Biodiversity Science ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (6): 683-688.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018347

• Bioinventories • Previous Article     Next Article

Field monitoring using infrared cameras and activity rhythm analysis on mammals and birds in Xishui National Nature Reserve, Guizhou, China

Mu Jun1, Wang Jiaojiao2, 3, Zhang Lei1, Li Yunbo1, Li Zhumei4, Su Haijun2, 3, *()   

  1. 1 Guizhou Xishui National Nature Reserve Administration Bureau, Xishui, Guizhou 564600
    2 College of Forestry, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    3 Research Center for Biodiversity and Nature Conservation of Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    4 Guizhou Institute of Biology, Guiyang 550009
  • Received:2018-12-31 Accepted:2019-04-24 Online:2019-06-20
  • Su Haijun

In order to further enrich the regional bio-inventories of mammals and birds for the Wulingshan Priority Area for Biodiversity Conservation of China (WPABCC), we monitored mammals and birds using infrared cameras in Xishui National Nature Reserve (XNNR) in Guizhou Province from July 2015 to November 2017. From the camera data, a total of 56 avian species were classified into 5 orders and 20 families, and 28 mammal species were classified into 5 orders and 12 families. One species, Moschus berezovskii is listed as a first-level species on the China National Key List for Wildlife Protection, and 13 species including Tragopan temminckii, Lophura nycthemera, Nisaetus nipalensis, and Capricornis milneedwardsii, are listed as second-level. Nisaetus nipalensis was newly recorded in this area and 10 species including Chrysolophus amherstiae, and Turdus obscurus were recorded for the first time in XNNR. According to the zoogeographic regionalization of China, the Oriental Region Type was dominant (41.67%), Southern China Region Type followed (29.76%), and Northeastern Region Type was the lowest (2.38%). The activity rhythm analysis of four dominant mammals and two dominant avian species revealed that, in mammals, Elaphodus cephalophus was more active in the evening as expected, but became active earlier in winter. The daily activity rhythm of Callosciurus erythraeus varied with seasons becoming more active at noon in spring and autumn, and in the mornings in summer. In winter, it showed two activity peaks, from 8:00 to 10:00 and from 16:00 to 18:00. Hystrix brachyura always moved frequently between 20:00-24:00 in all seasons and Macaca thibetana was active from 14:00 to 16:00 in autumn and winter, and from 10:00 to 12:00 in spring, in summer, it also had two activity peaks, from 12:00 to 14:00 and from 16:00 to 18:00. In birds, Chrysolophus pictus was active at noon in spring and summer, but from 6:00 to 8:00 in autumn; comparatively, Tragopan temminckii was more active in the morning in spring and summer, and from 14:00 to 16:00 in autumn and winter. Our results would be helpful to further understand the biodiversity and improve its conservation in this area.

Key words: infrared camera-tapping technology, wildlife monitoring, biodiversity inventory, activity rhythm, Xishui National Nature Reserve

Fig. 1

Location map of Xishui National Nature Reserve (XNNR) and locations of infrared cameras set up in this area. A, Location of XNNR in Guizhou Province; B, Location of XNNR within the Wulingshan Priority Area for Biodiversity Conservation of China; C, Division of functional zone of XNNR, and the locations of camera sites set up for monitoring."

Fig. 2

Species accumulative curve of camera-trapping in Xishui National Nature Reserve"

Fig. 3

Daily activity rhythm of main species in Xishui National Nature Reserve"

[1] Jia XD, Liu XH, Yang XZ, Wu PF, Songer M, Cai Q, He XB, Zhu Y ( 2014) Seasonal activity patterns of ungulates in Qinling Mountains based on camera-trap data. Biodiversity Science, 22, 737-745. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 贾晓东, 刘雪华, 杨兴中, 武鹏峰, Songer M, 蔡琼, 何祥博, 朱云 ( 2014) 利用红外相机技术分析秦岭有蹄类动物活动节律的季节性差异. 生物多样性, 22, 737-745.]
[2] Jiang ZG, Liu SY, Wu Y, Jiang XL, Zhou KY ( 2017) China’s mammal diversity (2nd edition). Biodiversity Science, 25, 886-895. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 蒋志刚, 刘少英, 吴毅, 蒋学龙, 周开亚 ( 2017) 中国哺乳动物多样性(第2版). 生物多样性, 25, 886-895.]
[3] Kong H ( 2001) Xishui National Nature Reserve in Guizhou. Chinese Journal of Wildlife, 22(5), 22-23. (in Chinese)
[ 孔红 ( 2001) 贵州习水国家级自然保护区. 野生动物学报, 22(5), 22-23.]
[4] Li S, Wang DJ, Bu HL, Liu XG, Jin T ( 2016) Camera-trapping survey on the mammal diversity of the Laohegou Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 36, 282-291. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 李晟, 王大军, 卜红亮, 刘小庚, 靳彤 ( 2016) 四川省老河沟自然保护区兽类多样性红外相机调查. 兽类学报, 36, 282-291.]
[5] Li S, Wang DJ, Xiao ZS, Li XH, Wang TM, Feng LM, Wang Y ( 2014) Camera-trapping in wildlife research and conservation in China: Review and outlook. Biodiversity Science, 22, 685-695. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 李晟, 王大军, 肖治术, 李欣海, 王天明, 冯利民, 王云 ( 2014) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物研究与保护中的应用与前景. 生物多样性, 22, 685-695.]
[6] Liu XB, Wei W, Zheng XG, Zhao KH, He SW, Zhou WL ( 2017) Activity rhythms of golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and Satyr tragopan (Tragopan temminckii) revealed by infrared-triggered cameras. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 52, 194-202. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 刘小斌, 韦伟, 郑筱光, 赵凯辉, 何少文, 周文良 ( 2017) 红腹锦鸡和红腹角雉活动节律——基于红外相机监测数据. 动物学杂志, 52, 194-202.]
[7] Luo Y ( 2012) Study on Scientific Investigation of Xishui Reserve in Guizhou. Guizhou Science and Technology Publishing House, Guiyang. (in Chinese)
[ 罗扬 ( 2012) 贵州习水保护区科学考察研究. 贵州科技出版社, 贵阳.]
[8] Mu J, Wang JJ, Hu CS, Zhang MM, Li ZM, Zhang L, Li YB, Su HJ ( 2018) Hawk eagle Nisaetus nipalensis found in Xishui, Guizhou. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 53, 527, 553. (in Chinese)
[ 穆君, 王娇娇, 胡灿实, 张明明, 李筑眉, 张雷, 李云波, 粟海军 ( 2018) 贵州习水发现鹰雕. 动物学杂志, 53, 527, 553.]
[9] O’Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU ( 2011) Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer, Tokyo.
[10] Ran JC, Luo Y, Luo HZ, Liu WF, Wang LQ ( 2002) Preliminary report on the vertebrate fauna of Xishui National Nature Reserve in Guizhou. Chinese Journal of Zoology, 37, 45-50. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 冉景丞, 罗杨, 罗洪章, 刘维风, 王利强 ( 2002) 贵州习水国家级自然保护区脊椎动物区系初报. 动物学杂志, 37, 45-50.]
[11] Ran JC, Luo HZ, Luo Y, Liu WF, Wang LQ, Guo JY ( 2003) The pilot study in possible existance of Panthera tigris amoyensis in Xishui Nature Reserve, Guizhou Province. Guizhou Science, 21(3), 39-43. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 冉景丞, 罗洪章, 罗杨, 刘维风, 王利强, 郭俊源 ( 2003) 贵州习水自然保护区华南虎野生种群生存的可能性初步研究. 贵州科学, 21(3), 39-43.]
[12] Ran JH, Xu W, Cai HX, Lin ZH, Yuan YF ( 2005) A primary study on the biology of red-bellied squirrels. Journal of Sichuan Forestry Science and Technology, 26(6), 8-10, 13. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 冉江洪, 徐玮, 蔡红霞, 林泽红, 袁亚夫 ( 2005) 赤腹松鼠生物学特性初步研究. 四川林业科技, 26(6), 8-10, 13.]
[13] Wu PF, Liu XH, Cai Q, He XB, Songer M, Zhu Y, Shao XM ( 2012) The application of infrared camera in mammal research in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, Shaanxi. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 32, 67-71. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 武鹏峰, 刘雪华, 蔡琼, 何祥博, Songer M, 朱云, 邵小明 ( 2012) 红外相机技术在陕西观音山自然保护区兽类监测研究中的应用. 兽类学报, 32, 67-71.]
[14] Xiao ZS, Li XH, Wang XZ, Zhou QH, Quan RC, Shen XL, Li S ( 2014) Developing camera-trapping protocols for wildlife monitoring in Chinese forests. Biodiversity Science, 22, 704-711. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 肖治术, 李欣海, 王学志, 周岐海, 权锐昌, 申小莉, 李晟 ( 2014) 探讨我国森林野生动物红外相机监测规范. 生物多样性, 22, 704-711.]
[15] Yu GQ, Kang ZJ, Liu MS, Chen ZF, Deng ZC ( 2018) Preliminary survey using infrared camera reveals fauna and avifauna diversity at Hupingshan National Nature Reserve, Hunan, China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 38, 104-112. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[ 于桂清, 康祖杰, 刘美斯, 陈振法, 邓忠次 ( 2018) 利用红外相机对湖南壶瓶山国家级自然保护区兽类和鸟类多样性的初步调查. 兽类学报, 38, 104-112.]
[16] Zhang RZ ( 2015) Zoogeography of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 张荣祖 ( 2015) 中国动物地理. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[17] Zheng GM ( 2017) A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[ 郑光美 ( 2017) 中国鸟类分类与分布名录. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[1] Wang Yuan, Li Sheng, Liu Wulin, Zhu Xuelin, Li Bingzhang. (2019) Coat pattern variation and activity rhythm of Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii) in Yarlung Zangbo Grand Canyon National Nature Reserve of Tibet, China . Biodiv Sci, 27(6): 638-647.
[2] Shao Xinning, Song Dazhao, Huang Qiaowen, Li Sheng, Yao Meng. (2019) Fast surveys and molecular diet analysis of carnivores based on fecal DNA and metabarcoding . Biodiv Sci, 27(5): 543-556.
[3] Jianping Yu,Jiangyue Wang,Huiyun Xiao,Xiaonan Chen,Shengwen Chen,Sheng Li,Xiaoli Shen. (2019) Camera-trapping survey of mammalian and avian biodiversity in Qianjiangyuan National Park, Zhejiang Province . Biodiv Sci, 27(12): 1339-1344.
[4] Qian Haiyuan,Yu Jianping,Shen Xiaoli,Ding Ping,Li Sheng. (2019) Diversity and composition of birds in the Qianjiangyuan National Park pilot . Biodiv Sci, 27(1): 76-80.
[5] Xixi Hu, Weichao Zheng, Jiaqi Li, Sheng Li, Han Yang, Xing Chen, Tianpei Guan. (2018) Preliminary survey on mammal and bird diversity at Siguniang Mountains National Nature Reserve, Sichuan, China . Biodiv Sci, 26(12): 1325-1331.
[6] Kaimiao Lin, Jianguo Xu, Wenzhou Li, Yaqiong Huang, Bin Chen, Jinhui Guo. (2018) Camera-trapping survey of wild mammals and birds in Daiyunshan, Fujian Province . Biodiv Sci, 26(12): 1332-1337.
[7] Xiaogang Shi, Qiang Hu, Jiaqi Li, Zhuo Tang, Jian Yang, Wenjing Li, Xiaoli Shen, Sheng Li. (2017) Camera-trapping surveys of the mammal and bird diversity in Wolong National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province . Biodiv Sci, 25(10): 1131-1136.
[8] Feng Li,Zhigang Jiang. (2014) Is nocturnal rhythm of Asian badger (Meles leucurus) caused by human activity? A case study in the eastern area of Qinghai Lake . Biodiv Sci, 22(6): 758-763.
[9] Hongpan Wu, Hongjun Chu, Yuan Wang, Jianwei Ma, Yan Ge, Lan Bu. (2014) Monitoring activity rhythms of Equus hemionus at watering holes by camera traps in Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang . Biodiv Sci, 22(6): 752-757.
[10] Zhishu Xiao,Xinhai Li,Xuezhi Wang,Qihai Zhou,Ruichang Quan,Xiaoli Shen,Sheng Li. (2014) Developing camera-trapping protocols for wildlife monitoring in Chinese forests . Biodiv Sci, 22(6): 704-711.
Full text