Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (8): 850-861.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018053

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Application and data mining of infra-red camera in the monitoring of species

Xuehua Liu1, *(), Pengfeng Wu2, Xiangbo He3, Xiangyu Zhao1   

  1. 1 Division of Ecology, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084
    2 College of Life Science, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034
    3 Foping National Natural Reserve, Foping, Shaanxi 723400
  • Received:2018-02-11 Accepted:2018-07-13 Online:2018-09-27
  • Liu Xuehua E-mail:xuehua-hjx@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

Wildlife population is low and most of them are very sensitive to human disturbing, which makes traditional survey difficult. As known, infra-red camera technology has many advantages in wildlife study. However, with its wide application and increased data amount, researchers are facing some problems concerning infra-red camera monitoring and later data processing and analyzing. This paper describes in details three key problems on infra-red camera data management and use, such as lacking standardization, integration and normalization. The present paper also lists and analyzes eight aspects about photo data mining, based on researches carried out in the Qinling Mountains, Wolong Nature Reserve, etc. It involves individual recognition, temporal/spatial activity pattern, information-extracting of occasional species, behavior and reproduction, disease situation and interference by humans. If all this information can be used effectively, we hope to provide scientific support at some extent on wildlife and biodiversity conservation and management in future.

Key words: infra-red camera, monitoring, data mining, biodiversity, wildlife, conservation

Fig. 1

The rare species captured by infrared cameras. Photos are provided by Xuehua Liu from Tsinghua University. (a) Panthera pardus (Larch forest in Qinling Mountain in autumn, 2015-10-23); (b) Panthera pardus (Natural forest in Guangtoushan Mountain in summer, 2015-07-17); (c) Catopuma temminckii (Ridge of spruce forest in Changqing Nature Reserve, 2016-05-26); (d) Viverra zibetha (Larch forest in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, 2010-05-20); (e) Mustela kathiah (Guangtoushan Mountain in Foping Nature Reserve, 2016-07-02)"

Fig. 2

Activities of wild animals captured by infrared cameras. Pictures a, b, c, e and f are provided by Xuehua Liu from Tsinghua University, and picture d from Guanyingshan Nature Reserve and Tsinghua University. (a) Scent marking by pandas (Xigou Valley in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, 2011-04-05); (b) Panda basking (Guangtoushan Mountain in Foping County, 2015-04-02); (c) Cub of wild boar sucking (Larch forest in Changqing Nature Reserve, 2015-06-26); (d) Wild boar with dragging corpse of takin (Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, 2014-03-01); (e) Takin eating bamboo (Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, 2011-04-22); (f) Takins mating (Guangtoushan Mountain in Foping County, 2014-08-07)"

Fig. 3

Propagation information of wild animals captured by infrared cameras. Photos are provided by Xuehua Liu from Tsinghua University. (a) Sub-adult and cub of takin (Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in Foping County, 2011-07-14); (b) Takin population (Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in Foping County, 2014-04-29); (c) Wild boar population (Donggou Valley in Foping Nature Reserve, 2015-10-29); (d) Golden monkey population (Cungou Valley in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in Foping County, 2014-12-03); (e) Family of black bear (Donggou Valley in Foping County, 2013-10-01); (f) Mother and cub of black bear (Yuewangou Valley in Foping County, 2014-09-18)"

Fig. 4

Disease captured by camera in wild animals. Photos are provided by Xuehua Liu from Tsinghua University. (a) Takin with a tumor in the leg (Guangtoushan Mountain in Foping County, 2013-11-02); (b) Hair loss of goral caused from psoriasis (Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in Foping County, 2013-05-15)"

Fig. 5

The influence of human activities on wild animals. Photos are provided by Xuehua Liu from Tsinghua University. (a) Effects of roads and Chinese medicine collecting (Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in Foping County, 2014-08-29); (b) Effects of roads and travel (Guanyinshan Nature Reserve in Foping County, 2016-01-24); (c) Effect on little wild boar by sampling rope (Donggou Valley in Foping County, 2015-10-29); (d) Effect on takin by sampling rope (Donggou Valley in Foping County, 2014-10-26)"

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