Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (7): 745-757.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017156

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Evaluating the endangerment status of China’s angiosperms through the red list assessment

Haining Qin1, *(), Lina Zhao1, 2, Shengxiang Yu1, Huiyuan Liu1, 3, Bo Liu4, Nianhe Xia5, Hua Peng6, Zhenyu Li1, Zhixiang Zhang7, Xingjin He8, Linke Yin9, Yulin Lin10, Quanru Liu3, Yuantong Hou11, Yan Liu12, Qixin Liu13, Wei Cao14, Jianqiang Li15, Shilong Chen16, Xiaohua Jin1, Tiangang Gao1, Wenli Chen1, Haiying Ma17, Yuying Geng18, Xiaofeng Jin19, Chaoyang Chang20, Hong Jiang21, Lei Cai22, Chunxin Zang23, Jianyong Wu24, Jianfei Ye2, 25, Yangjun Lai26, Bing Liu1, Qinwen Lin25, Naxin Xue1   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    2 College of Life Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 School of Life Sciences, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
    4 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
    5 South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    6 Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201
    7 School of Nature Conservation, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083
    8 College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064
    9 Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011
    10 Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medicinal Science & Peking Union Medicinal College, Beijing 100193;
    11 College of Life Sciences, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165
    12 Guangxi Institute of Botany, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
    13 Institute of Botany, Jiangsu Province and Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210014
    14 Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
    15 Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074
    16 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    17 School of Life Sciences, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091
    18 State Key Laboratory of Vegetation and Environmental Change, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    19 College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Hangzhou Normal University, Hangzhou 310036
    20 College of Life Sciences, Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University, Yangling, Shanxi 712100;
    21 Yunnan Academy of Forestry, Kunming 650204
    22 Ministry of Environment Protection of the People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100035;
    23 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    24 Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Environmental Protection, Nanjing 210042
    25 Beijing Botanical Garden, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
    26 Nanjing Institute of Geology and Palaeontology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008;
  • Received:2017-05-27 Accepted:2017-07-11 Online:2017-07-21
  • Qin Haining E-mail:hainingqin@ibcas.ac.cn

All known species of Angiosperms in China were evaluated according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1, Second edition and the Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels, Version 4.0. Of the 30,068 species evaluated, 21 species were found Extinct (EX), 9 species were Extinct in the Wild (EW), 10 species were Regionally Extinct (RE), 518 species were Critically Endangered (CR), 1,152 species were Endangered (EN), 1,693 species were Vulnerable (VU), 2,538 species were Near Threatened (NT), 21,132 species were Least Concern (LC), and 2,995 species were Data Deficient (DD). The results show that 3,363 species, representing 11.2% of the evaluated species, were identified as threatened (CR, EN and VU). The main portion of threatened species occurs below 2,000 m elevation in southwestern and southern China. Habitat loss and degradation, over-collecting by humans, and intrinsic factors are the three leading threats to angiosperms in China. Comparisons of the status of taxa on this Red List to those evaluated by Wang & Xie (2004) show changes in the names and categories of some taxa due to land use pressures, the impact of conservation measures to improve the status of some species as well as new information, such as from taxonomic revisions. Therefore, there is a need for future data collection and reevaluation of the red list.

Key words: IUCN Red List, risk assessment of extinction, threats, angiosperms, conservation

Fig. 1

The roadmap undertaken to differentiate key and non-key species (adopted from Raimondo et al, 2009)"

Table 1

Species number of each endangerment categories and their proportion to China’s angiosperms species"

等级
Categories
物种数(%)
No. of species (%)
灭绝 Extinct (EX) 21(0.07)
野外灭绝 Extinct in wild (EW) 9(0.03)
地区灭绝 Regional Extinct (RE) 10(0.03)
极危等级 Critically Endangered (CR) 518(1.72)
濒危 Endangered (EN) 1,152(3.83)
易危 Vulnerable (VU) 1,693(5.63)
近危 Near Threatened (NT) 2,538(8.43)
无危 Least Concern (LC) 21,132(70.28)
数据缺乏 Data Deficient (DD) 2,995(9.96)
总计 Total 30,068(100)

Table 2

The angiosperms species listed as Extinct, Extinct in the Wild, and Regionally Extinct in China"

科名
Family
种名
Species
灭绝 EX (Extinct)
番荔枝科 Annonaceae 尖花藤 Friesodielsia hainanensis
菊科 Asteraceae 小叶橐吾 Ligularia parvifolia
秋海棠科 Begoniaceae 保亭秋海棠 Begonia sublongipes
桦木科 Betulaceae 盐桦 Betula halophila
白玉簪科 Corsiaceae 白玉簪 Corsiopsis chinensis
胡颓子科 Elaeagnaceae 柳州胡颓子 Elaeagnus liuzhouensis
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 小溪洞杜鹃
Rhododendron xiaoxidongense
苦苣苔科 Gesneriaceae 圆果苣苔 Gyrogyne subaequifolia
唇形科 Lamiaceae 干生铃子香 Chelonopsis siccanea
唇形科 Lamiaceae 喜雨草 Ombrocharis dulcis
木通科 Lardizabalaceae 倒心叶野木瓜
Stauntonia obcordatilimba
樟科 Lauraceae 宁明琼楠 Beilschmiedia ningmingensis
樟科 Lauraceae 华蓥润楠 Machilus salicoides
百合科 Liliaceae 单花百合 Lilium stewartianum
兰科 Orchidaceae 单花美冠兰 Eulophia monantha
兰科 Orchidaceae 南川盆距兰
Gastrochilus nanchuanensis
兰科 Orchidaceae 明潭羊耳蒜 Liparis hensoaensis
兰科 Orchidaceae 峨眉带唇兰 Tainia emeiensis
无患子科 Sapindaceae 爪耳木 Lepisanthes unilocularis
玄参科 Scrophulariaceae 矮马先蒿 Pedicularis humilis
马鞭草科 Verbenaceae 小叶澜沧豆腐柴
Premna mekongensis var. meiophylla
野外灭绝 EW (Extinct in the Wild)
五加科 Araliaceae 三七 Panax notoginseng
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 枯鲁杜鹃 Rhododendron adenosum
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 乌来杜鹃 Rhododendron kanehirae
苦苣苔科 Gesneriaceae 焰苞唇柱苣苔 Chirita spadiciformis
水鳖科 Hydrocharitaceae 拟纤细茨藻 Najas pseudogracillima
百合科 Liliaceae 华南蜘蛛抱蛋
Aspidistra austrosinensis
睡菜科 Menyanthaceae 龙潭莕菜 Nymphoides lungtanensis
鼠李科 Rhamnaceae 鄂西鼠李 Rhamnus tzekweiensis
姜科 Zingiberaceae 细莪术 Curcuma exigua
地区灭绝 RE (Regionally Extinct)
凤仙花科 Balsaminaceae 水角 Hydrocera triflora
薯蓣科 Dioscoreaceae 吊罗薯蓣 Dioscorea poilanei
壳斗科 Fagaceae 闭壳柯 Lithocarpus cryptocarpus
小二仙草科 Haloragaceae 四蕊狐尾藻 Myriophyllum tetrandrum
水鳖科 Hydrocharitaceae 水菜花 Ottelia cordata
木兰科 Magnoliaceae 绒毛含笑 Michelia velutina
兰科 Orchidaceae 蒙自石豆兰 Bulbophyllum yunnanense
眼子菜科 Potamogetonaceae 高山眼子菜 Potamogeton alpinus
山榄科 Sapotaceae 云南藏榄 Diploknema yunnanensis
马鞭草科 Verbenaceae 塔序豆腐柴 Premna pyramidata

Table 3

The top 15 families with the most threatened species numbers (left column) and the top 15 families with the largest proportion of threatened species (right column)"


Family
种数
Species number
受威胁种数
No. of threatened species

Family
种数
Species number
受威胁种比例(%)
% of threatened species
兰科 Orchidaceae 1,502 653 木兰科 Magnoliaceae 113 67.3
杜鹃花科 Ericaceae 1,012 142 猕猴桃科 Actinidiaceae 76 63.2
豆科 Fabaceae 1,463 126 芍药科 Paeoniaceae 20 60
百合科 Liliaceae 760 103 薯蓣科 Dioscoreaceae 58 53.4
樟科 Lauraceae 465 99 金缕梅科 Hamamelidaceae 77 49.4
山茶科 Theaceae 346 91 马兜铃科 Aristolochiaceae 82 48.8
毛茛科 Ranunculaceae 1,081 87 兰科 Orchidaceae 1,502 43.5
木兰科 Magnoliaceae 113 76 黄杨科 Buxaceae 25 40
壳斗科 Fagaceae 305 75 梧桐科 Sterculiaceae 77 39
苦苣苔科 Gesneriaceae 496 73 槭树科 Aceraceae 130 36.2
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 1,206 62 棕榈科 Arecaceae 61 36.1
景天科 Crassulaceae 255 57 茶茱萸科 Icacinaceae 23 34.8
禾本科 Poaceae 1,881 53 安息香科 Styracaceae 65 33.8
小檗科 Berberidaceae 308 48 杜英科 Elaeocarpaceae 56 30.4
猕猴桃科 Actinidiaceae 76 48 胡桃科 Juglandaceae 24 29.2

Fig. 2

The top 15 angiosperms families with the largest proportion of threatened species and their categories. The categories are the same as those in Table 1."

Table 4

Statistics of threatened angiosperms species at provincial level. The categories are the same as those in Table 1."

种数
Species
number
受威胁种数
No. of threatened
species
受威胁比例
% of threatened species
受威胁比例
% of threatened species
种数
Species
number
受威胁种数
No. of threatened
species
受威胁比例
% of threatened species
受威胁比例
% of threatened species
云南 Yunnan 15,915 1,710 10.7 50.8 重庆 Chongqing 1,062 73 6.9 2.2
四川 Sichuan 10,614 649 6.1 19.3 吉林 Jilin 1,975 63 3.2 1.9
广西 Guangxi 7,082 646 9.1 19.2 江苏 Jiangsu 1,651 58 3.5 1.7
西藏 Tibet 7,684 434 5.6 12.9 香港 Hong Kong 844 57 6.8 1.7
海南 Hainan 3,609 394 10.9 11.7 内蒙古
Inner Mongolia
2,208 57 2.6 1.7
贵州 Guizhou 5,828 381 6.5 11.3 河南 Henan 1,997 56 2.8 1.7
广东 Guangdong 5,157 340 6.6 10.1 河北 Hebei 1,997 49 2.5 1.5
台湾 Taiwan 4,529 302 6.7 9 辽宁 Liaoning 1,791 47 2.6 1.4
湖北 Hubei 3,784 197 5.2 5.9 黑龙江
Heilongjiang
1,872 47 2.5 1.4
湖南 Hunan 3,895 183 4.7 5.4 山西 Shanxi 1,696 45 2.7 1.3
浙江 Zhejiang 3,301 158 4.8 4.7 青海 Qinghai 2,190 45 2.1 1.3
福建 Fujian 3,477 157 4.5 4.7 山东 Shandong 1,232 23 1.9 0.7
陕西 Shaanxi 3,640 141 3.9 4.2 宁夏 Ningxia 879 17 1.9 0.5
江西 Jiangxi 3,194 129 4 3.8 北京 Beijing 218 5 2.3 0.1
甘肃 Gansu 3,795 119 3.1 3.5 上海 Shanghai 154 2 1.3 0.1
新疆 Xinjiang 3,325 116 3.5 3.4 澳门 Macao 92 0 0 0
安徽 Anhui 2,369 104 4.4 3.1 天津 Tianjin 46 0 0 0

Table 5

The top 10 provinces with the most of threatened angiosperms species which are restrictedly distributed in 1-3 counties"

种数 No. of species
云南 Yunnan 644
四川 Sichuan 180
广西 Guangxi 174
海南 Hainan 103
西藏 Tibet 103
新疆 Xinjiang 59
贵州 Guizhou 54
广东 Guangdong 48
重庆 Chongqing 31
浙江 Zhejiang 24

Table 6

Habits of China’s threatened angiosperms species"

习性 Habit 物种数 No. of species
草本 Herb 一年生 Annual 57
两年生 Biennial 15
多年生 Perennial 1,460
其他 Others 102
小计 Subtotal 1,634
灌木 Shrub 竹子 Bamboo 34
其他 Others 735
小计 Subtotal 769
藤本 Vine 草质 Herb 99
木质 Woody 132
其他 Others 28
小计 Subtotal 259
木本 Tree 常绿 Evergreen 509
落叶 Deciduous 181
半落叶 Semi-deciduous 11
小计 Subtotal 701
总计 Total 3,363

Table 7

Number of threatened species in some vegetation types and the ratio to 3,363 threatened angiosperms species in China."

植被类型
Vegetation type
受威胁物种数
No. of threatened species
比例
%
森林 Forest 2,684 84.7
灌丛 Shrub 854 27
荒漠 Desert 52 1.6
草原、草甸等
Grassland & meadow
395 12.5
高山植被 Alpine vegetation 48 1.5
湿地(沼泽与水生植被)
Wetlands (bogs and aquatic)
42 1.3
人工植被 Artificial vegetation 422 13.3
其他生境类型 Other habitats 283 8.9

Fig. 3

Elevation status of threatened species of China’s angiosperms. Some species cover several sections."

Table 8

Factors influencing the threatened (CR, EN, and VU) angiosperms taxa in China"

威胁因子
Threats
影响物种数
Threatened
species number
比例
%
生境退化或丧失
Habitat degradation or loss
2,116 84.1
直接采挖或砍伐
Logging or harvesting
963 38.3
环境污染 Environmental pollution 17 0.7
自然灾害和气候变化
Natural disasters and climate change
39 1.6
物种内在因子 Internal factors 357 14.2
种间影响 Interspecific effects 33 1.3
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