Biodiversity Science ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 376-384.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019116

• Reviews • Previous Article     Next Article

Informing conservation strategies with genetic diversity in Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations: A review on gymnosperms

Jinyuan Su1, Yu Yan1, Chong Li2, Dan Li2, Fang K. Du1, *   

  1. 1. College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    2. Forestry Bureau of Benxi, Benxi, Liaoning 117001
  • Received:2019-04-03 Accepted:2019-08-08 Online:2019-12-27
  • Fang K. Du

Genetic diversity is an important component of biodiversity. However, the overexploitation of natural resources and habitat fragmentation have severely degraded the genetic diversity of many affected species. Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP) are in urgent need of rescue, their genetic diversity are of great significance for studying the endangerment mechanism and providing conservation strategies. Habitat fragmentation might reduce genetic diversity, increase genetic differentiation among populations or limit gene flow. However, biological and ecological factors of threatened species, such as the reproductive characteristic and the demographic history, may also impact the genetic effects of recent habitat fragmentation. For gymnosperms, genetic composition can be quite stable when facing habitat fragmentation because of their lengthy generation time. However, in the long term, the loss of genetic diversity will be unrecoverable. In this review paper, we survey genetic studies of threatened gymnosperms, summarize endangerment mechanisms under habitat fragmentation, and finally recommend conservation strategies for gymnosperms. The findings of this paper indicate that a comprehensive understanding of the endangerment mechanisms through genetic diversity studies is important for effective and efficient conservation of Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations.

Key words: Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP), gymnosperms, genetic diversity, endangerment mechanism, conservation strategy

Table 1

Summary of research on genetic diversity of Wild Plant with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP)"

物种
Species
研究方法
Methods
主要结论
Main results
文献 Reference
杉科 Taxodiaceae
水杉属 Metasequoia
水杉 M. glyptostroboides RAPD 恢复种群依然未保留足够的遗传多样性, 建议未来迁地保护
Restored populations are lack of sufficient genetic diversity, requiring future ex situ
conservation
Li et al, 2005
松科 Pinaceae
银杉属 Cathaya
银杉 C. argyrophylla nDNA,
mtDNA
野生种群遗传多样性极低, 建议迁地保护及人工授粉
Low genetic diversity of wild populations, suggesting ex situ conservation and artificial pollination
Wang & Ge, 2006
冷杉属 Abies
资源冷杉 A. ziyuanensis cpDNA,
mtDNA
种群内遗传多样性低, 种群间遗传分化高, 建议就地保护成年树及幼苗
Low genetic diversity within populations and high genetic differentiation among populations, suggesting in situ protection of adult trees and seedlings
Peng et al, 2012
百山祖冷杉 A. beshanzuensis
元宝山冷杉 A. yuanbaoshanensis
梵净山冷杉 A. fanjingshanensis
紫果冷杉 A. recurvata
巴山冷杉 A. fargesii
红豆杉科 Taxaceae
穗花杉属 Amentotaxus
穗花杉 A. argotaenia cpDNA,
mtDNA,
nSSRs
历史生境破碎化和近期生境退化降低了遗传多样性, 建议加强生境修复
Historical fragmentation and recent habitat degradation reduced genetic diversity, suggesting habitat restoration
Ge et al, 2015
台湾穗花杉 A. formosana
云南穗花杉 A. yunnanensis
A. poilanei
红豆杉属 Taxus
密叶红豆杉 T. contorta cpDNA,
nSSRs
第四纪气候震荡导致低遗传多样性, 建议就地和迁地综合保护
Quaternary climatic oscillations resulted in low genetic diversity of species, suggesting in situ and ex situ conservation
Poudel et al, 2014
喜马拉雅红豆杉 T. wallichiana
南方红豆杉 T. mairei
东北红豆杉 T. cuspidata cpDNA,
mtDNA
自然和移栽种群皆具高遗传多样性、无明显遗传结构和丰富基因流, 说明是
近期的致濒, 建议就地保护
High genetic diversity, lack of genetic structure, and extensive gene flow were
detected in both natural and transplanted populations, indicating recently decrease of the species and suggesting in situ conservation
Su et al, 2018
麻黄科 Ephedraceae
麻黄属 Ephedra
草麻黄 E. sinica cpDNA 种群内遗传多样性高, 遗传分化显著, 建议保护物种遗传多样性
High genetic diversity within populations and significant genetic differentiation, suggesting gene conservation of species
Yin et al, 2016
中麻黄 E. intermedia
苏铁科 Cycadaceae
苏铁属 Cycas
攀枝花苏铁 C. panzhihuaensis AFLP 野生和栽培种群遗传多样性高和遗传分化低, 建议加强迁地保护
High genetic diversity and low genetic differentiation within both wild and cultivated populations, requiring ex situ conservation
Yang et al, 2015
银杏科 Ginkgoaceae
银杏属 Ginkgo
银杏 G. biloba cpDNA 种群内遗传多样性高, 种群间基因交流频繁, 建议就地保护
High genetic diversity within populations and continual gene flow among
populations, suggesting in situ conservation
Gong et al, 2008
罗汉松科 Podocarpaceae
陆均松属 Dacrydium
陆均松 D. pectinatum ISSR 岛屿种群遗传多样性高, 遗传分化低和基因流丰富, 建议就地保护
High genetic diversity, low genetic differentiation and high gene flow on island
populations, suggesting in situ conservation
Su et al, 2010
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