Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (3): 321-331.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015315

• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Influencing factors of the nested distribution of butterfly assemblages in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China

Xuemei Zhang1, Xufang Han1, Liwei Liu2, Aichun Xu1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018
    2 Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, Hangzhou 310012
  • Received:2015-11-13 Accepted:2016-01-10 Online:2016-04-05
  • Xu Aichun E-mail:springlover@cjlu.edu.cn

In natural ecosystem, species assemblages in fragmented habitats frequently exhibit a nested subset pattern. Although nestedness has been documented for a wide range of taxa, it is rarely tested in butterfly assemblages in oceanic archipelago ecosystems. We surveyed the butterfly occupancy and abundance on 28 islands using a line-transect method in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China from July to August 2013. We determined island geographical factors (area, isolation) based on the literature and obtained species life-history traits (area requirement, wingspan and body weight) in the laboratory. The recently developed metric WNODF was used to examine the nestedness. Partial Spearman rank correlation was used to evaluate the associations of nestedness and island geographical factors as well as life-history traits related to species extinction and immigration tendencies. We found that the community composition of butterflies in the Zhoushan Archipelago was significantly nested. Island area and species’ area requirements were significantly correlated with nestedness after synthesis for all independent variables. In contrast, according to the null-model random test, nestedness of butterflies might not result from passive sampling or selective colonization. Our results indicate that selective extinction is the main driver of nestedness of butterflies in our system. From a conservation perspective, we suggest that large islands and species with large area requirements should be paid more attention in order to maximize the total number of species preserved.

Key words: habitat fragmentation, nestedness, selective extinction, butterfly, Zhoushan Archipelago

Table 1

Characteristic parameters of the 28 sampling islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago"

岛屿编号
Island code
岛名
Island name
面积
Area (ha)
距最近大陆距离
Distance to the nearest mainland (km)
距最近大岛距离
Distance to the nearest larger island (km)
物种数
Number of species
多度
Abundance
嵌套序列
Nested matrix rank
1 舟山 Zhoushan 47,616.50 9.10 9.10 41 732 1
3 六横 Liuheng 9,365.80 6.97 6.97 39 294 2
2 岱山 Daishan 10,496.70 59.42 11.38 32 1,102 3
7 桃花 Taohua 4,037.00 9.44 5.98 32 432 4
4 金塘 Jintang 7,735.20 3.50 3.50 29 410 5
9 梅山 Meishan 2,690.20 0.45 0.45 29 146 6
8 大榭 Daxie 2,837.40 0.40 0.40 23 163 7
6 衢山 Qushan 5,979.20 55.83 11.38 22 555 8
5 朱家尖 Zhujiajian 6,181.50 19.02 0.89 21 231 9
10 泗礁 Sijiao 2,135.00 46.07 25.27 20 339 10
12 长白 Changbai 1,109.80 30.38 1.75 20 81 11
23 富翅 Fuchi 109.10 19.21 0.61 19 124 12
16 盘峙 Panzhi 377.80 9.21 1.04 19 61 13
15 嵊山 Shengshan 422.40 81.26 25.37 17 355 14
17 花鸟 Huaniao 358.60 66.23 17.04 16 297 15
20 金鸡 Jinji 171.70 47.70 0.28 16 165 16
19 蚂蚁 Mayi 222.20 10.98 1.05 16 141 17
24 西蟹峙 Xixiezhi 82.10 9.92 0.85 16 96 18
18 鲁家峙 Lujiazhi 303.90 15.09 0.20 16 62 19
14 大黄龙 Dahuanglong 512.40 61.00 3.54 13 150 20
11 虾峙 Xiazhi 1,700.50 13.89 2.08 13 76 21
13 小长涂 Xiaochangtu 1,092.00 39.18 2.71 12 90 22
21 白沙 Baisha 143.90 30.40 2.45 11 37 23
22 壁下 Bixia 117.90 77.18 5.18 10 136 24
26 柱住山 Zhuzhushan 23.94 66.98 2.06 4 11 25
25 东库山 Dongkushan 24.26 66.64 3.64 4 10 26
27 彩旗山 Caiqishan 4.47 68.84 0.60 2 9 27
28 台南山 Tainanshan 2.55 67.30 3.10 1 2 28

Fig. 1

Location of the 28 sampling islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago. The codes for all islands are shown in Table 1."

Table 2

Life-history traits of butterfly species on 28 islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago"

物种
Species
最小需求面积
Minimum area requirement (ha)
翅展
Wingspan (mm)
体重
Body weight (mg)
占据岛屿数
Number of islands occupied
多度
Abundance
嵌套序列
Nested matrix rank
酢浆灰蝶 Pseudozizeeria maha 4.47 19.38 3.54 27 1,283 1
红灰蝶 Lycaena phlaeas 2.55 23.46 11.04 26 530 2
黄钩蛱蝶 Polygonia c-aureum 23.94 46.00 40.21 25 749 3
菜粉蝶 Pieris rapae 82.10 38.16 15.42 23 571 4
东方菜粉蝶 Pieris canidia 24.26 42.43 17.27 22 686 5
柑橘凤蝶 Papilio xuthus 82.10 82.45 118.44 22 220 6
玉带凤蝶 Papilio polytes 82.10 81.52 130.48 21 363 7
宽边黄粉蝶 Eurema hecabe 82.10 38.18 15.15 21 290 8
碧凤蝶 Papilio bianor 82.10 98.17 188.99 20 157 9
亮灰蝶 Lampides boeticus 82.10 24.39 9.41 18 124 10
青凤蝶 Graphium sarpedon 82.10 54.73 92.09 17 280 11
点玄灰蝶 Tongeia filicaudis 23.94 17.54 3.19 15 55 12
东亚矍眼蝶 Ypthima motschulskyi 82.10 30.10 10.97 14 110 13
蓝灰蝶 Everes argiades 171.70 20.33 3.88 13 28 14
黑脉蛱蝶 Hestina assimilis 109.10 70.96 144.89 12 54 15
斐豹蛱蝶 Argyreus hyperbius 109.10 64.92 83.06 11 20 16
曲纹紫灰蝶 Chilades pandava 82.10 21.78 7.90 10 170 17
琉璃蛱蝶 Kaniska canace 109.10 54.98 113.29 10 23 18
红珠凤蝶 Pachliopta aristolochiae 512.40 70.08 92.31 9 55 19
直纹稻弄蝶 Parnara guttata 109.10 28.86 35.20 9 47 20
斑缘豆粉蝶 Colias erate 82.10 44.83 33.62 9 25 21
残锷线蛱蝶 Limenitis sulpitia 222.20 53.12 53.27 8 18 22
琉璃灰蝶 Celastrina argiola 117.90 25.29 6.63 8 15 23
蒙链荫眼蝶 Neope muirheadii 377.80 58.16 79.98 8 14 24
南亚谷弄蝶 Pelopidas agna 1,109.80 31.35 40.00 7 19 25
白带螯蛱蝶 Charaxes bernardus 109.10 62.89 290.54 7 12 26
稻眉眼蝶 Mycalesis gotama 82.10 34.05 15.55 7 11 27
丝带凤蝶 Sericinus montelus 1,092.00 55.12 34.28 6 80 28
大红蛱蝶 Vanessa indica 117.90 51.49 79.06 6 16 29
隐纹谷弄蝶 Pelopidas mathias 171.70 28.70 32.18 6 8 30
曲纹黄室弄蝶 Potanthus flavus 222.20 24.90 28.50 6 8 31
幻紫斑蛱蝶 Hypolimnas bolina 1,700.50 63.76 98.92 5 20 32
大紫琉璃灰蝶 Celastrina oreas 109.10 24.65 8.42 5 17 33
蓝凤蝶 Papilio protenor 143.90 101.47 172.24 5 15 34
小环蛱蝶 Neptis sappho 303.90 45.57 24.40 5 10 35
二尾蛱蝶 Polyura narcaea 2,135.00 63.45 171.16 5 10 36
青豹蛱蝶 Damora sagana 109.10 64.16 185.42 5 6 37
小红蛱蝶 Vanessa cardui 117.90 42.26 49.73 5 6 38
金凤蝶 Papilio machaon 1,092.00 73.52 96.51 4 43 39
黄斑弄蝶 Ampittia dioscorides 5,979.20 19.28 9.05 4 26 40
高沙子燕灰蝶 Rapala takasagonis 2,690.20 26.86 17.24 4 10 41
放踵珂弄蝶 Caltoris cahira 422.40 29.86 25.90 4 7 42
柳紫闪蛱蝶 Apatura ilia 377.80 55.87 112.87 4 7 43
尖翅银灰蝶 Curetis acuta 2,837.40 36.29 39.74 4 5 44
蛇眼蝶 Minois dryas 422.40 49.67 52.20 3 10 45
麝凤蝶 Byasa alcinous 1,092.00 74.64 101.40 3 8 46
美凤蝶 Papilio memnon 222.20 106.41 168.60 3 3 47
小眉眼蝶 Mycalesis mineus 4,037.00 32.81 16.38 2 17 48
美眼蛱蝶 Junonia almana 7,735.20 45.11 51.49 2 16 49
方斑珂弄蝶 Caltoris cormasa 2,690.20 35.05 56.65 2 2 50
红翅长标弄蝶 Telicota ancilla 9,365.80 21.65 23.45 2 2 51
忘忧尾蛱蝶 Polyura nepenthes 2,690.20 85.01 242.70 2 2 52
幺纹稻弄蝶 Parnara baba 7,735.20 24.45 21.61 1 8 53
豹弄蝶 Thymelicus leoninus 358.60 22.69 9.40 1 4 54
金斑蝶 Danaus chrysippus 4,037.00 53.99 63.30 1 2 55
小黄斑弄蝶 Ampittia nana 47,616.50 11.99 3.85 1 2 56
长纹黛眼蝶 Lethe europa 47,616.50 48.49 51.40 1 1 57
矍眼蝶 Ypthima balda 2,690.20 28.08 12.90 1 1 58
虎斑蝶 Danaus genutia 9,365.80 76.80 128.40 1 1 59
戟眉线蛱蝶 Limenitis homeyeri 377.80 51.85 33.60 1 1 60
链环蛱蝶 Neptis pryeri 2,690.20 48.87 19.80 1 1 61
曲纹蜘蛱蝶 Araschnia doris 2,690.20 35.71 13.80 1 1 62
玉斑凤蝶 Papilio helenus 47,616.50 103.49 197.70 1 1 63
优秀洒灰蝶 Satyrium eximium 358.60 26.96 21.80 1 1 64

Table 3

Maximally ranked species-habitat nested matrix for butterfly on 28 islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago"

物种 Species 岛屿编号 Island code
1 3 2 7 4 9 8 6 5 10 12 23 16 15 17 20 19 24 18 14 11 13 21 22 26 25 27 28
酢浆灰蝶 Pseudozizeeria maha 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0
红灰蝶 Lycaena phlaeas 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1
黄钩蛱蝶 Polygonia c-aureum 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0
菜粉蝶 Pieris rapae 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
东方菜粉蝶 Pieris canidia 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
柑橘凤蝶 Papilio xuthus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
玉带凤蝶 Papilio polytes 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
宽边黄粉蝶 Eurema hecabe 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
碧凤蝶 Papilio bianor 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
亮灰蝶 Lampides boeticus 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
青凤蝶 Graphium sarpedon 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
点玄灰蝶 Tongeia filicaudis 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0
东亚矍眼蝶 Ypthima motschulskyi 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
蓝灰蝶 Everes argiades 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
黑脉蛱蝶 Hestina assimilis 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
斐豹蛱蝶 Argyreus hyperbius 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
曲纹紫灰蝶 Chilades pandava 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
琉璃蛱蝶 Kaniska canace 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
红珠凤蝶 Pachliopta aristolochiae 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
直纹稻弄蝶 Parnara guttata 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
斑缘豆粉蝶 Colias erate 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
残锷线蛱蝶 Limenitis sulpitia 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
琉璃灰蝶 Celastrina argiola 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
蒙链荫眼蝶 Neope muirheadii 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
南亚谷弄蝶 Pelopidas agna 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
白带螯蛱蝶 Charaxes bernardus 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
稻眉眼蝶 Mycalesis gotama 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
丝带凤蝶 Sericinus montelus 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
大红蛱蝶 Vanessa indica 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
隐纹谷弄蝶 Pelopidas mathias 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
曲纹黄室弄蝶 Potanthus flavus 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
幻紫斑蛱蝶 Hypolimnas bolina 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
大紫琉璃灰蝶 Celastrina oreas 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
蓝凤蝶 Papilio protenor 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
小环蛱蝶 Neptis sappho 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
二尾蛱蝶 Polyura narcaea 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
青豹蛱蝶 Damora sagana 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
小红蛱蝶 Vanessa cardui 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
金凤蝶 Papilio machaon 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
黄斑弄蝶 Ampittia dioscorides 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
高沙子燕灰蝶 Rapala takasagonis 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
放踵珂弄蝶 Caltoris cahira 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
柳紫闪蛱蝶 Apatura ilia 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
尖翅银灰蝶 Curetis acuta 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
蛇眼蝶 Minois dryas 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
麝凤蝶 Byasa alcinous 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
美凤蝶 Papilio memnon 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
小眉眼蝶 Mycalesis mineus 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
美眼蛱蝶 Junonia almana 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
方斑珂弄蝶 Caltoris cormasa 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
红翅长标弄蝶 Telicota ancilla 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
忘忧尾蛱蝶 Polyura nepenthes 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
幺纹稻弄蝶 Parnara baba 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
豹弄蝶 Thymelicus leoninus 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
金斑蝶 Danaus chrysippus 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
小黄斑弄蝶 Ampittia nana 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
长纹黛眼蝶 Lethe europa 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
矍眼蝶 Ypthima balda 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
虎斑蝶 Danaus genutia 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
戟眉线蛱蝶 Limenitis homeyeri 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
链环蛱蝶 Neptis pryeri 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
曲纹蜘蛱蝶 Araschnia doris 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
玉斑凤蝶 Papilio helenus 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
优秀洒灰蝶 Satyrium eximium 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Table 4

Results of nestedness quantified by WNODF and partial Spearman rank correlations of influences on nestedness for butterfly assemblages on 28 islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago"

观测值
WNODFobs
期望值
(标准差)
WNODFexp
(SD)
P 栖息地特征变量 物种特征变量
Habitat variables Life-history traits
面积 距最近大陆距离 距最近大岛距离 最小需求面积 翅展 体重
Area
(ha)
Distance to the nearest mainland (km) Distance to the nearest larger island (km) Minimum area requirement
(ha)
Wingspan
(mm)
Body weight
(mg)
rs P rs P rs P rs P rs P rs P
WNODF 42.40 51.15 (1.90) < 0.001
WNODFC 52.20 61.19 (2.92) < 0.001 0.67052 0.0002 -0.36895 0.0695 0.13748 0.5123
WNODFR 40.57 49.30 (1.95) < 0.001 -0.86681 <0.0001 -0.10088 0.4392 0.09836 0.4508

Fig. 2

Comparison of observed data to expected values under the random placement model for butterfly in the Zhoushan Archipelago"

1 Almeida-Neto M, Ulrich W (2011) A straightforward computational approach for measuring nestedness using quantitative matrices. Environment Modelling & Software, 26, 173-178.
2 Andrén H (1994) Can one use nested subset pattern to reject the random sample hypothesis? Examples from boreal bird communities. Oikos, 70, 489-491.
3 Azeria ET, Kolasa J (2008) Nestedness, niche metrics and temporal dynamics of a metacommunity in a dynamic natural model system. Oikos, 117, 1006-1019.
4 Benedick S, Hill JK, Mustaffa N, Chey VK, Maryati M, Searle JB, Schilthuizen M, Hamer KC (2006) Impacts of rain forest fragmentation on butterflies in northern Borneo: species richness, turnover and the value of small fragments. Journal of Applied Ecology, 43, 967-977.
5 Chen SH, Wang YJ (2004) Nestedness pattern of insular community assemblages and its applications. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 23, 81-87.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈水华, 王玉军 (2004) 岛屿群落组成的嵌套格局及其应用. 生态学杂志, 23, 81-87.]
6 Coleman BD, Mares MA, Willig MR, Hsieh Y-H (1982) Randomness, area, and species richness. Ecology, 63, 1121-1133.
7 Darlington PJ (1957) Zoogeography: The Geographical Distribution of Animals. John Wiley & Sons, New York.
8 Dennis RLH, Hardy PB, Dapporto L (2012) Nestedness in island faunas: novel insights into island biogeography through butterfly community profiles of colonization ability and migration capacity. Journal of Biogeography, 39, 1412-1426.
9 Dover J, Settele J (2009) The influences of landscape structure on butterfly distribution and movement: a review. Journal of Insect Conservation, 13, 3-27.
10 Driscoll DA (2008) The frequency of metapopulations, metacommunities and nestedness in a fragmented landscape. Oikos, 117, 297-309.
11 Ferraz G, Russell GJ, Stouffer PC, Richard O, Bierregaard J, Pimm SL, Lovejoy TE (2003) Rates of species loss from Amazonian forest fragments. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 100, 14069-14073.
12 Florencio M, Díaz-Paniagua C, Serrano L, Bilton DT (2011) Spatio-temporal nested patterns in macroinvertebrate assemblages across a pond network with a wide hydroperiod range. Oecologia, 166, 469-483.
13 Frick WF, Hayes JP, Heady PA III (2009) Nestedness of desert bat assemblages: species composition patterns in insular and terrestrial landscapes. Oecologia, 158, 687-697.
14 Gibson L, Lynam AJ, Bradshaw CJA, He F, Bickford DP, Woodruff DS, Bumrungsri S, Laurance WF (2013) Near- complete extinction of native small mammal fauna 25 years after forest fragmentation. Science, 341, 1508-1510.
15 Habel JC, Ulrich W, Assmann T, Masters J (2013) Allele elimination recalculated: nested subset analyses for molecular biogeographical data. Journal of Biogeography, 40, 769-777.
16 Hill JK, Gray MA, Khen CV, Benedick S, Tawatao N, Hamer KC (2011) Ecological impacts of tropical forest fragmentation: how consistent are patterns in species richness and nestedness? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366, 3265-3276.
17 Hu G, Feeley KJ, Wu JG, Xu GF, Yu MJ (2011) Determinants of plant species richness and patterns of nestedness in fragmented landscapes: evidence from land-bridge islands. Landscape Ecology, 26, 1405-1417.
18 Li YM, Niemela J, Dianmo L (1998) Nested distribution of amphibians in the Zhoushan Archipelago, China: can selective extinction cause nested subsets of species? Oecologia, 113, 557-564.
19 Li ZT, Lu Z, Shu XL, Jiang GW, Xu L, Zhou F (2013) Nestedness of bird assemblages in the karst forest fragments of southwestern Guangxi, China. Chinese Birds, 4, 170-183.
20 Lindo Z, Winchester NN, Didham RK (2008) Nested patterns of community assembly in the colonisation of artificial canopy habitats by oribatid mites. Oikos, 117, 1856-1864.
21 Matthews TJ, Cottee-Jones HEW, Whittaker RJ (2015) Quantifying and interpreting nestedness in habitat islands: a synthetic analysis of multiple datasets. Diversity and Distributions, 21, 392-404.
22 McGarigal K, Cushman SA (2002) Comparative evaluation of experimental approaches to the study of habitat fragmentation effects. Ecological Applications, 12, 335-345.
23 McQuaid CF, Britton NF (2013) Host-parasite nestedness: a result of co-evolving trait-values. Ecological Complexity, 13, 53-59.
24 Menezes J, Fernandez F (2013) Nestedness in forest mammals is dependent on area but not on matrix type and sample size: an analysis on different fragmented landscapes. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 73, 465-470.
25 Morrison LW (2013) Nestedness in insular floras: spatiotemporal variation and underlying mechanisms. Journal of Plant Ecology, 6, 480-488.
26 Öckinger E, Smith HG (2006) Landscape composition and habitat area affects butterfly species richness in semi-natural grasslands. Oecologia, 149, 526-534.
27 Patterson BD, Atmar W (1986) Nested subsets and the structure of insular mammalian faunas and archipelagos. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 28, 65-82.
28 Pe’er G, Maanen C, Turbé A, Matsinos YG, Kark S (2011) Butterfly diversity at the ecotone between agricultural and semi-natural habitats across a climatic gradient. Diversity and Distributions, 17, 1186-1197.
29 Rodríguez-Gironés MA, Santamaría L (2006) A new algorithm to calculate the nestedness temperature of presence-absence matrices. Journal of Biogeography, 33, 924-935.
30 Rodríguez D, Ojeda RA (2013) Scaling coexistence and assemblage patterns of desert small mammals. Mammalian Biology, 78, 313-321.
31 Schouten MA, Verweij PA, Barendregt A, Kleukers RJM, de Ruiter PC (2007) Nested assemblages of Orthoptera species in the Netherlands: the importance of habitat features and life-history traits. Journal of Biogeography, 34, 1938-1946.
32 Simaiakis SM, Martínez-Morales MA (2010) Nestedness in centipede (Chilopoda) assemblages on continental islands (Aegean, Greece). Acta Oecologica, 36, 282-290.
33 Soga M, Koike S (2012) Life-history traits affect vulnerability of butterflies to habitat fragmentation in urban remnant forests. Ecoscience, 19, 11-20.
34 Soga M, Koike S (2013) Patch isolation only matters for specialist butterflies but patch area affects both specialist and generalist species. Journal of Forest Research, 18, 270-278.
35 Tabak MA, Poncet S, Passfield K, Martinez C (2014) Invasive species and land bird diversity on remote South Atlantic islands. Biological Invasions, 16, 341-352.
36 Uezu A, Beyer DD, Metzger JP (2008) Can agroforest woodlots work as stepping stones for birds in the Atlantic forest region? Biodiversity and Conservation, 17, 1907-1922.
37 Ulrich W, Almeida-Neto M, Gotelli NJ (2009) A consumer’s guide to nestedness analysis. Oikos, 118, 3-17.
38 Wang SP, Zhu W, Gao X, Li XP, Yan SF, Liu X, Yang J, Gao ZX, Li YM (2014) Population size and time since island isolation determine genetic diversity loss in insular frog populations. Molecular Ecology, 23, 637-648.
39 Wang YP, Bao YX, Yu MJ, Xu GF, Ding P (2010) Nestedness for different reasons: the distributions of birds, lizards and small mammals on islands of an inundated lake. Diversity and Distributions, 16, 862-873.
40 Wang YP, Ding P, Chen SH, Zheng GM (2013) Nestedness of bird assemblages on urban woodlots: implications for conservation. Landscape and Urban Planning, 111, 59-67.
41 Wang YP, Wang X, Ding P (2012) Nestedness of snake assemblages on islands of an inundated lake. Current Zoology, 58, 828-836.
42 Worthen WB, Jones MT, Jetton RM (1998) Community structure and environmental stress: desiccation promotes nestedness in mycophagous fly communities. Oikos, 81, 45-54.
43 Wright DH, Patterson BD, Millelson GM, Culter A, Atmar W (1998) A comparative analysis of nested subset patterns of species composition. Oecologia, 113, 1-20.
44 Zhang JC, Wang YP, Jiang PP, Li P, Yu MJ, Ding P (2008) Nested analysis of passeriform bird assemblages in the Thousand Island Lake region. Biodiversity Science, 16, 321-331.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[张竞成, 王彦平, 蒋萍萍, 李鹏, 于明坚, 丁平 (2008) 千岛湖雀形目鸟类群落嵌套结构分析. 生物多样性, 16, 321-331.]
45 Zhou H, Guo SH, Feng ZG (1998) Monographia of Zhejiang Islands. Higher Education Press, Beijing.(in Chinese)
[周航, 国守华, 冯志高 (1998) 浙江海岛志. 高等教育出版社, 北京.]
46 Zhou Y (2000) Monograph of Chinese Butterfly. Henan Scientific and Technological Publishing House, Zhengzhou.(in Chinese)
[周尧 (2000) 中国蝶类志. 河南科学和技术出版社, 郑州.]
[1] LIN Li-Tao, MA Ke-Ming. (2019) Selection of null models in nestedness pattern detection of highly asymmetric mycorrhizal networks . Chin J Plant Ecol, 43(7): 611-623.
[2] Yang Siqi,Zhang Qi,Song Xiqiang,Wang Jian,Li Yide,Xu Han,Guo Shouyu,Ding Qiong. (2019) Structural features of root-associated fungus-plant interaction networks in the tropical montane rain forest of Jianfengling, China . Biodiv Sci, 27(3): 314-326.
[3] Zhou Haonan, Zhao Yuhao, Zeng Di, Liu Juan, Jin Tinghao, Ding Ping. (2019) Spatial patterns and influencing factors of ground ant species diversity on the land-bridge islands in the Thousand Island Lake, China . Biodiv Sci, 27(10): 1101-1111.
[4] Song Naiping, Wang Xing, Chen Lin, Xue Yi, Chen Juan, Sui Jinming, Wang Lei, Yang Xinguo. (2018) Co-existence mechanisms of plant species within “soil islands” habitat of desert steppe . Biodiv Sci, 26(7): 667-677.
[5] Xuemeng Hong,Xinyu Ge,Junlan Li. (2018) Butterfly diversity and its influencing factors in Saihanwula Nature Reserve . Biodiv Sci, 26(6): 590-600.
[6] Dong Zhang,Fengying Wan,Ling Chu,Yunzhi Yan. (2018) Longitudinal patterns in α and β diversity of the taxonomic and functional organizations of stream fish assemblages in the Qingyi River . Biodiv Sci, 26(1): 1-13.
[7] Xingfeng Si, Yuhao Zhao, Chuanwu Chen, Peng Ren, Di Zeng, Lingbing Wu, Ping Ding. (2017) Beta-diversity partitioning: methods, applications and perspectives . Biodiv Sci, 25(5): 464-480.
[8] Aihong Yang,Jinju Zhang,Hua Tian,Xiaohong Yao,Hongwen Huang. (2014) Microsatellite genetic diversity and fine-scale spatial genetic structure within a natural stand of Liriodendron chinense (Magnoliaceae) in Lanmushan, Duyun City, Guizhou Province . Biodiv Sci, 22(3): 375-384.
[9] Yunzhu Liu,Linlu Shi,Hairui Duo,Boyong Peng,Cai Lü,Yi Zhu,Guangchun Lei. (2013) Disturbance-driven changes to landscape patterns and responses of waterbirds at West Dongting Lake, China . Biodiv Sci, 21(6): 666-676.
[10] Xia Wang, Jing Wang, Jinghu Jiang, Ming Kang. (2012) Genetic diversity and the mating system in a fragmented population of Tsoongiodendron odorum . Biodiv Sci, 20(6): 676-684.
[11] Yongmei Ruan, Jinju Zhang, Xiaohong Yao, Qigang Ye. (2012) Genetic diversity and fine-scale spatial genetic structure of different lifehistory stages in a small, isolated population of Sinojackia huangmeiensis (Styracaceae) . Biodiv Sci, 20(4): 460-469.
[12] Jiji Sun, Siyu Wang, Yanping Wang, Deyu Shao, Ping Ding. (2011) Effects of habitat fragmentation on avian nest predation risk in Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province . Biodiv Sci, 19(5): 528-534.
[13] Zihua Zhao, Ying Wang, Dahan He, Rong Zhang, Mengmeng Zhu, Fenglin Dong. (2011) Effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on species loss and colonization of insect communities in experimental alfalfa landscapes . Biodiv Sci, 19(4): 453-462.
[14] , Meng Zhang, Jiji Sun, Yanping Wang, Pingping Jiang, Ping Ding, Gaofu Xu, . (2010) Effects of habitat fragmentation on the use of nest site resources by great tits in Thousand Island Lake, Zhejiang Province . Biodiv Sci, 18(4): 383-389.
[15] SHEN Guo-Zhen, XIE Zong-Qiang, FENG Chao-Yang, XU Wen-Ting, GUO Ke. (2008) INFLUENCE OF THE WENCHUAN EARTHQUAKE ON GIANT PANDA HABITATS AND STRATEGIES FOR RESTORATION . Chin J Plan Ecolo, 32(6): 1417-1425.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed