Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 907-915.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016100

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Effects of soil biota influenced by long-term organic and chemical fertilizers on rice growth and resistance to insects

Linhui Jiang1, Ling Luo1, Zhenggao Xiao1, Daming Li2, Xiaoyun Chen1, Manqiang Liu1, *(), Feng Hu1   

  1. 1 Soil Ecology Laboratory, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095
    2 Jiangxi Institute of Red Soil, Nanchang 331717
  • Received:2016-04-08 Accepted:2016-05-19 Online:2016-09-02
  • Liu Manqiang E-mail:liumq@njau.edu.cn

Fertilization plays an important role in soil quality, food supply and security. Although promoting soil biological development is considered as one of the most critical components that organic fertilizers exert on soil compared with chemical fertilization, less attention has been paid to the fertilization-derived influence on crop growth and insect-resistance via soil biota. Understanding the role of soil biota in crop growth and resistance to insects would not only help explain the biological mechanisms of the fertilization effects on soil functions, but also help identify integrative management techniques for soils and crops. Soil suspension was extracted from long-term organically fertilized soils and chemically fertilized soils. Then, the soil suspension was sterilized or non-sterilized to investigate the soil biota’s effects on rice growth and insect-resistance through a soil-free cultured method. Results showed that soil biota and fertilization significantly affected soil nutrient status (P < 0.01). Soil biota decreased soil ammonium content, rice biomass, shoot nitrogen content and the biomass of Nilaparvata lugens, but increased soil nitrate content, rice root-shoot ratio and the contents of root nitrogen, soluble sugar and phenolics (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, soil biota from organically fertilized soils promoted the synthesis of shoot soluble sugar and shoot phenolics. With the addition of Nilaparvata lugens, soil biota significantly reduced rice nitrogen uptake and promoted phenolic synthesis (P < 0.05). Collectively, soil biota, especially from organically fertilized soils, promoted rice resistance traits by altering the nutrient allocation of rice between aboveground and belowground, and by increasing the root-shoot ratio and the synthesis of phenols.

Key words: soil biota, fertilization, aboveground-belowground, herbivory, nutrient allocation, insect-resistance

Table 1

Physicochemical properties of original and sterilized soils (mean ± SD, n = 4)"

对照 Non-sterilized 灭活 Sterilized
化肥 Chemical fertilizer 有机肥 Organic fertilizer 化肥 Chemical fertilizer 有机肥 Organic fertilizer
铵态氮 NH4+-N (mg/kg) 4.34 ± 0.73 2.19 ± 0.53 18.36 ± 0.63 27.35 ± 0.38
硝态氮 NO3--N (mg/kg) 75.97 ± 9.73 147.13 ± 3.53 73.12 ± 3.65 143.23 ± 2.65
可溶性有机碳 DOC (mg/kg) 43.86 ± 11.90 34.27 ± 5.56 712.86 ± 4.71 1,074.73 ± 21.17
速效磷 AP (mg/kg) 135.34 ± 1.26 101.01 ± 0.68 21.88 ± 0.00 10.02 ± 0.39
速效钾 AK (mg/kg) 21.03 ± 0.00 34.96 ± 1.51 38.68 ± 1.38 67.00 ± 2.57
pH (H2O) 6.01 ± 0.21 6.25 ± 0.26 5.77 ± 0.22 5.93 ± 0.23

Table 2

ANOVA results showing the effects of soil biological factor (non-sterilized vs. sterilized), fertilization management (chemical vs. organic fertilizer) and brown planthopper (with vs. without planthoppers) on content of soil NH4+-N, NO3--N, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH, shoot mass, root mass, R/S ratio."

自由度 铵态氮 硝态氮 可溶性有机碳 pH 茎叶重 根系重 根冠比
df NH4+-N NO3--N DOC (H2O) Shoot mass Root mass R/S ratio
灭活 Sterilization (S) 1 427.12** 62.10** 108.76** 60.98** 151.95** 47.66** 28.22**
施肥 Fertilization (F) 1 11.48** 16.70** 22.65** 27.48** 9.28** 0.10NS 1.24NS
飞虱 Planthopper (P) 1 2.08NS 7.89** 0.05NS 0.07NS 210.59** 10.66** 101.71**
灭活×施肥 Sterilization × Fertilization (S × F) 1 7.16* 0.28NS 11.46** 0.94NS 9.44** 3.77NS 8.18**
灭活×飞虱 Sterilization × Planthopper (S × P) 1 0.25NS 3.60NS 0.17NS 6.05* 20.62** 2.39NS 0.30NS
施肥×飞虱 Fertilization × Planthopper (F × P) 1 1.13NS 2.51NS 0.60NS 0.17NS 1.89NS 5.06* 1.51NS
灭活×施肥×飞虱
Sterilization × Fertilization × Planthopper (S × F × P)
1 0.19NS 1.66NS 1.52NS 1.41NS 1.99NS 2.53NS 2.74NS
Error 24

Fig. 1

Effects of soil biological factor (non-sterilized vs. sterilized), fertilization management (chemical vs. organic fertilizer) and brown planthopper (with vs. without planthoppers) on the content of soil NH4+-N、NO3--N、DOC and pH. Different letters among the treatments mean significant differences, P < 0.05."

Fig. 2

Effects of soil biological factor (non-sterilized vs. sterilized), fertilization management (chemical vs. organic fertilizer) and brown planthopper (with vs. without planthoppers) on shoot mass, root mass and root to shoot ratio. Different letters among the treatments mean significant differences, P < 0.05."

Table 3

ANOVA results showing the effects of soil biological factor (non-sterilized vs. sterilized), fertilization management (chemical vs. organic fertilizer) and brown planthopper (with vs. without planthoppers) on the content of nitrogen, soluble sugar, phenolic in shoot and root, respectively."

自由度
df
茎叶氮
Shoot N
根系氮
Root N
茎叶糖
Shoot sugar
根系糖
Root sugar
茎叶酚
Shoot phenolic
根系酚
Root phenolic
灭活 Sterilization (S) 1 151.95** 35.50** 9.56** 39.27** 20.41** 15.22**
施肥 Fertilization (F) 1 9.28** 27.93** 31.76** 0.39NS 7.71* 10.49**
飞虱 Planthopper (P) 1 210.59** 72.93** 83.24** 2.73NS 1.59NS 0.57NS
灭活×施肥 Sterilization × Fertilization (S × F) 1 9.44** 50.35** 0.02NS 0.023NS 0.62NS 10.82**
灭活×飞虱 Sterilization × Planthopper (S × P) 1 20.62** 2.00NS 11.45** 0.42NS 5.31* 0.53NS
施肥×飞虱 Fertilization × Planthopper (F × P) 1 1.89NS 5.42* 3.18NS 2.65NS 0.30NS 2.06NS
灭活×施肥×飞虱
Sterilization × Fertilization × Planthopper (S × F × P)
1 1.99NS 6.18* 0.06NS 12.86** 4.68* 0.73NS
Error 24

Fig. 3

Effects of soil biological factor (non-sterilized vs. sterilized), fertilization management (chemical vs. organic fertilizer) and brown planthopper (with vs. without planthoppers) on the content of shoot total nitrogen, root total nitrogen, shoot soluble sugar, root soluble sugar, shoot phenolics and root phenolics. Different letters among the treatments mean significant differences, P < 0.05."

Fig. 4

Effects of soil biological factor (non-sterilized vs. sterilized) and fertilization management (chemical vs. organic fertilizer) on planthopper mass. Different letters among the treatments mean significant differences, P < 0.05."

Fig. 5

Principle component analysis (PCA) of plant and soil properties affected by soil biological factor, fertilization management and planthopper.□ plant metabolome and soil physicochemical property; ● different treatments."

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