Biodiversity Science ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (6): 649-657.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015290


• Orginal Article • Previous Article     Next Article

Effects of the expansion of Phyllostachys edulis on species composition, structure and diversity of the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forests

Ming Ouyang, Qingpei Yang*(), Xin Chen, Guangyao Yang, Jianmin Shi, Xiangmin Fang   

  1. Jiangxi Provincial Key Laboratory for Bamboo Germplasm Resources and Utilization, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045
  • Received:2015-10-25 Accepted:2016-04-19 Online:2016-06-20
  • Yang Qingpei

The expansion of Phyllostachys edulis into the adjacent secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest (EBF) is obvious and greatly affects its ecological function. Little research has examined its effects on community structure and biodiversity. We comparatively analyzed the characteristics of species composition, community structure and diversity before and after the expansion of P. edulis forest (PEF), P. edulis-broad-leaved mixed forest (PBMF) and EBF along a gradient of P. edulis expansion in the Jinggangshan National Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province using a space for time substitution method. Results indicated that: (1) The Bray-Curtis similarity index values of the tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer between PEF and EBF were 0.003, 0.046 and 0.030, respectively. (2) The PEF vertical structure showed a “>” type and the abundance percentage was 33.3% in 12-14 m interval, its diameter at breast height (DBH) class structure concentrated distribution in 5-10 cm interval, whose percentage was as high as 90.0%; while the EBF vertical structure showed a “L” type and the abundance percentages was 54.3% in 2-4 m interval, its DBH class distribution range was relatively wide, the average percentage of four larger diameter grades was 10.3%. (3) The Shannon-Wiener index value in the tree layer declined from 2.56 in EBF to 0.06 in PEF, with a reduction of 98%. In the shrub layer, the index value dropped from 2.58 to 2.03, declining 21%. We suggest that the expansion of P. edulis simplified the community composition and structure of the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest and reduced species diversity, which can cause adverse impacts on forest ecosystem functioning.

Key words: Phyllostachys edulis expansion, evergreen broad-leaved forest, bamboo and broad-leaved forest interface, species diversity, ecosystem function, natural reserve

Table 1

Effect of the expansion of Phyllostachys edulis on stem number in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest (ind./ha)"

Expansion phase
Community type
Density of bamboo stand
Stem number of other trees
Total stem number
前期 Early stage 常绿阔叶林 EBF 0 1,867 1,867
中期 Middle stage 竹阔混交林 PBMF 3,667 1,017 4,684
后期 Later stage 毛竹林 PEF 6,233 100 6,333
扩张前后的变化 Δ 6,233 -1,767 4,466

Table 2

Effects of the expansion of Phyllostachys edulis on main species composition and importance value in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest"

层次 Layer 群落 Community 物种 Species 重要值 Importance value
毛竹林 Phyllostachys edulis forest 毛竹 Phyllostachys edulis 87.02
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 8.73
黄丹木姜子 Litsea elongata 2.37
Phyllostachys edulis-broad-leaved mixed forest
毛竹 Phyllostachys edulis 57.28
红楠 Machilus thunbergii 11.51
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 9.98
青榨槭 Acer davidii 3.83
Evergreen broad-leaved forest
红楠 Machilus thunbergii 30.22
杉木 Cunninghamia lanceolata 14.06
赤杨叶 Alniphyllum fortunei 8.33
青榨槭 Acer davidii 7.65
黄丹木姜子 Litsea elongata 4.22
交让木 Daphniphyllum macropodum 3.23
Phyllostachys edulis forest
毛竹 Phyllostachys edulis 51.24
赤杨叶 Alniphyllum fortunei 8.98
青榨槭 Acer davidii 6.43
香港四照花 Dendrobenthamia hongkongensis 5.64
Phyllostachys edulis-broad-leaved mixed forest
鹿角杜鹃 Rhododendron latoucheae 15.21
油茶 Camellia oleifera 8.44
红楠 Machilus thunbergii 7.99
香港四照花 Dendrobenthamia hongkongensis 7.27
Evergreen broad-leaved forest
鹿角杜鹃 Rhododendron latoucheae 19.86
黄丹木姜子 Litsea elongata 8.84
油茶 Camellia oleifera 7.92
红楠 Machilus thunbergii 7.42
Phyllostachys edulis forest
翠云草 Selaginella uncinata 19.99
麦冬 Ophiopogon japonicus 15.39
星蕨 Microsorum punctatum 8.54
Phyllostachys edulis-broad-leaved mixed forest
星蕨 Microsorum punctatum 28.54
翠云草 Selaginella uncinata 8.53
短毛熊巴掌 Phyllagathis cavaleriei 6.58
Evergreen broad-leaved forest
短毛熊巴掌 Phyllagathis cavaleriei 25.83
淡竹叶 Lophatherum gracile 11.13
薹草 Carex tristachya 10.79

Table 3

Comparison of Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient between three community types in tree, shrub and herb layers."

层次 Layer 群落 Community 竹阔混交林 PBMF 毛竹林 Phyllostachys edulis forest
乔木层 Tree 常绿阔叶林 Evergreen broad-leaved forest 0.219 0.003
竹阔混交林 Phyllostachys edulis-broad-leaved mixed forest (PBMF) 0.626
灌木层 Shrub 常绿阔叶林 Evergreen broad-leaved forest 0.383 0.046
竹阔混交林 Phyllostachys edulis-broad-leaved mixed forest 0.202
草本层 Herb 常绿阔叶林 Evergreen broad-leaved forest 0.463 0.030
竹阔混交林 Phyllostachys edulis-broad-leaved mixed forest 0.319

Fig. 1

Effect of the expansion of Phyllostachys edulis on vertical structure in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest. The three community types see Table 1."

Fig. 2

Effect of the expansion of Phyllostachys edulis on diameter at breast height (DBH) class structure in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest. The three community types see Table 1."

Table 4

Effect of the expansion of Phyllostachys edulis on species diversity of tree layer in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest (mean ± SE)"

Species richness
Margalef index
Simpson index
Shannon-Wiener index
Pielou eveness
Ecological dominance
PEF 3.00 ± 1.41b 0.38 ± 0.26b 1.03 ± 0.00b 0.06 ± 0.03c 0.08 ± 0.07c 0.97 ± 0.00a
PBMF 11.50 ± 4.95ab 2.12 ± 0.98ab 1.62 ± 0.21b 0.93 ± 0.25b 0.39 ± 0.03b 0.63 ± 0.08b
EBF 20.00 ± 4.24a 4.70 ± 1.08a 10.72 ± 0.74a 2.56 ± 0.12a 0.86 ± 0.02a 0.11 ± 0.01c

Table 5

Effect of the expansion of Phyllostachys edulis on species diversity of shrub layer in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest (mean ± SE)"

Species richness
Margalef index
Simpson index
Shannon-Wiener index
Pielou eveness
Ecological dominance
PEF 15.50 ± 6.36b 3.66 ± 1.66a 4.65 ± 1.93c 2.01 ± 0.47a 0.74 ± 0.06a 0.25 ± 0.09a
PBMF 27.50 ± 4.95ab 6.13 ± 0.66a 17.13 ± 1.31a 2.95 ± 0.12a 0.89 ± 0.01a 0.07 ± 0.01a
EBF 33.50 ± 3.54a 6.42 ± 0.16a 11.07 ± 2.00b 2.58 ± 0.33a 0.74 ± 0.12a 0.10 ± 0.02a

Table 6

Effect of the expansion of Phyllostachys edulis on species diversity of herb layer in the secondary evergreen broad-leaved forest"

Species richness
Margalef index
Simpson index
Shannon-Wiener index
Pielou eveness
Ecological dominance
PEF 31.00a 6.32a 15.00a 2.95a 0.86a 0.07a
PBMF 28.00a 5.40a 16.48a 2.95a 0.89a 0.07a
EBF 18.00b 3.93b 13.77a 2.64a 0.91a 0.08a
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