Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 598-609.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015331

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Evaluating the status of China’s continental fish and analyzing their causes of endangerment through the red list assessment

Liang Cao1, E Zhang1, *(), Chunxin Zang2, Wenxuan Cao1   

  1. 1 Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072
    2 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2015-11-27 Accepted:2016-01-28 Online:2018-08-09
  • Zhang E E-mail:zhange@ihb.ac.cn

Continental fishes (totaling 1,443 species) in China were assessed for their status based on available data utilizing the IUCN Redlist Categories and Criteria. Among these, 3 species were listed as Extinct, 1 as Regionally Extinct, 65 as Critically Endangered, 101 as Endangered, 129 as Vulnerable, 101 as Near Threatened, 454 as of Least Concern, and 589 were Data Deficient. Both the number of species assessed here and the number of species classified as threatened, were greater than those already identified by the IUCN. There were 295 threatened species, which accounted for 20.44% of the total number of currently identified continental fish in China. This ratio was lower than the known worldwide average. Three extinct species identified were Anabarilius macrolepis, Cyprinus yilongensis and Triplophysa cakaensis, and Stenodus nelma was found to be regionally extinct in China. Among all families assessed, Cyprinidae had the highest number of threatened species. Within this family, Schizothroracinae and Cyprininae were the two most threatened subfamilies. The upper Yangtze River and the upper Pearl River were two areas with the highest number of threatened species. Major threats to continental fish in China can be classified into four categories: dam construction, habitat degradation, over-fishing, and introducing of alien species. A total of 589 species (40.82% of continental fishes in China) were listed as Data Deficient. This large number indicated insufficient information regarding continental fishes in China, therefore warranting the need for basic data collection on continental fishes through field surveys.

Key words: continental fishes, red list, threatened species, threat

Table 1

Number of genera and species in orders and families of Chinese continental fishes"

目 Order 科 Family 纯淡水 Fresh 咸淡水 Brackish 全部 Fresh + Brackish

Genus

Species

Genus

Species

Genus

Species
魟形目 Myliobatiformes 魟科 Dasyatidae 1 2 1 2
七鳃鳗目 Petromyzontiformes 七鳃鳗科 Petromyzontidae 1 2 1 1 1 3
鲟形目 Acipenseriformes 鲟科 Acipenseridae 2 3 1 3 2 6
白鲟科 Polyodontidae 1 1 1 1
鳗鲡目 Anguilliformes 鳗鲡科 Anguillidae 1 4 1 4
鲱形目 Clupiformes 鲱科 Clupeidae 1 1 1 1
鳀科 Engraulidae 1 3 1 3
鲤形目 Cypriniformes 鲤科 Cyprinidae 138 656 138 656
裸吻鱼科 Psilorhynchidae 1 1 1 1
花鳅科 Cobitidae 10 35 10 35
沙鳅科 Botidae 6 35 6 35
爬鳅科 Balitoridae 7 42 7 42
腹吸鳅科 Gastromyzontidae 9 55 9 55
条鳅科 Nemacheilidae 19 244 19 244
双孔鱼科 Gyrinocheilidae 1 1 1 1
亚口鱼科 Catostomidae 1 1 1 1
鲇形目 Siluriformes 囊鳃鲇科 Heteropneustidae 1 1 1 1
鲿科 Bagridae 2 38 2 38
长臀鮠科 Cranoglanididae 1 3 1 3
鲇科 Siluridae 6 17 6 17
锡伯鲇科 Schilbeidae 1 3 1 3
?? 科 Pangasiidae 1 5 1 5
钝头鮠科 Amblycipitidae 2 13 2 13
粒鲇科 Akysidae 1 2 1 2
鮡科 Sisoridae 10 78 10 78
胡子鲇科 Clariidae 1 1 1 1
狗鱼目 Esociformes 狗鱼科 Esocidae 1 2 1 2
胡瓜鱼目 Osmeriformes 胡瓜鱼科 Osmeridae 1 2 1 2
香鱼科 Plecoglossidae 1 1 1 1
银鱼科 Salangidae 2 6 5 8 6 14
鲑形目 Salmoniformes 鲑科 Salmonidae 7 13 1 3 7 16
鳕形目 Gadiformes 鳕科 Lotidae 1 1 1 1 2 2
颌针鱼目 Beloniformes 鱵科 Hemiramphidae 1 3 1 3
鳉科 Adrianichthyidae 1 4 1 4
刺鱼目 Gasterosteiformes 刺鱼科 Gasterosteidae 2 3 2 3
合鳃鱼目 Syngnathiformes 合鳃鱼科 Syngnathidae 1 2 1 2
刺鳅科 Mastacembelidae 1 6 1 6
鲉形目 Scorpaeniformes 杜父鱼科 Cottidae 3 7 2 2 5 9
鲈形目 Perciformes 真鲈科 Percichthyidae 2 10 2 10
鲈科 Percidae 1 2 1 2
变色鲈科 Badidae 1 1 1 1
溪鳢科 Rhyacichthyidae 1 1 1 1
沙塘鳢科 Odontobutidae 6 9 6 9
塘鳢科 Eleotridae 3 6 1 1 3 7
虾虎鱼科 Gobiidae 8 62 3 10 11 72
攀鲈科 Anabantidae 1 1 1 1
斗鱼科 Belontiidae 1 2 1 2
鳢科 Channidae 1 11 1 11
丝足鲈科 Osphronemidae 1 1 1 1
鲀形目 Tetraodontiformes 鲀科 Tetraodontidae 1 6 1 6
鲽形目 Pleuronectiformes 舌鳎科 Cynoglossidae 1 5 1 5
总计 Total 263 1,382 28 61 286 1,443

Table 2

Assessement results of Chinese continental fish species in each IUCN Redlist Category"

评估等级
Category
总种数(比例)
Number of species
(%)
特有种数(比例)
Number of endemic species (%)
灭绝 EX 3(0.21) 3(0.31)
区域灭绝 RE 1(0.07) 0(0.00)
极危 CR 65(4.50) 56(5.87)
濒危 EN 101(7.00) 84(8.81)
易危 VU 129(8.94) 106(11.11)
近危 NT 101(7.00) 65(6.81)
无危 LC 454(31.46) 200(20.96)
数据缺乏 DD 589(40.82) 440(46.12)
总计 Total 1,443(100.0) 954(100.0)

Table 3

Comparisons of Chinese continental fishes classified in each IUCN Redlist Category with the results of global and regional IUCN Redlist assessments"

评估等级
Category
中国
China
IUCN中国(2015)
Threatened species of China (IUCN)
IUCN全球
Threatened species of the World (IUCN)
种数
Num-
ber
比例(%)
Propor-
tion
种数
Num-
ber
比例(%)
Propor-
tion
种数
Num-
ber
比例(%)
Proportion
灭绝 EX 3 0.21 2 0.4 60 1
野外灭绝或区域
灭绝 EW or RE
1 0.07 0 0.2 8 0.1
极危 CR 65 4.50 29 5.2 382 6.6
濒危 EN 101 7.00 14 2.5 416 7.2
易危 VU 129 8.94 26 4.6 881 15.2
近危 NT 101 7.00 15 2.7 259 4.5
无危 LC 454 31.46 285 50.7 2,717 47
数据缺乏 DD 589 40.82 189 33.8 1,062 18.4
总计 Total 1,443 100.0 560 100.0 5,785 100.0
参考文献
Reference
Carrizo et al (2013)

Table 4

Assessment results of the threatened species in orders and families of Chinese continental fishes"


Order

Family
评估等级 Category 种数
Number of species
受威胁物种数
Number of threatened species
比例
Proportion
(%)
EX RE CR EN VU
七鳃鳗目 Petromyzontiformes 七鳃鳗科 Petromyzontidae 2 3 2 66.7
鲟形目 Acipenseriformes 鲟科 Acipenseridae 5 1 6 6 100
白鲟科 Polyodontidae 1 1 1 100
鳗鲡目 Anguilliformes 鳗鲡科 Anguillidae 2 4 2 50
鲤形目 Cypriniformes 鲤科 Cyprinidae 2 43 61 75 656 179 27.3
裸吻鱼科 Psilorhynchidae 1 1 1 100
花鳅科 Cobitidae 2 1 35 3 8.6
沙鳅科 Botidae 1 6 35 7 20
爬鳅科 Balitoridae 3 3 42 6 14.3
腹吸鳅科 Gastromyzontidae 4 55 4 7.3
条鳅科 Nemacheilidae 1 6 7 15 244 27 11.5
亚口鱼科 Catostomidae 1 1 1 100
鲇形目 Siluriformes 鲿科 Bagridae 2 1 38 2 7.9
长臀鮠科 Cranoglanididae 2 3 2 66.7
鲇科 Siluridae 1 1 2 17 4 23.5
??科 Pangasiidae 1 4 1 25
粒鲇科 Akysidae 1 2 1 50
钝头鮠科 Amblycipitidae 1 2 13 3 23.1
鮡科 Sisoridae 1 6 5 78 12 15.4
胡瓜鱼目 Osmeriformes 香鱼科 Plecoglossidae 1 1 1 100
银鱼科 Salangidae 1 1 14 2 14.3
鲑形目 Salmoniformes 鲑科 Salmonidae 1 2 2 4 16 8 50
鲉形目 Scorpaeniformes 杜父鱼科 Cottidae 1 1 9 2 22.2
鲈形目 Perciformes 真鲈科 Percichthyidae 1 10 1 10
鲈科 Percidae 1 2 1 50
沙塘鳢科 Odontobutidae 3 9 3 33.3
虾虎鱼科 Gobiidae 8 2 72 10 13.9
鲱形目 Clupiformes 鲱科 Clupeidae 1 1 1 100

Fig. 1

Percentage of species classified in each IUCN Redlist category in main families of Chinese continental species"

Fig. 2

Percentage of species classified in each IUCN Redlist category of each subfamily of Cyprinidae"

Fig. 3

Distribution of threatened species of Chinese continental fish. Qiantangjiang River and Minjiang River include all coastal rivers in both Fujian and Zhejiang provinces; Lakes of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau include all plateau inlet lakes in Tibet and Qinghai provinces; Coastal Rivers of Guangdong and Guangxi are all coastal rivers independently flowing into South China Sea."

Table 6

Threatened endemic species in each family of Chinese continental fish"


Family
受胁特有种数
Number of threatened endemic
species
特有种数
Number of
endemic
species
比例
Proportion
(%)
七鳃鳗科 Petromyzontidae 1 1 100
鲟科 Acipenseridae 1 1 100
白鲟科 Polyodontidae 1 1 100
鲤科 Cyprinidae 162 447 36.2
花鳅科 Cobitidae 3 20 15.0
沙鳅科 Botidae 7 25 28.0
爬鳅科 Balitoridae 6 32 18.8
腹吸鳅科 Gastromyzontidae 4 47 8.5
条鳅科 Nemacheilidae 27 198 13.6
亚口鱼科 Catostomidae 1 1 100.0
鲿科 Bagridae 3 28 10.7
长臀鮠科 Cranoglanididae 2 2 100.0
鲇科 Siluridae 2 7 28.6
钝头鮠科 Amblycipitidae 3 13 23.1
鮡科 Sisoridae 9 45 20.0
银鱼科 Salangidae 1 6 16.7
鲑科 Salmonidae 3 3 100.0
杜父鱼科 Cottidae 1 1 100.0
真鲈科 Percichthyidae 1 6 16.7
沙塘鳢科 Odontobutidae 2 7 28.6
虾虎鱼科 Gobiidae 9 46 19.6
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