Biodiversity Science ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (1): 14-26.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017255

• Original Papers: Animal Diversity • Previous Article     Next Article

Spatial heterogeneities of ground-dwelling Coleoptera adults and their spatial correlations with environmental factors in a typical broad-leaved Korean pine forest in the Fenglin Nature Reserve

Juanping Ni1, 2, Saisai Cheng1, 2, Meixiang Gao1, 2, *(), Tingyu Lu1, 2, Guangze Jin3   

  1. 1 College of Geographical Sciences, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025
    2 Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Monitoring of Geographic Environment, College of Heilongjiang Province, Harbin Normal University, Harbin 150025
    3 Center for Ecological Research, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040
  • Received:2017-09-25 Accepted:2018-01-15 Online:2018-05-05
  • Gao Meixiang
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

Spatial heterogeneities of soil animal communities and their associations with environmental factors are important for revealing the patterns and processes of soil ecosystems and maintenance mechanisms of soil biodiversity. This experiment was conducted in a typical mixed broad-leaved Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) forest plot in the Fenglin Nature Reserve in August and October of 2015. Geostatistics was used to reveal the spatial patterns of species number and individuals of ground-dwelling Carabidae and Staphylinidae adult communities and dominant species, and to explain the associations between these spatial patterns and soil water content and topographic variables. In total, 26 and 19 species of Carabidae and Staphylinidae beetles were caught and 617 and 222 individuals were collected, respectively. Variabilities in individuals and species numbers of communities were moderate in August and strong in October. Community compositions were significantly different between the two months. Carabidae and Staphylinidae communities showed moderate spatial autocorrelations in both growing (August) and relatively cold (October) seasons. Spatial heterogeneities of the Carabidae and Staphylinidae communities were determined by both random and structural factors. However, most species individuals exhibited significant spatial heterogeneities and these heterogeneities were controlled by structural factors. Individuals and species number of communities and dominant species individuals formed mosaic patterns with patches and gaps. Spatial associations between individuals and species numbers of communities and dominant species individuals with environmental factors were complex. Spatial associations were mainly controlled by structural or random factors. CCA analysis showed that soil water content in August had a significant effect on the species distribution of Carabidae and Staphylinidae adults in August. In October, the convexity had a significant impact on the distribution of Carabidae adults, and altitude was significantly related to the distribution of Staphylinidae adults. This experiment suggests that the spatial heterogeneities of Carabidae and Staphylinidae adults were obvious in the growing season, but not obvious in the relatively cold season. The results of this study will help us to understand the spatial variation and biodiversity maintenance mechanisms of soil animal communities at multiple scales.

Key words: Carabidae, Staphylinidae, topographic factors, spatial heterogeneity, spatial association, mixed broad-leaved Korean pine forest

Fig. 1

Semivariograms of individuals for ground Carabidae and Staphylinidae adult communities. Spherical, Gaussian represent the spherical and Gaussian models. Two dashed lines represent the 95% confidence intervals when the data is completely random, and the solid line is the fitting half variance function curve."

Fig. 2

Semivariograms of sepcies number for Carabidae and Staphylinidae adult communities. Spherical, Gaussian represent the spherical and Gaussian models. Two dashed lines represent the 95% confidence intervals when the data is completely random, and the solid line is the fitting half variance function curve."

Table 1

Theoretical models and corresponding parameters for semivariograms of species individuals"

Nugget (C0)
Sill (C0+C)
Range A0 (m)
结构比 Structural
ratio [C/(C0+C)]
August 2015
Pterostichus maoershanensis 高斯模型 Gau 0.005 0.018 140 0.734
Pterostichus adstrictus 指数模型 Exp 0.110 0.210 150 0.476
Carabus billbergi 高斯模型 Gau 0.008 0.020 110 0.597
Megodontus vietinghoffi 指数模型 Exp 0.007 0.325 450 0.800
Aulonocarabus canaliculatus 球状模型 Sph 0.120 0.199 150 0.397
Philonthus wuesthoffi 指数模型 Exp 0.062 0.162 130 0.617
October 2015
Pterostichus adstrictus 指数模型 Exp 0.001 0.003 330 0.805
Platynus ezoanus 球状模型 Sph 0.000 0.001 150 0.812

Table 2

Theoretical models and corresponding parameters for semivariograms of environmental factors"

Nugget (C0)
Sill (C0+C)
Range A0 (m)
Structural ratio [C/(C0+C)]
8月土壤含水量 SWC in Aug. (%) 高斯模型 Gau 0.070 0.082 52 0.146
10月土壤含水量 SWC in Oct. (%) 高斯模型 Gau 0.089 0.099 120 0.101
海拔 Altitude 球状模型 Sph 0.000 0.000 140 0.855
坡度 Slope 高斯模型 Gau 0.021 0.131 92 0.840
坡向 Aspect 高斯模型 Gau 0.034 0.664 150 0.949
凹凸度 Convex 球状模型 Sph 0.056 0.072 90 0.222

Fig. 3

Spatial patterns for individual and species number matrices of Carabidae and Staphylinidae communities in August"

Fig. 4

Spatial distribution patterns of dominant species individuals in August"

Table 3

Spatial associations between species in August and October"

Structural ratio
Coefficient of determination (R2)
August 2015
Pterostichus maoershanensis - Pterostichus adstrictus + 0.000 0.116
Pterostichus maoershanensis - Carabus billbergi + 0.565 0.325
Pterostichus maoershanensis - Megodontus vietinghoffi - 0.998 0.000
Pterostichus maoershanensis - Aulonocarabus canaliculatus + 0.000 0.131
Pterostichus maoershanensis - Philonthus wuesthoffi + 0.000 0.052
Pterostichus adstrictus - Carabus billbergi + 0.997 0.000
Pterostichus adstrictus - Megodontus vietinghoffi - 0.000 0.005
Pterostichus adstrictus - Aulonocarabus canaliculatus + 0.959 0.383
Pterostichus adstrictus - Philonthus wuesthoffi + 0.998 0.174
Carabus billbergi - Megodontus vietinghoffi + 0.000 0.000
Carabus billbergi - Aulonocarabus canaliculatus + 0.000 0.024
Carabus billbergi - Philonthus wuesthoffi + 0.999 0.226
Megodontus vietinghoffi - Aulonocarabus canaliculatus + 0.999 0.524
Megodontus vietinghoffi - Philonthus wuesthoffi - 0.000 0.247
Aulonocarabus canaliculatus - Philonthus wuesthoffi + 1.000 0.532
October 2015
Pterostichus adstrictus - Platynus ezoanus - 0.999 0.000

Table 4

Spatial associations between individuals of Carabidae and Staphylinidae communities and environmental factors"

Environmental factor
8月 August 10月 October
步甲科 Carabidae 隐翅虫科 Staphylinidae 步甲科 Carabidae 隐翅虫科 Staphylinidae
土壤含水量 Soil water content - - - -
海拔 Altitude + + - +
坡度 Slope + + - +
坡向 Aspect + + + -
凹凸度 Convex + - - +

Fig. 5

Biplot of individuals for Carabidae and Staphylinidae to environmental variables"

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