Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (11): 1184-1195.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019120

• Reviews • Previous Article     Next Article

Progress on the clonality of epiphytic ferns

Jingqi Sun1, 2, Quan Chen2, Hangyu Li2, 3, Yanfen Chang4, Hede Gong1, Liang Song2, Huazheng Lu2, *()   

  1. 1 School of Geography and Ecotourism, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    2 CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    3 College of Biology and Chemistry, Pu’er University, Pu’er, Yunnan 665000;
    4 College of Life Sciences and Environment, Hengyang Normal University, Hengyang, Hunan 421008
  • Received:2019-04-08 Accepted:2019-10-08 Online:2020-01-17
  • Lu Huazheng E-mail:luhuazheng@xtbg.org.cn

Lycophytes and ferns display dual life-history traits including a cryptogam (spore) and spermatophyte (vascular bundle) form, which can be attributed to their specific evolutionary history. Among them, epiphytic ferns occupy unique habitats in forests, and their life-history strategies and evolutionary history exhibit close relationships with forest ecosystems. Most epiphytic ferns are capable of clonal growth. However, it is yet unclear how clonal life-history traits affect the adaptation of epiphytic ferns to forest canopies. Here, we review studies of rhizomatous clonal growth of epiphytic ferns, the relationship of fern clonality with ecological adaptation, the clonal forms of ferns, and the evolution of fern clonality. We then discuss the roles of fern clonality in the processes and functions of forest ecosystem and suggest future directions of how to combine fern ecology to global change studies.

Key words: pteridophytes, forest canopy, epiphytes, clonality, forest ecosystem, ecological functions

Fig. 1

Life history and clonality of ferns. Circle A for clonal growth of sporophytes, circle B for clonal growth of gametophytes, circle C for clonal reproduction; colors from dark A to B to light C showed occurrence frequency from high to low in nature (Revised from Mehltreter et al, 2010)."

1 Abrahamson WG, Anderson SS, McCrea KD ( 1991) Clonal integration: Nutrient sharing between sister ramets of Solidago altissima (Compositae). American Journal of Botany, 78, 1508-1514.
2 Aikens ML, Ellum D, McKenna JJ, Kelty MJ, Ashton MS ( 2007) The effects of disturbance intensity on temporal and spatial patterns of herb colonization in a southern New England mixed-oak forest. Forest Ecology and Management, 252, 144-158.
3 Alpert P ( 1991) Nitrogen sharing among ramets increases clonal growth in Fragaria chiloensis. Ecology, 72, 69-80.
4 Andrade JL, Nobel PS ( 1997) Microhabitats and water relations of epiphytic cacti and ferns in a lowland neotropical forest. Biotropica, 29, 261-270.
5 Barrington DS ( 1993) Ecological and historical factors in fern biogeography. Journal of Biogeography, 20, 275-279.
6 Barthlott W, Schmit-Neuerburg V, Nieder J, Engwald S ( 2001) Diversity and abundance of vascular epiphytes: A comparison of secondary vegetation and primary montane rain forest in the Venezuelan Andes. Plant Ecology, 152, 145-156.
7 Basset Y, Horlyck V, Wright SJ ( 2003) Forest canopies and their importance. In: Studying Forest Canopies from Above: The International Canopy Crane Network (eds Basset Y, Horlyck V, Wright SJ), pp.27-34. Smithsonian Tropical Research Instritute and UNEP, Panama.
8 Benzing DH ( 1998) Vulnerabilities of tropical forests to climate change: The significance of resident epiphytes. Climatic Change, 39, 519-540.
9 Bertness MD, Callaway R ( 1994) Positive interactions in communities. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 9, 191-193.
10 Bower FO ( 1923) The Ferns (Filicales),Vol. 1. Cambridge University Press,Cambridge.
11 Cain ML ( 1994) Consequences of foraging in clonal plant species. Ecology, 75, 933-944.
12 Callaway RM, Brooker RW, Choler P, Kikvidze Z, Lortie CJ, Michalet R, Paolini L, Pugnaire FI, Newingham B, Aschehoug ET, Armas C, Kikodze D, Cook BJ ( 2002) Positive interactions among alpine plants increase with stress. Nature, 417, 844-848.
13 Carlquist S, Schneider EL ( 2001) Vessels in ferns: Structural, ecological, and evolutionary significance. American Journal of Botany, 88, 1-13.
14 Cavieres LA, Brooker RW, Butterfield BJ, Cook BJ, Kikvidze Z, Lortie CJ, Michalet R, Pugnaire FI, Schöb C, Xiao S, Anthelme F, Björk RG, Dickinson KJM, Cranston BH, Gavilán R, Gutiérrez-Girón A, Kanka R, Maalouf JP, Mark AF, Noroozi J, Parajuli R, Phoenix GK, Reid AM, Ridenour WM, Rixen C, Wipf S, Zhao L, Escudero A, Zaitchik BF, Lingua E, Aschehoug ET, Callaway RM ( 2014) Facilitative plant interactions and climate simultaneously drive alpine plant diversity. Ecology Letters, 17, 193-202.
15 Chen L, Liu WY, Wang GS ( 2010) Estimation of epiphytic biomass and nutrient pools in the subtropical montane cloud forest in the Ailao Mountains, south-western China. Ecological Research, 25, 315-325.
16 Chen Q, Lu HZ, Liu WY, Wu Y, Song L, Li S (2019a) Obligate to facultative shift of two epiphytic Lepisorus species during subtropical forest degradation: Insights from functional traits. Forest Ecology and Management, 435, 66-76.
17 Chen Q, Sun JQ, Song L, Liu WY, Yu FH, Li S, Gong HD, Lu HZ ( 2019 b) Trait acclimation of the clonal fern Selliguea griffithiana to forest epiphytic and terrestrial habitats. Ecological Research, 34, 406-411.
18 Chu CJ, Maestre FT, Xiao S, Weiner J, Wang YS, Duan ZH, Wang G ( 2008) Balance between facilitation and resource competition determines biomass-density relationships in plant populations. Ecology Letters, 11, 1189-1197.
19 Coomes DA, Allen RB, Bentley WA, Burrows LE, Canham CD, Fagan L, Forsyth DM, Gaxiola-Alcantar A, Parfitt RL, Ruscoe WA, Wardle DA, Wilson DJ, Wright EF ( 2005) The hare, The tortoise and the crocodile: The ecology of angiosperm dominance, conifer persistence and fern filtering. Journal of Ecology, 93, 918-935.
20 Crowe T ( 1996) Different effects of microhabitat fragmentation on patterns of dispersal of an intertidal gastropod in two habitats. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology & Ecology, 206, 83-107.
21 Cummings J, Martin M, Rogers A ( 2006) Quantifying the abundance of four large epiphytic fern species in remnant complex notophyll vine forest on the Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Australia. Cunninghamia, 9, 521-527.
22 de Oliveira Xavier R, Dodonov P, da Silva Matos DM ( 2019) Growth and mortality patterns of the Neotropical bracken (Pteridium arachnoideum) and their response to shading in a savanna-riparian forest transition. Flora, 252, 36-43.
23 Dong M ( 2011) Clonal Plant Ecology.Science Press,Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 董鸣 ( 2011) 克隆植物生态学.科学出版社, 北京.]
24 Dong M, Yu FH ( 2007) Terminology and concept of clonal plant ecology. Journal of Plant Ecology (Chinese Version), 31, 689-694. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 董鸣, 于飞海 ( 2007) 克隆植物生态学术语和概念. 植物生态学报, 31, 689-694.]
25 Du J, Wang N, Alpert P, Yu MJ, Yu FH, Dong M ( 2010) Clonal integration increases performance of ramets of the fern Diplopterygium glaucum in an evergreen forest in southeastern China. Flora, 205, 399-403.
26 Dubuisson JY, Schneider H, Hennequin S ( 2009) Epiphytism in ferns: Diversity and history. Comptes Rendus Biologies, 332, 120-128.
27 Ellwood MD, Foster WA ( 2004) Doubling the estimate of invertebrate biomass in a rainforest canopy. Nature, 429, 549-551.
28 Endler JA ( 1993) The color of light in forests and its implications. Ecological Monographs, 63, 1-27.
29 Farrar DR, Dassler CL, Watkins JE, Skelton C ( 2008) Gametophyte ecology. In: The Biology and Evolution of Ferns and Lycophytes (eds Ranker TA, Haufl CH), pp. 224-258. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
30 Flinn KM, Loiacono MM, Groff HE ( 2014) Low reproductive success of hay-scented fern (Dennstaedtia punctilobula) regardless of inbreeding level or time since disturbance. Botany, 92, 911-915.
31 Fujinuma J, Kusumoto B, Shiono T, Kubota Y ( 2019) Species- specific clonality in East Asian island flora: Phylogenetic and environmental constraints. Ecological Research, 34, 577-586.
32 George LO, Bazzaz FA ( 1999) The fern understory as an ecological filter: Growth and survival of canopy-tree seedlings. Ecology, 80, 846-856.
33 Goebel K ( 1905) Organography of Plants: Especially of the Archegoniatae and Spermaphyta. Part II. Special Organography (Facsimile of the 1905 Edition). Hafner, New York and London.
34 Guo W, Song YB, Yu FH ( 2011) Heterogeneous light supply affects growth and biomass allocation of the understory fern Diplopterygium glaucum at high patch contrast. PLoS ONE, 6, e27998.
35 Hallé F ( 1999) Ecology of reiteration in tropical trees. In: The Evolution of Plant Architecture (eds Kurmann MH, Hemsley AR), pp. 93-107. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
36 Hartnett D, Bazzaz F ( 1983) Physiological integration among intraclonal ramets in Solidago canadensis. Ecology, 64, 779-788.
37 He Q, Bertness MD, Altieri AH ( 2013) Global shifts towards positive species interactions with increasing environmental stress. Ecology Letters, 16, 695-706.
38 He WM, Alpert P, Yu FH, Zhang LL, Dong M ( 2011) Reciprocal and coincident patchiness of multiple resources differentially affect benefits of clonal integration in two perennial plants. Journal of Ecology, 99, 1202-1210.
39 Hietz P ( 1997) Population dynamics of epiphytes in a Mexican humid montane forest. Journal of Ecology, 85, 767-775.
40 Hsu R, Wolf JHD ( 2009) Diversity and phytogeography of vascular epiphytes in a tropical-subtropical transition island, Taiwan. Flora, 204, 612-627.
41 Jackson JBC, Cook RE, Ashmun JW ( 1985) Population Biology and Evolution of Clonal Organisms. Yale University Press, New Haven.
42 Kawai H, Kanegae T, Christensen S, Kiyosue T, Sato Y, Imaizumi T, Kadota A, Wada M ( 2003) Responses of ferns to red light are mediated by an unconventional photoreceptor. Nature, 421, 287-290.
43 Klimeš L, Klimešová J , Hendriks R, van Groenendael J (1997) Clonal plant architecture: A comparative analysis of form and function. In: The Ecology and Evolution of Clonal Plants (eds Kroon HD, Groenendael JV), pp. 1-29. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden.
44 Kuehnert CC ( 1967) Developmental potentialities of leaf primordia of Osmunda cinnamomea: The influence of determined leaf primordia on undetermined leaf primordia. Canadian Journal of Botany, 45, 2109-2113.
45 Li L, Yan YH ( 2014) Asexual reproduction of ferns. Garden, ( 3), 32-35. (in Chinese)
[ 李莉, 严岳鸿 ( 2014) 蕨类植物的无性繁殖. 园林, ( 3), 32-35.]
46 Lowman M, Devy S, Ganesh T ( 2013) Treetops at Risk: Challenges of Global Canopy Ecology and Conservation. Springer Science & Business Media, New York.
47 Lowman MD, Schowalter TD ( 2012) Plant science in forest canopies—The first 30 years of advances and challenges (1980-2010). New Phytologist, 194, 12-27.
48 Lu HZ ( 2017) Clonality and Ecological Adaptation Strategy of Epiphytic Ferns in Tropical and Subtropical Forests in Yunnan. PhD dissertation, Xishuangbanna Tropical and Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Science, Menglun, Yunnan. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 卢华正 ( 2017) 云南热带和亚热带森林附生蕨类植物的克隆性及其生态适应策略. 博士学位论文, 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊.]
49 Lu HZ, Brooker R, Song L, Liu WY, Sack L, Zhang JL, Yu FH ( 2020) When facilitation meets clonal integration in forest canopies. New Phytologist, 225, 135-142.
50 Lu HZ, Liu WY, Yu FH, Song L, Xu XL, Wu CS, Zheng YL, Li YP, Gong HD, Chen K, Li S, Chen X, Qi JH, Lu SG ( 2015) Higher clonal integration in the facultative epiphytic fern Selliguea griffithiana growing in the forest canopy compared with the forest understory. Annals of Botany, 116, 113-122.
51 Lu HZ, Song L, Liu WY, Xu XL, Hu YH, Shi XM, Li S, Ma WZ, Chang YF, Fan ZX, Lu SG, Wu Y, Yu FH ( 2016) Survival and growth of epiphytic ferns depend on resource sharing. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7, 416.
52 Lu SG ( 2007) Pteridology.Higher Education Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 陆树刚 ( 2007) 蕨类植物学. 高等教育出版社, 北京.]
53 Ma WZ ( 2009) The Composition and Biomass of Epiphytic Materials and Their Relationships with Ecological Factors in Xujiaba Region from Ailao Mountain, Yunnan. PhD dissertation, Xishuangbanna Tropical and Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Science, Menglun, Yunnan. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 马文章 ( 2009) 云南哀牢山徐家坝地区附生(植)物的组成、生物量及其与生态因子的关系.博士学位论文, 中国科学院研究生院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊.]
54 Matsunaga KKS, Tomescu AMF ( 2017) An organismal concept for Sengelia radicans gen. et sp. nov. - Morphology and natural history of an Early Devonian lycophyte. Annals of Botany, 119, 1097-1113.
55 Medeiros JCC, Silva JCF, Resende TDC, Teodoro GS, Pereira FJ, Coelho FD ( 2018) Ramet versus sporocarp production in the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata (Salviniaceae): The role of shading. Australian Journal of Botany, 66, 583-588.
56 Mehltreter K, Walker LR, Sharpe JM ( 2010) Fern Ecology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
57 Mendieta-Leiva G, Zotz G ( 2015) A conceptual framework for the analysis of vascular epiphyte assemblages. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics, 17, 510-521.
58 Nadkarni NM ( 1984) Epiphyte biomass and nutrient capital of a neotropical Elfin forest. Biotropica, 16, 249-256.
59 Nadkarni NM, Parker GG, Ford ED, Cushing JB, Stallman C ( 1996) The international canopy network: A pathway for interdisciplinary exchange of scientific information on forest canopies. Northwest Science, 70, 104-108.
60 Outridge P, Hutchinson T ( 1991) Induction of cadmium tolerance by acclimation transferred between ramets of the clonal fern Salvinia minima Baker. New phytologist, 117, 597-605.
61 Ozanne C, Anhuf D, Boulter S, Keller M, Kitching RL, Körner C, Meinzer FC, Mitchell A, Nakashizuka T, Dias PS ( 2003) Biodiversity meets the atmosphere: A global view of forest canopies. Science, 301, 183-186.
62 Pickett FL ( 1931) Notes on xerophytic ferns. American Fern Journal, 21, 49-57.
63 Priestley JH, Swingle CF ( 1929) Vegetative propagation from the standpoint of plant anatomy. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin, 151, 1-98.
64 Richards JH, Beck JZ, Hirsch AM ( 1983) Structural investigations of asexual reproduction in Nephrolepis exaltata and Platycerium bifurcatum. American Journal of Botany, 70, 993-1001.
65 Robinson MR, Beckerman AP ( 2013) Quantifying multivariate plasticity: Genetic variation in resource acquisition drives plasticity in resource allocation to components of life history. Ecology Letters, 16, 281-290.
66 Robinson SC, Miller NG ( 2013) Bryophyte diversity on Adirondack alpine summits is maintained by dissemination and establishment of vegetative fragments and spores. Bryologist, 116, 382-391.
67 Schneider H, Schuettpelz E, Pryer KM, Cranfill R, Magallon S, Lupia R ( 2004) Ferns diversified in the shadow of angiosperms. Nature, 428, 553-557.
68 Schuettpelz E, Pryer KM ( 2009) Evidence for a Cenozoic radiation of ferns in an angiosperm-dominated canopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 106, 11200-11205.
69 Slade AJ, Hutchings MJ ( 1987) The effects of nutrient availability on foraging in the clonal herb Glechoma hederacea. Journal of Ecology, 75, 95-112.
70 Smith AR, Pryer KM, Schuettpelz E, Korall P, Schneider H, Paul G, Wolf PG ( 2006) A classification for extant ferns. Taxon, 55, 705-731.
71 Song J, Li RH, Zhu SD, Ye Q ( 2013) Leaf functional traits of ferns from different habitats in monsoon evergreen broad- leaved forest in Dinghushan Mountain. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 21, 489-495. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 宋娟, 李荣华, 朱师丹, 叶清 ( 2013) 鼎湖山季风常绿阔叶林不同生境蕨类植物的叶片功能性状研究. 热带亚热带植物学报, 21, 489-495.]
72 Song YB, Yu FH, Keser LH, Dawson W, Fischer M, Dong M, van Kleunen M ( 2013) United we stand, divided we fall: A meta-analysis of experiments on clonal integration and its relationship to invasiveness. Oecologia, 171, 317-327.
73 Tang DD, Wu Y, Liu WY, Li DF, Yang GP, Chen Q, Zhang TT ( 2018) Diversity and floristic characteristics of vascular epiphytes in montane forests in the Ailao Mountains, Yunnan. Plant Science Journal, 36, 658-666. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 汤丹丹, 吴毅, 刘文耀, 李德飞, 杨国平, 陈泉, 张婷婷 ( 2018) 云南哀牢山地区森林附生维管植物多样性及区系特征. 植物科学学报, 36, 658-666. ]
74 Tomescu AMF, Rothwell GW, Trivett ML ( 2008) Reiterative growth in the complex adaptive architecture of the Paleozoic (Pennsylvanian) filicalean fern Kaplanopteris clavate. Plant Systematics and Evolution, 270, 209-216.
75 Trewavas A ( 2005) Green plants as intelligent organisms. Trends in Plant Science, 10, 413-419.
76 Tsutsumi C, Kato M ( 2006) Evolution of epiphytes in Davalliaceae and related ferns. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 151, 495-510.
77 Watkins JE, Holbrook NM, Zwieniecki MA ( 2010) Hydraulic properties of fern sporophytes: Consequences for ecological and evolutionary diversification. American Journal of Botany, 97, 2007-2019.
78 Watkins JE, Mack MC, Sinclair TR, Mulkey SS ( 2007) Ecological and evolutionary consequences of desiccation tolerance in tropical fern gametophytes. New Phytologist, 176, 708-717.
79 Wu Y, Song L, Liu Q, Zhao MX, Lu HZ, Tan YH, Liu WY ( 2016) Diversity and floristic characteristics of vascular epiphytes in the tropical forest of Xishuangbanna. Biodiversity Science, 24, 271-279. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 吴毅, 宋亮, 刘强, 赵明旭, 卢华正, 谭运洪, 刘文耀 ( 2016) 西双版纳热带森林附生维管植物的物种多样性与区系特征. 生物多样性, 24, 271-279.]
80 Xu CD, Li XL, Feng JM ( 2011) Relationships between epiphyte ferns species diversity and their phorophytes in Mt. Ailao National Nature Reserve. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 30, 1858-1862. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 徐成东, 李雪玲, 冯建孟 ( 2011) 云南哀牢山国家级自然保护区附生蕨类植物的多样性与附载植物的关系. 生态学杂志, 30, 1858-1862.]
81 Xu CD, Lu SG ( 2006) Pteridophytes floristic phytogeography in Mt. Ailaoshan National Nature Reserve of Yunnan, China. Acta Botanica Boreali-Occidentalia Sinica, 26, 2351-2359. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 徐成东, 陆树刚 ( 2006) 云南哀牢山国家级自然保护区蕨类植物区系地理研究. 西北植物学报, 26, 2351-2359.]
82 Xu HQ, Liu WY ( 2005) Species diversity and distribution of epiphytes in the montane moist evergreen broad-leaved forest in Ailao Mountain, Yunnan. Biodiversity Science, 13, 137-147. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 徐海清, 刘文耀 ( 2005) 云南哀牢山山地湿性常绿阔叶林附生植物的多样性和分布. 生物多样性, 13, 137-147.]
83 Xu L, Yu FH, van Drunen E, Schieving F, Dong M, Anten NPR ( 2012) Trampling, defoliation and physiological integration affect growth, morphological and mechanical properties of a root-suckering clonal tree. Annals of Botany, 109, 1001-1008.
84 Yu FH, Dong M, Krüsi B ( 2004) Clonal integration helps Psammochloa villosa survive sand burial in an inland dune. New Phytologist, 162, 697-704.
85 Zhang LM, Alpert P, Si C, Yu FH ( 2019 a) Interactive effects of fragment size, nutrients, and interspecific competition on growth of the floating, clonal plant Salvinia natans. Aquatic Botany, 153, 81-87.
86 Zhang LM, Lu HZ, Alpert P, Song L, Liu WY, Yu FH ( 2019 b) Higher benefits of clonal integration in rhizome-derived than in frond-derived ramets of the tropical fern Bolbitis heteroclita. Flora, 257, 151415.
87 Zhang Q, Chen JW, Li BG, Cao KF ( 2009 a) The effect of drought on photosynthesis in two epiphytic and two terrestrial tropical fern species. Photosynthetica, 47, 128-132.
88 Zhang Q, Chen JW, Li BG, Cao KF ( 2009 b) Epiphytes and hemiepiphytes have slower photosynthetic response to lightflecks than terrestrial plants: Evidence from ferns and figs. Journal of Tropical Ecology, 25, 465-472.
89 Zhang WP, Pan S, Jia X, Chu CJ, Xiao S, Lin Y, Bai YY, Wang GX ( 2013) Effects of positive plant interactions on population dynamics and community structures: A review based on individual-based simulation models. Chinese Journal of Plant Ecology, 37, 571-582. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 张炜平, 潘莎, 贾昕, 储诚进, 肖洒, 林玥, 白燕远, 王根轩 ( 2013) 植物间正相互作用对种群动态和群落结构的影响: 基于个体模型的研究进展. 植物生态学报, 37, 571-582.]
90 Zhang XC ( 2012) Lycophytes and Ferns of China. Peking University Press, Beijing.
(in Chinese) [ 张宪春 ( 2012) 中国石松类和蕨类植物. 北京大学出版社, 北京.]
91 Zhang YF, Zhang DY ( 2006) Asexual and sexual reproductive strategies in clonal plants. Journal of Plant Ecology (Chinese Version), 30, 174-183. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 张玉芬, 张大勇 ( 2006) 克隆植物的无性与有性繁殖对策. 植物生态学报, 30, 174-183.]
92 Zhu SD, Li RH, Song J, He PC, Liu H, Berninger F, Ye Q ( 2016) Different leaf cost-benefit strategies of ferns distributed in contrasting light habitats of sub-tropical forests. Annals of Botany, 117, 497-506.
93 Zotz G ( 2013) The systematic distribution of vascular epiphytes: A critical update. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 171, 453-481.
94 Zotz G, Hietz P ( 2001) The physiological ecology of vascular epiphytes: Current knowledge, open questions. Journal of Experimental Botany, 52, 2067-2078.
95 Zotz G, Winter K ( 1994) Annual carbon balance and nitrogen-use efficiency in tropical C3 and CAM epiphytes. New Phytologist, 126, 481-492.
[1] YANG Wen-Gao, ZI Hong-Biao, CHEN Ke-Yu, ADE Lu-Ji, HU Lei, WANG Xin, WANG Gen-Xu, WANG Chang-Ting. (2019) Ecological stoichiometric characteristics of shrubs and soils in different forest types in Qinghai, China . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(4): 352-364.
[2] FENG Chan-Ying, ZHENG Cheng-Yang, TIAN Di. (2019) Impacts of nitrogen addition on plant phosphorus content in forest ecosystems and the underlying mechanisms . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(3): 185-196.
[3] Hongli Ji, Xuanhuai Zhan, Li Zhang, Yansong Peng, Saixia Zhou, Wan Hu. (2019) Diversity and biogeographical characteristics of lycophytes and ferns in Mufu Mountains, China . Biodiv Sci, 27(11): 1251-1259.
[4] Luo Junjie, Wang Ying, Shang Hui, Zhou Xile, Wei Hongjin, Huang Sunan, Gu Yufeng, Jin Dongmei, Dai Xiling, Yan Yuehong. (2018) Phylogeny and Systematics of the Genus Microlepia (Dennstaedtiaceae) based on Palynology and Molecular Evidence . Chin Bull Bot, 53(6): 782-792.
[5] Mengru Wang, Shenglei Fu, Haixiang Xu, Meina Wang, Leilei Shi. (2018) Ecological functions of millipedes in the terrestrial ecosystem . Biodiv Sci, 26(10): 1051-1059.
[6] Shuyu Deng, Xiangzhong Dong, Mingzhe Ma, Zhenhua Zang, Wenting Xu, Changming Zhao, Zongqiang Xie, Guozhen Shen. (2018) Evaluating the effectiveness of Shennongjia National Nature Reserve based on the dynamics of forest carbon pools . Biodiv Sci, 26(1): 27-35.
[7] Yanfen Chang. (2017) Polyploidy and the formation of species diversity in Aspleniaceae . Biodiv Sci, 25(6): 621-626.
[8] Hao Shen,Jianing Cai,Mengjiao Li,Qing Chen,Wanhui Ye,Zhengfeng Wang,Juyu Lian,Liang Song. (2017) On Chinese forest canopy biodiversity monitoring . Biodiv Sci, 25(3): 229-236.
[9] Yi WU, Wen-Yao LIU, Liang SONG, Xi CHEN, Hua-Zheng LU, Su LI, Xian-Meng SHI. (2016) Advances in ecological studies of epiphytes using canopy cranes . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 40(5): 508-522.
[10] Jin-Hong GUAN, Sheng DU, Ji-Min CHENG, Chun-Rong WU, Guo-Qing LI, Lei DENG, Jian-Guo ZHANG, Qiu-Yue HE, Wei-Yu SHI. (2016) Current stocks and rate of sequestration of forest carbon in Gansu Province, China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 40(4): 304-317.
[11] Xiao-Qiong HUANG, Cun-Lin XIN, Zhong-Min HU, Gang-Tie LI, Tong-Hui ZHANG, Wei ZHAO, Hao YANG, Lei-Min ZHANG, Qun GUO, Yong-Jie YUE, Run-Hong Gao, Zhi-Yan WU, Zhi-Gang YAN, Xin-Ping LIU, Yu-Qiang LI, Sheng-Gong LI. (2016) Carbon storage of the forests and its spatial pattern in Nei Mongol, China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 40(4): 327-340.
[12] Yin LI, Guo-Ke CHEN, Dun-Mei LIN, Bin CHEN, Lei-Ming GAO, Xing JIAN, Bo YANG, Wu-Bing XU, Hong-Xin SU, Jiang-Shan LAI, Xi-Hua WANG, Hai-Bo YANG, Ke-Ping MA. (2016) Carbon storage and its distribution of forest ecosystems in Zhejiang Province, China . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 40(4): 354-363.
[13] Yi Wu,Liang Song,Qiang Liu,Mingxu Zhao,Huazheng Lu,Yunhong Tan,Wenyao Liu. (2016) Diversity and floristic characteristics of vascular epiphytes in the tropical forest of Xishuangbanna . Biodiv Sci, 24(3): 271-279.
[14] Rui-Ying ZHANG, Yong PANG, Zeng-Yuan LI, Yu-Hai BAO. (2016) Canopy closure estimation in a temperate forest using airborne LiDAR and LANDSAT ETM+ data . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 40(2): 102-115.
[15] Ying Liu, Baozhang Chen,Jing Chen,Guang Xu . (2016) Applicability of Evapotranspiration Simulation Models for Forest Ecosystems in Qianyanzhou . Chin Bull Bot, 51(2): 226-234.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed