Biodiversity Science ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (8): 907-913.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016365

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Mechanisms of benefit-sharing of medicinal plants found in China and neighboring countries

Wenjing Liu, Jing Xu*(), Senlu Yin, Yu Tian, Junsheng Li   

  1. Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2016-12-24 Accepted:2017-04-16 Online:2017-08-31
  • Xu Jing E-mail:xujing263@163.com

The genetic resources that are commonly shared by many countries are a core issue in the negotiation of the Global Multilateral Benefit-Sharing Mechanism (GMBSM). Because China is a country that has many neighboring countries, understanding the partitioning and spatial patterns is a key issue in China’s participation in the GMBSM negotiation. We analyze the geographical distribution of the plants which are shared among China and its neighboring countries and regions. The results indicate that medicinal plants found in China are commonly shared with Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, and South Asia. Among them, China shares the most medicinal plants (220 species) with Vietnam, followed by Japan (144 species) and Myanmar (75 species), and lastly India (42 species). This study shows that: (1) Discussing the establishment of a regional multilateral benefit-sharing mechanism is significant to China; (2) China should pay more attention to bilateral cooperation with neighboring countries and regions found in Southeast Asia, Northeast Asia, and South Asia, as these regions share the most medicinal plants, and (3) Due to the transboundary situation clause in the Protocol is hard to play its role in a short time, additional support is needed in the negotiation of GMBSM in order to allow more time for China’s domestic legislation and sub-regional negotiation.

Key words: genetic resources, Nagoya Protocol, access and benefit-sharing, global multilateral benefit- sharing mechanism, transboundary cooperation

Table 1

Distribution of medicinal plants commonly shared with other countries at global scale"

大洲 Continents 种 Species (% ) 属 Genus 科 Family
总计 Total 4,265(100) 1,581 216
亚洲 Asia 2,509(58.83) 1,040 172
欧洲、亚洲 Europe and Asia 856(20.07) 419 95
世界广布 Widely distributed in the world 222(5.21) 176 59
亚洲、大洋洲 Asia and Oceania 171(4.01) 142 66
欧洲、亚洲、美洲 Europe, Asia and America 127(2.98) 101 13
亚洲、美洲 Asia and America 88(2.06) 67 40
亚洲、非洲 Asia and Africa 75(1.76) 70 39
亚洲、大洋洲、非洲 Asia, Oceania and Africa 62(1.45) 52 27
欧洲、亚洲、非洲 Europe, Asia and Africa 55(1.29) 48 28
欧洲、亚洲、大洋洲 Europe, Asia and Oceania 20(0.47) 20 15
欧洲、亚洲、非洲、美洲 Europe, Asia, Africa and America 20(0.47) 18 13
亚洲、大洋洲、非洲、美洲 Asia, Oceania, Africa and America 19(0.45) 18 13
欧洲、亚洲、大洋洲、美洲 Europe, Asia, Oceania and America 13(0.3) 13 11
欧洲、亚洲、大洋洲、非洲 Europe, Asia, Oceania and Africa 12(0.28) 11 9
亚洲、大洋洲、美洲 Asia, Oceania and America 8(0.19) 8 7
亚洲、非洲、美洲 Asia, Africa and America 8(0.19) 8 7

Table 2

Distribution of medicinal plants commonly shared with other countries at sub-regional scale"

次区域 Sub-region 种 Species (% ) 属 Genus 科 Family
总计 Total 2,509(100) 1,040 172
东南亚、南亚 Southeast Asia and South Asia 836(33.32) 509 132
东南亚 Southeast Asia 630(25.11) 385 122
东北亚 Northeast Asia 375(14.95) 259 97
南亚 South Asia 284(11.32) 206 82
东北亚、东南亚、南亚 Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia 117(4.66) 100 51
东北亚、东南亚 Northeast Asia and Southeast Asia 91(3.63) 80 50
中亚 Central Asia 63(2.51) 50 23
东北亚、南亚 Northeast Asia and South Asia 27(1.08) 27 19
南亚、中亚 South Asia and Central Asia 22(0.88) 21 14
东北亚、中亚 Northeast Asia and Central Asia 17(0.68) 15 10
亚洲广布 Widely distributed in Asia 12(0.48) 12 7
东北亚、南亚、中亚 Northeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia 10(0.4) 10 9
西亚 West Asia 8(0.32) 8 7
南亚、西亚 South Asia and West Asia 4(0.16) 4 4
东北亚、中亚、西亚 Northeast Asia and West Asia 3(0.12) 2 2
东南亚、南亚、西亚 Southeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia 3(0.12) 3 3
东北亚、南亚、中亚、西亚 Northeast Asia, South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia 2(0.08) 2 2
东北亚、东南亚、南亚、中亚 Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
东北亚、南亚、西亚 Northeast Asia, South Asia and West Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
东南亚、南亚、中亚 Southeast Asia, South Asia and Central Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
南亚、中亚、西亚 South Asia, Central Asia and West Asia 1(0.04) 1 1
中亚、西亚 Central Asia and West Asia 1(0.04) 1 1

Table 3

Distribution of medicinal plants commonly shared with other countries/regions at national scale"

国家(地区) Countries/regions 种 Species (%) 属 Genus 科 Family
总计 Total 680(100) 416 121
越南 Vietnam 220(32.35) 168 84
日本 Japan 144(21.18) 116 60
缅甸 Myanmar 75(11.03) 60 43
印度 India 42(6.18) 41 27
朝鲜半岛 Korean peninsula 39(5.74) 35 23
俄罗斯 Russia 29(4.26) 28 13
泰国 Thailand 27(3.97) 24 19
蒙古 Mongolia 21(3.09) 19 13
尼泊尔 Nepal 19(2.79) 18 17
不丹 Bhutan 16(2.35) 15 14
哈萨克斯坦 Kazakhstan 16(2.35) 14 8
老挝 Laos 7(1.03) 7 7
印度尼西亚 Indonesia 6(0.88) 5 5
菲律宾 Philippines 6(0.88) 6 6
吉尔吉斯斯坦 Kyrgyzstan 4(0.59) 4 4
克什米尔 Kashmir 3(0.44) 3 2
马来西亚 Malaysia 2(0.29) 2 2
柬埔寨 Cambodia 1(0.15) 1 1
巴基斯坦 Pakistan 1(0.15) 1 1
孟加拉国 Bangladesh 1(0.15) 1 1
塔吉克斯坦 Tajikistan 1(0.15) 1 1
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