Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (8): 907-913.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016365

• Forum • Previous Article     Next Article

Mechanisms of benefit-sharing of medicinal plants found in China and neighboring countries

Wenjing Liu, Jing Xu*(), Senlu Yin, Yu Tian, Junsheng Li   

  1. Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2016-12-24 Accepted:2017-04-16 Online:2017-08-31
  • Xu Jing

The genetic resources that are commonly shared by many countries are a core issue in the negotiation of the Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism (GMBSM). Because China is a country that has many neighboring countries, understanding the partitioning and spatial patterns is a key issue in China’s participation in the GMBSM negotiation. We analyze the geographical distribution of the plants which are shared among China and its neighboring countries and regions. The results indicate that medicinal plants found in China are commonly shared with Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, and South Asia. Among them, China shares the most medicinal plants (220 species) with Vietnam, followed by Japan (144 species) and Myanmar (75 species), and lastly India (42 species). This study shows that: (1) Discussing the establishment of a regional multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism is significant to China; (2) China should pay more attention to bilateral cooperation with neighboring countries and regions found in Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, and South Asia, as these regions share the most medicinal plants, and (3) Due to the transboundary situation clause in the Protocol is hard to play its role in a short time, additional support is needed in the negotiation of GMBSM in order to allow more time for China’s domestic legislation and sub-regional negotiation.

Key words: genetic resources, Nagoya Protocol, access and benefit-sharing, global multilateral benefit- sharing mechanism, transboundary cooperation

Table 1

Distribution of medicinal plants commonly shared with other countries at global scale"

大洲 Continents 种 Species (% ) 属 Genus 科 Family
总计 Total 4,265(100) 1,581 216
亚洲 Asia 2,509(58.83) 1,040 172
欧洲、亚洲 Europe and Asia 856(20.07) 419 95
世界广布 Widely distributed in the world 222(5.21) 176 59
亚洲、大洋洲 Asia and Oceania 171(4.01) 142 66
欧洲、亚洲、美洲 Europe, Asia and America 127(2.98) 101 13
亚洲、美洲 Asia and America 88(2.06) 67 40
亚洲、非洲 Asia and Africa 75(1.76) 70 39
亚洲、大洋洲、非洲 Asia, Oceania and Africa 62(1.45) 52 27
欧洲、亚洲、非洲 Europe, Asia and Africa 55(1.29) 48 28
欧洲、亚洲、大洋洲 Europe, Asia and Oceania 20(0.47) 20 15
欧洲、亚洲、非洲、美洲 Europe, Asia, Africa and America 20(0.47) 18 13
亚洲、大洋洲、非洲、美洲 Asia, Oceania, Africa and America 19(0.45) 18 13
欧洲、亚洲、大洋洲、美洲 Europe, Asia, Oceania and America 13(0.3) 13 11
欧洲、亚洲、大洋洲、非洲 Europe, Asia, Oceania and Africa 12(0.28) 11 9
亚洲、大洋洲、美洲 Asia, Oceania and America 8(0.19) 8 7
亚洲、非洲、美洲 Asia, Africa and America 8(0.19) 8 7

Table 2

Distribution of medicinal plants commonly shared with other countries at sub-regional scale"

次区域 Sub-region 种 Species (% ) 属 Genus 科 Family
总计 Total 2,509(100) 1,040 172
东南亚、南亚 Southeast Asia and South Asia 836(33.32) 509 132
东南亚 Southeast Asia 630(25.11) 385 122
东北亚 Northeast Asia 375(14.95) 259 97
南亚 South Asia 284(11.32) 206 82
东北亚、东南亚、南亚 Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia 117(4.66) 100 51
东北亚、东南亚 Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia 91(3.63) 80 50
中亚 Central Asia 63(2.51) 50 23
东北亚、南亚 Northeast Asia and South Asia 27(1.08) 27 19
南亚、中亚 South Asia and Central Asia 22(0.88) 21 14
东北亚、中亚 Northeast Asia and Central Asia 17(0.68) 15 10
亚洲广布 Widely distributed in Asia 12(0.48) 12 7
东北亚、南亚、中亚 Northeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia 10(0.4) 10 9
西亚 West Asia 8(0.32) 8 7
南亚、西亚 South Asia and West Asia 4(0.16) 4 4
东北亚、中亚、西亚 Northeast Asia and West Asia 3(0.12) 2 2
东南亚、南亚、西亚 Southeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia 3(0.12) 3 3
东北亚、南亚、中亚、西亚 Northeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia 2(0.08) 2 2
东北亚、东南亚、南亚、中亚 Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
东北亚、南亚、西亚 Northeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
东南亚、南亚、中亚 Southeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
南亚、中亚、西亚 South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
中亚、西亚 Central Asia and West Asia 1(0.04) 1 1

Table 3

Distribution of medicinal plants commonly shared with other countries/regions at national scale"

国家(地区) Countries/regions 种 Species (%) 属 Genus 科 Family
总计 Total 680(100) 416 121
越南 Vietnam 220(32.35) 168 84
日本 Japan 144(21.18) 116 60
缅甸 Myanmar 75(11.03) 60 43
印度 India 42(6.18) 41 27
朝鲜半岛 Korean peninsula 39(5.74) 35 23
俄罗斯 Russia 29(4.26) 28 13
泰国 Thailand 27(3.97) 24 19
蒙古 Mongolia 21(3.09) 19 13
尼泊尔 Nepal 19(2.79) 18 17
不丹 Bhutan 16(2.35) 15 14
哈萨克斯坦 Kazakhstan 16(2.35) 14 8
老挝 Laos 7(1.03) 7 7
印度尼西亚 Indonesia 6(0.88) 5 5
菲律宾 Philippines 6(0.88) 6 6
吉尔吉斯斯坦 Kyrgyzstan 4(0.59) 4 4
克什米尔 Kashmir 3(0.44) 3 2
马来西亚 Malaysia 2(0.29) 2 2
柬埔寨 Cambodia 1(0.15) 1 1
巴基斯坦 Pakistan 1(0.15) 1 1
孟加拉国 Bangladesh 1(0.15) 1 1
塔吉克斯坦 Tajikistan 1(0.15) 1 1
[1] Bi LJ (1983) The botanical exploration in China by western countries during the 149 years (1800-1949) before liberation. Wuhan Botanical Research, 1, 119-128. (in Chinese)
[毕列爵 (1983) 从19世纪到建国之前西方国家对我国进行的植物资源调查. 武汉植物学研究, 1, 119-128.]
[2] Chee YL (translated by Yin J) (2010) Different reaction on New Access and Benefit-Sharing Protocol. Bulletin of Biodiversity and Traditional Knowledge, 24(5), 1-4. (in Chinese)
[殷金 (译) (2010) 对最新的获取与惠益分享议定书的不同反应. 生物多样性与传统知识简报, 24(5), 1-4.]
[3] Dong JZ, Yi ZL, Jiang JX (2005) Current situation of the research on the germplasm resources of medicinal plants in China. Journal of West China Forestry Science, 34(2), 95-101. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[董静洲, 易自力, 蒋建雄 (2005) 我国药用植物种质资源研究现状. 西部林业科学, 34(2), 95-101.]
[4] Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae Editorial Committee(2004) Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[中国科学院《中国植物志》编辑委员会(2004) 中国植物志. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[5] Greiber T, Moreno SP, Åhrén M, Carrasco GN, Kamau EC, Medaglia JC, Oliva MJ, Perron-Welch F, Ali A, Williams C(2012) An Explanatory Guide to the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-Sharing, International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, pp.127. IUCN, Gland & IUCN Environmental Law Centre, Bonn.
[6] Huang JH, Chen JH, Ying JS, Ma KP (2011) Features and distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species. Journal of Systematics and Evolution, 49, 81-94.
[7] Nijar GS (2011) Research Papers 36: The Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit Sharing of Genetic Resources: Analysis and Implantation Options for Developing Countries, pp. 1-43. South Centre, Geneva.
[8] Qin HN (2013) China Checklist of Higher Plants, In the Biodiversity Committee of Chinese Academy of Sciences ed. Catalogue of Life China 2013 Annual Checklist. CD-ROM. Science Press, Beijing.
[9] SCBD (Secretariat of Convention on Biological Diversity) (2011) X/1 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from Their Utilization to the Convention on Biological Diversity: Text and Annex. In: Report of the Tenth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, Montreal, Canada. UNEP/CBD/COP/10/27, 76-92.
[10] SCBD (Secretariat of Convention on Biological Diversity) (2016a) The Need for and Modalities of a Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism (Article 10). In: decision adopted by the parties to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit-sharing, Cancun, Mexico. UNEP/CBD/NP/MOP/ DEC/2/1.
[11] SCBD (Secretariat of Convention on Biological Diversity) (2016b) Digital sequence information on genetic resources. In: decision adopted by the parties to the Nagoya Protocol on access and benefit-sharing, Cancun, Mexico. UNEP/ CBD/NP/MOP/DEC/2/14.
[12] Wu JY, Xue DY, Zhao FW (2013) Plant genetic resources collection of some botanic gardens in the USA and UK from China. Resources Science, 35, 1499-1509. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[武建勇, 薛达元, 赵富伟 (2013) 欧美植物园引种中国植物遗传资源案例研究. 资源科学, 35, 1499-1509.]
[13] Wu JY, Xue DY, Zhou KX (2011a) Past and present status of introduced plant genetic resources in China. Journal of Minzu University of China (Natural Sciences Edition), 20(2), 49-53. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[武建勇, 薛达元, 周可新 (2011a) 中国植物遗传资源引进、引出或流失历史与现状. 中央民族大学学报(自然科学版), 20(2), 49-53.]
[14] Wu JY, Xue DY, Zhou KX (2011b) Diversity and dynamics of introduced plant from China in Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. Journal of Plant Genetic Resources, 12, 738-743. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[武建勇, 薛达元, 周可新 (2011b) 皇家爱丁堡植物园引种中国植物资源多样性及动态. 植物遗传资源学报, 12, 738-743.]
[15] Wu ZY (1991) The areal-types of Chinese genera of seed plants. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, Suppl. IV, 1-139. (in Chinese)
[吴征镒 (1991) 中国种子植物属的分布区类型. 云南植物研究, 增刊IV, 1-139.]
[16] Wu ZY, Raven PH, Hong DY (2013) Flora of China. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
[17] Wu ZY, Zhou ZK, Li DZ, Peng H, Sun H (2003) The areal-types of the World families of seed plants. Acta Botanica Yunnanica, 25, 245-257. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[吴征镒, 周浙昆, 李德铢, 彭华, 孙航 (2003) 世界种子植物科的分布区类型系统. 云南植物研究, 25, 245-257.]
[18] Xu J, Cai L, Wang AH, Xue DY, Yang QW, Li JS, Yin SL (2013) The global multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism: a new focus in genetic resources access and benefit-sharing negotiations. Biodiversity Science, 21, 127-131. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[徐靖, 蔡蕾, 王爱华, 薛达元, 杨庆文, 李俊生, 银森录 (2013) 全球多边惠益分享机制: 遗传资源获取与惠益分享谈判的新焦点. 生物多样性, 21, 127-131.]
[19] Xue DY (2010) A new milestone of the Convention on Biological Diversity: Nagoya ABS Protocol (1st part). Environmental Protection, (23), 68-70. (in Chinese)
[薛达元 (2010) 《生物多样性公约》新里程碑: 《名古屋ABS议定书》(上). 环境保护, (23), 68-70.]
[20] Xue DY, Qin TB, Cai L (2012) The Regime of Access and Benefit Sharing for Traditional Knowledge Associated with Genetic Resources. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese with English summary)
[薛达元, 秦天宝, 蔡蕾 (2012) 遗传资源相关传统知识获取与惠益分享制度研究. 中国环境科学出版社, 北京.]
[21] Zhang HY, Zhao RH, Yuan CQ, Sun CQ, Zhang ZY (1995) China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica, 20, 387-390. (in Chinese)
[张惠源, 赵润怀, 袁昌齐, 孙传奇, 张志英 (1995) 我国的中药资源种类. 中国中药杂志, 20, 387-390.]
[22] Zhang XY (2017) A Study on the International Law of Genetic Resources. Intellectual Property Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[张小勇 (2017) 遗传资源国际法问题研究. 知识产权出版社, 北京.]
[23] Zhao FW, Xue DY (2008) International trends and state legislation on access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources. Journal of Ecology and Rural Environment, 24, 92-96. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[赵富伟, 薛达元 (2008) 遗传资源获取与惠益分享制度的国际趋势及国家立法问题探讨. 生态与农村环境学报, 24, 92-96.]
[1] Weilin Fu,Mei Dong,Wenhua Yang,Xingyuan Yang,Yujue Wang,Gong Cheng. Protection of Chinese traditional knowledge in the backdrop of the Nagoya Protocol: A case study on acid tea of the De’ang Minority [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(6): 645-650.
[2] Yuguo Wang,Jie Yang,Jiakuan Chen. Potential value, status analysis, and protection strategy of wild kiwifruit genetic resources in the Yangtze River Basin [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2018, 26(4): 373-383.
[3] Fuwei Zhao, Lei Cai, Chunxin Zang. Latest developments in international regimes relevant to access and benefit-sharing of genetic resources [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(11): 1147-1155.
[4] Jianyong Wu, Dayuan Xue. Important issues concerning the national legislation of access to genetic resources and benefit-sharing [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2017, 25(11): 1156-1160.
[5] Jing Xu,Miaozhuang Zheng,Yan Liu,Wenjing Liu,Senlu Yin,Junsheng Li. Establishment of a mechanism on sharing the benefits arising from the utilization of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2016, 24(1): 108-.
[6] Fuwei Zhao,Dayuan Xue,Jianyong Wu. Hot spots and proposed actions of negotiations of the Nagoya Protocol after it functions [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2015, 23(4): 536-542.
[7] Chunxin Zang,Lei Cai,Xiao Guan,Jing Xu,Junsheng Li. Review the progress of negotiations of the Intergovernmental Committee for the Nagoya Protocol on Access and Benefit-sharing [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2014, 22(5): 677-681.
[8] Jing Xu,Lei Cai,Aihua Wang,Dayuan Xue,Qingwen Yang,Junsheng Li,Senlu Yin. The Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism: a new focus in genetic resources access and benefit-sharing negotiations [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2013, 21(1): 127-131.
[9] Jing Xu, Junsheng Li, Dayuan Xue. Negotiation progress of the Nagoya Protocol on the access of genetic resources and benefit-sharing and countermeasures [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2012, 20(6): 779-783.
[10] Kwang-Tsao Shao. Taiwan’s biodiversity research achievements over the past 10 years (2001–2011) [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2012, 20(5): 633-638.
[11] Gong Cheng, Cheng Wang, Dayuan Xue. Attitude to the traditional knowledge of international governmental organizations and suggested strategies of China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2012, 20(4): 505-511.
[12] Tiancai Huang, Chunlin Long. Priorities for genetic resource collection and preservation of wild gymnosperms in Yunnan: an analysis based on the “3E” principle [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2011, 19(3): 319-326.
[13] Dayuan Xue. Analysis for the main elements and potential impacts of Nagoya Protocol [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2011, 19(1): 113-119.
[14] Dayuan Xue. Access and benefit sharing of genetic resources: background, progress and challenges [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2007, 15(5): 563-568.
[15] Zhihua Zhou, Zhigang Jiang . CITES and genetic resource management in China [J]. Biodiv Sci, 2007, 15(3): 319-328.
Full text



[1] LUO Yan ZHOU Zhe-Kun. Phytogeography of Quercus subg.Cyclobalanopsis[J]. Plant Diversity, 2001, 23(01): 1 -3 .
[2] Chun-Yan Li, Wei-Hua Li, Cheng Li, Denis A. Gaudet, André Laroche, Lian-Pu Cao, and Zhen-Xiang Lu. Starch Synthesis and Programmed Cell Death during Endosperm Development in Triticale (×Triticosecale Wittmack)[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2010, 52(7): 602 -615 .
[3] Jinxiang Wang, , Haidong Ding, , Aying Zhang, , Fangfang Ma, , Jianmei Cao, and Mingyi Jiang. A Novel Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Gene in Maize (Zea mays), ZmMPK3, is Involved in Response to Diverse Environmental Cues[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2010, 52(5): 442 -452 .
[4] XIANG Wei, HAN Quan-Bin, LI Sheng-Hong, NA Zhi, SUN Han-Dong. ent-Kaurene Diterpenoids from Isodon adenanthus[J]. J Integr Plant Biol, 2003, 45(11): 1383 -1386 .
[5] HE Wei-Ming. Gas Exchange in Response to Heterogeneous Nutrient Environments in Panicum miliaceu[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2001, 25(3): 331 -336 .
[6] He Ping. Investigation of Pest Species and the Control of the Main Insect Pests in the Exhibition Green House of Beijing Botanical Garden[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1996, 13(02): 44 -47 .
[7] YANG Jun-Jun, FENG Jian-Min, HE Zhi-Bin. Estimating whole-tree water use of Picea crassifolia based on heat ratio method[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2018, 42(2): 195 -201 .
[8] LONG Wen-Xing, DING Yi, ZANG Run-Guo, YANG Min, CHEN Shao-Wei. Environmental characteristics of tropical cloud forests in the rainy season in Bawangling National Nature Reserve on Hainan Island, South China[J]. Chin J Plan Ecolo, 2011, 35(2): 137 -146 .
[9] Yang Li-rui and Cheng Mu-chu. Relationship between Plant Stress Resistance and Photorespiration[J]. Chin Bull Bot, 1991, 8(01): 43 -47 .
[10] HE Kai-Jia, QIN De-Hai. Strobilanthes pseudocollina K. J. He & D. H. Qin, a new species of the Acanthaceae from Guangxi, China[J]. J Syst Evol, 2007, 45(5): 701 -704 .