolechiaceae 31 15 16
鸡皮衣科 Pertusariaceae 74 37 36
地图衣目 Rhizocarpales 腊肠衣科 Catillariaceae 10 10
地图衣科 Rhizocarpaceae 24 1 5 18
黄枝衣目 Teloschistales 多极孢衣科 Letrouitiaceae 1 1
大孢衣科 Megalosporaceae 4 4
蜈蚣衣科 Physciaceae 131 2 52 77
黄枝衣科 Teloschistaceae 49 13 36
石耳目 Umbilicariales 石耳科 Umbilicariaceae 49 3 2 3 12 32
垂舌菌纲 Leotiomycetes 2
维氏衣目 Vezdaeales 维氏衣科 Vezdaeaceae 2 2
异极衣纲 Lichinomycetes 27
异极衣目 Lichinales 异极衣科 Lichinaceae 15 1 14
盾衣科 Peltulaceae 12 1 11
担子菌门 Basidiomycota
蘑菇纲 Agaricomycetes 18
蘑菇目 Agaricales 蜡伞科 Hygrophoraceae 5 2 3
口蘑科 Tricholomataceae 1 1
鸡油菌目 Cantharellales 锁珊菌科 Clavulinaceae 7 1 6
伏革菌目 Corticiales 伏革菌科 Corticiaceae 1 1
未定目 Incertae sedis 未定科 Incertae sedis 4 4
银耳纲 Tremellomycetes 1
银耳目 Tremellales 银耳科 Tremellaceae 1 1

Table 2

The evaluated categories, distribution and usage of threatened lichen species. CR, Critically Endangered; EN, Endangered; VU, Vulnerable."

物种
Species
等级
Categories

Family
地理分布
Distribution
中国特有种
Endemic to China
用途
Usage
顶杯衣
Acroscyphus
sphaerophoroides
濒危 EN 粉衣科
Caliciaceae
中国四川、云南、西藏; 印度; 日本; 尼泊尔; 美洲
China: Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet; India; Japan; Nepal; America
否 No
裂芽厚枝衣
Allocetraria isidiigera
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国西藏
China: Tibet
是 Yes
广开小孢发
Bryoria divergescens
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国四川、云南、台湾
China: Sichuan, Yunnan, Taiwan
是 Yes
藏岛衣
Cetraria xizangensis
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国西藏
China: Tibet
是 Yes
戴氏石蕊
Cladonia delavayi
易危 VU 石蕊科
Cladoniaceae
中国陕西、四川、云南、西藏; 尼泊尔
China: Shaanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet; Nepal
否 No 药用
Medicinal
拟雀石蕊
Cladonia pseudoevansii
极危 CR 石蕊科
Cladoniaceae
中国吉林; 日本
China: Jilin; Japan
否 No
圆盘衣
Gymnoderma coccocarpum
濒危 EN 石蕊科
Cladoniaceae
中国湖南、云南、西藏、台湾、广西; 印度、
日本; 朝鲜; 韩国; 蒙古; 菲律宾; 泰国; 马来西亚
China: Hunan, Yunan, Tibet, Taiwan, Guangxi; India; Japan; North Korea; South Korea; Mongolia; the Philippines; Thailand; Malaysia
否 No
岛圆盘衣
Gymnoderma insulare
濒危 EN 石蕊科
Cladoniaceae
中国台湾; 日本
China: Taiwan; Japan
否 No
日光山袋衣
Hypogymnia nikkoensis
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国内蒙古; 日本
China: Inner Mongolia; Japan
否 No
台湾高山袋衣
Hypogymnia taiwanalpina
濒危 EN 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国云南、台湾; 东亚
China: Yunan, Taiwan; East Asia
否 No
金丝绣球
Lethariella cashmeriana
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国甘肃、四川、西藏; 印度
China: Gansu, Sichuan, Tibet; India
否 No
金丝刷
Lethariella cladonioides
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国山西、陕西、甘肃、青海、四川、
云南、西藏; 印度; 尼泊尔
China: Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu, Qinghai, Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet; India; Nepal
否 No 药用; 石蕊试剂原料
Medicinal and raw material of litmus reagent
曲金丝
Lethariella flexuosa
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国甘肃、四川、云南、西藏
China: Gansu, Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet
是 Yes 药用及藏香原料
Medicinal and raw material of Tibetan incense
中华金丝
Lethariella sinensis
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国西藏
China: Tibet
是 Yes
金丝带
Lethariella zahlbruckneri
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国山西、陕西、四川、贵州、云南、
西藏
China: Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Tibet
是 Yes 药用
Medicinal
密裂大叶梅
Parmotrema myriolobulatum
极危 CR 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国云南
China: Yunnan
是 Yes
湖北蜈蚣衣
Physcia hupehensis
易危 VU 蜈蚣衣科
Physciaceae
中国湖北
China: Hubei
是 Yes
亚灰大孢衣
Physconia perisidiosa
易危 VU 蜈蚣衣科
Physciaceae
中国河北、新疆; 德国
China: Hebei, Xinjiang; Germany
否 No
朝比氏鳞网衣
Psora asahinae
易危 VU 鳞网衣科
Psoraceae
中国黑龙江
China: Heilongjiang
是 Yes
甘肃地图衣
Rhizocarpon kansuense
易危 VU 地图衣科
Rhizocarpaceae
中国甘肃; 中亚
China: Gansu; Central Asia
否 No
华脐鳞
Rhizoplaca huashanensis
极危 CR 茶渍科
Lecanoraceae
中国陕西
China: Shaanxi
是 Yes
卧白角衣
Siphula decumbens
易危 VU 霜降衣科
Icmadophilaceae
中国台湾、江西; 新西兰
China: Taiwan, Jiangxi; New Zealand
否 No
绿丝槽枝
Sulcaria virens
易危 VU 梅衣科
Parmeliaceae
中国四川、云南、西藏、台湾; 印度;
尼泊尔; 斯里兰卡
China: Sichuan, Yunnan, Tibet, Taiwan; India; Nepal; Sri Lanka
否 No 药用
Medicinal
阿尔泰石耳
Umbilicaria altaiensis
濒危 EN 石耳科
Umbilicariaceae
中国新疆
China: Xinjiang
是 Yes
庐山石耳
Umbilicaria esculenta
易危 VU 石耳科
Umbilicariaceae
中国黑龙江、吉林、辽宁、安徽、浙江、江西、湖南、湖北、云南、西藏、
广西; 日本; 朝鲜; 韩国
China: Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning, Anhui, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Hubei, Yunan, Tibet, Guangxi; Japan; North Korea; South Korea
否 No 食药用
Edible and medicinal
周裂石耳
Umbilicaria loboperipherica
易危 VU 石耳科
Umbilicariaceae
中国吉林、辽宁、内蒙、陕西、河北、云南
China: Jilin, Liaoning, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Hebei, Yunnan
是 Yes
皮芽石耳
Umbilicaria squamosa
濒危 EN 石耳科
Umbilicariaceae
中国云南、西藏、广西
China: Yunnan, Tibet, Guangxi
是 Yes
太白石耳
Umbilicaria taibaiensis
濒危 EN 石耳科
Umbilicariaceae
中国陕西、云南、四川
China: Shaanxi, Yunnan, Sichuan
是 Yes

Fig. 1

Morphology of three Critically Endangered lichen species. (A) Cladonia pseudoevansii (HMAS-L-16743); (B) Parmotrema myriolobulatum (HMAS-L-18613); (C) Rhizoplaca huashanensis (holotype, HMAS-L-3747). Scale bars = 1 cm."

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